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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527384/embracing-the-enemy-the-diversification-of-microbial-gene-repertoires-by-phage-mediated-horizontal-gene-transfer
#1
REVIEW
Marie Touchon, Jorge A Moura de Sousa, Eduardo Pc Rocha
Bacteriophages and archaeal viruses contribute, through lysogenic conversion or transduction, to the horizontal transfer of genetic material between microbial genomes. Recent genomics, metagenomics, and single cell studies have shown that lysogenic conversion is widespread and provides hosts with adaptive traits often associated with biotic interactions. The quantification of the evolutionary impact of transduction has lagged behind and requires further theoretical and experimental work. Nevertheless, recent studies suggested that generalized transduction plays a role in the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes and in the acquisition of novel genes during intra-specific bacterial competition...
May 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527358/improving-the-pharmacokinetics-and-tissue-distribution-of-pyrinezolid-by-self-assembled-polymeric-micelles
#2
Haiyue Long, Xiaoling Li, Zitai Sang, Lan Mei, Tao Yang, Zicheng Li, Liangxue Zhou, Yu Zheng, Gu He, Gang Guo, Zhenling Wang, Yong Deng, Youfu Luo
Antibiotic-resistance by bacteria is a growing global concern within the healthcare field, and it has provided an impetus for continued antimicrobial development. Pyrinezolid (PZ), a novel oxazolidinone compound, can effectively inhibit most gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE). Though PZ is a promising antimicrobial candidate, the druggability of PZ is limited by its poor water solubility. Therefore, the amphipathic mPEG-PLLA copolymer was used to prepare the pyrinezolid micelles (PZ-M)...
May 8, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527295/periostitis-ossificans-arising-in-the-mandibular-bone-of-young-patient-report-of-an-unusual-case-and-review-of-the-literature
#3
Masakatsu Fukuda, Katsuyuki Inoue, Hideaki Sakashita
Periostitis ossificans, also known as Garré osteomyelitis, is a specific type of chronic osteomyelitis that forms new bone under the periosteum resulting from a periosteal reaction to chronic inflammation or infections. It commonly affects the mandible secondary to odontogenic infection. The therapeutic approach involves eliminating the infectious cause and antibiotic administration. This report describes an unusual case of periostitis ossificans arising from the mandible of an 11-year-old boy. The cause of infection was correlated with a lower right unerupted third molar, which had no obvious connection with the oral cavity...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527254/-cross-cultural-adaptation-of-the-community-acquired-pneumonia-score-questionnaire-in-patients-with-mild-to-moderate-pneumonia-in-colombia
#4
Mónica Alejandra Bernal-Vargas, Jorge Alberto Cortés, Ricardo Sánchez
INTRODUCTION: One of the strategies for the rational use of antibiotics is the use of the score for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP Score). This instrument clinically evaluates patients with community-acquired pneumonia, thereby facilitating decision making regarding the early and safe withdrawal of antibiotics. OBJECTIVE: To generate a translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) Score questionnaire in Spanish. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Authorization for cross-cultural adaptation of the Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) Score questionnaire was obtained; the recommendations of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) and the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) were carried out through the following stages: forward translation, reconciliation, backward translation, harmonization, obtaining a provisional questionnaire, and applying the questionnaire in a pilot test...
January 24, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527243/-synthesis-of-antibiotic-loaded-polylactic-acid-nanoparticles-and-their-antibacterial-activity-against-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-and-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#5
Mónica Tatiana Herrera, Jhon Jhamilton Artunduaga, Claudia Cristina Ortiz, Rodrigo Gonzalo Torres
INTRODUCTION: Polymeric nanoparticles are promising nanotechnology tools to fight pathogenic bacteria resistant to conventional antibiotics. OBJECTIVE: To synthesize polylactic acid nanoparticles loaded with ofloxacin and vancomycin, and to determine their antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We synthesized ofloxacin or vancomycin loaded polylactic acid nanoparticles by the emulsification-solvent evaporation method, and characterized them by dynamic light scattering, laser Doppler electrophoresis and scanning electron microscopy...
January 24, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527125/diversity-and-probiotic-potential-of-lactic-acid-bacteria-isolated-from-horreh-a-traditional-iranian-fermented-food
#6
Alireza Vasiee, Behrooz Alizadeh Behbahani, Farideh Tabatabaei Yazdi, Seyed Ali Mortazavi, Hamid Noorbakhsh
The aim of this study was to evaluate the probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains isolated from Horreh. Some probiotic properties, e.g., resistance to acid, bile tolerance, antibacterial activity, and antibiotic susceptibility, were investigated. A total of 140 Gram-positive and catalase-negative isolates from Horreh were subjected to identification and grouping by cultural methods and the 16S rRNA sequencing. The new isolates were identified to be Lactobacillus (fermentum, plantarum, and brevis) Weissella cibaria, Enterococcus (faecium and faecalis), Leuconostoc (citreum and mesenteroides subsp...
May 19, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526987/assessment-of-antibiotic-use-in-farm-animals-in-rwanda
#7
Rosine Manishimwe, Kizito Nishimwe, Lonzy Ojok
The irrational use of antibiotics in humans and animals is highly related to the emergence and increase of antibiotic-resistant bacteria worldwide. A cross-sectional survey aimed at evaluating the current level of practices regarding antibiotic use in farm animals in Rwanda was carried out countrywide. Interviews were conducted on 229 farmers rearing different types of animals. The study has revealed that almost all respondent farmers could name at least one antibiotic used in farm animals and peni-streptomycin was named by most of them (95...
May 19, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526906/mycobacterium-chelonae-infection-of-the-buttocks-secondary-to-lipofilling-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#8
Sarah E Hammond, Ahmed Al-Bayati, Natalie Joumblat, Christopher J Salgado
Mycobacterium chelonae is a nontuberculous mycobacterium, classified as a Runyon type IV mycobacterium. In relation to humans, it is most commonly associated with tissue trauma or pulmonary infections. The majority of medical reports describe finding M. chelonae in the surgical setting, attributing infection to inadequate sterilization of surgical equipment. Symptoms are often nonspecific and include pain, erythema, and draining subcutaneous nodules and skin lesions. Therefore, the diagnosis of M. chelonae is often difficult to establish without prior suspicion of the disease, but can be confirmed with culture...
May 19, 2017: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526864/a-broad-spectrum-bactericidal-lipopeptide-with-anti-biofilm-properties
#9
Ohad Meir, Fadia Zaknoon, Uri Cogan, Amram Mor
Previous studies of the oligoacyllysyl (OAK) series acyl-lysyl-lysyl-aminoacyl-lysine-amide, suggested their utility towards generating robust linear lipopeptide-like alternatives to antibiotics, although to date, none exhibited potent broad-spectrum bactericidal activity. To follow up on this premise, we produced a new analog (C14KKc12K) and investigated its properties in various media. Mechanistic studies suggest that C14KKc12K uses a non-specific membrane-disruptive mode of action for rapidly reducing viability of Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) similarly to polymyxin B (PMB), a cyclic lipopeptide used as last resort antibiotic...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526836/characterisation-of-antibiotic-prescriptions-for-acute-respiratory-tract-infections-in-danish-general-practice-a-retrospective-registry-based-cohort-study
#10
Rune Aabenhus, Malene Plejdrup Hansen, Laura Trolle Saust, Lars Bjerrum
Inappropriate use of antibiotics is contributing to the increasing rates of antimicrobial resistance. Several Danish guidelines on antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory tract infections in general practice have been issued to promote rational prescribing of antibiotics, however it is unclear if these recommendations are followed. We aimed to characterise the pattern of antibiotic prescriptions for patients diagnosed with acute respiratory tract infections, by means of electronic prescriptions, labeled with clinical indications, from Danish general practice...
May 19, 2017: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526820/multi-label-learning-for-predicting-the-activities-of-antimicrobial-peptides
#11
Pu Wang, Ruiquan Ge, Liming Liu, Xuan Xiao, Ye Li, Yunpeng Cai
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are peptide antibiotics with a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities. Activity prediction of AMPs from their amino acid sequences is of great therapeutic importance but imposes challenges on prediction methods due to label interactions. In this paper we propose a novel multi-label learning model to address this problem. A weighted K-nearest neighbor classifier is adopted for efficient representation learning of the sequence data. A multiple linear regression model is then employed to learn a mapping from the classifier score vectors to the target labels, with label correlations considered...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526792/environmental-spread-of-ndm-1-producing-multi-drug-resistant-bacteria-in-dhaka-bangladesh
#12
Mohammad Aminul Islam, Moydul Islam, Rashedul Hasan, M Iqbal Hossain, Ashikun Nabi, Mahdia Rahman, Wil H F Goessens, Hubert P Endtz, Alexandria B Boehm, Shah M Faruque
Resistance to carbapenem antibiotics through the production of New Delhi Metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) constitutes an emerging challenge in the treatment of bacterial infections. To monitor possible source of spread of these organisms in Dhaka, Bangladesh, we conducted comparative analysis of waste water samples from hospital adjacent areas (HAR) and from community areas (COM) as well as public tap water samples for the occurrence and characteristics of NDM-1 producing bacteria. Of 72 HAR samples tested 51 (71%) were positive for NDM-1-producing bacteria as evidenced by phenotypic tests and the presence of blaNDM-1 gene, compared to 5 of 41 (12...
May 19, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526789/a-novel-iron-dependent-enzyme-that-catalyzes-the-initial-step-in-the-biodegradation-of-n-nitroglycine-by-variovorax-sp-strain-js1663
#13
Kristina M Mahan, Hangping Zheng, Tekle T Fida, Ronald J Parry, David E Graham, Jim C Spain
Nitramines are key constituents of most of the explosives in current use and consequently contaminate soil and groundwater at many military facilities around the world. Toxicity from nitramine contamination poses a health risk to plants and animals, thus understanding how nitramines are biodegraded is critical to environmental remediation. The biodegradation of synthetic nitramine compounds such as hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5- triazine (RDX) has been studied for decades, but little is known about the catabolism of naturally produced nitramine compounds...
May 19, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526638/prevalence-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-salmonella-and-shigella-spp-among-children-with-gastroenteritis-in-an-iranian-referral-hospital
#14
Shima Mahmoudi, Babak Pourakbari, Mina Moradzadeh, Hamid Eshaghi, Amitis Ramezani, Mohammad Taghi Haghi Ashtiani, Sepideh Keshavarz Valian, Setareh Mamishi
BACKGROUND: Gastroenteritis is one of the leading cause of illnesses through the world, especially in developing countries.Salmonella and Shigella infections are considered as the main public health problems in children. The aim of this study was to detect the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella and Shigella spp. among children with gastroenteritis in an Iranian referral hospital. METHODS: During April 2013 to April 2014, all medical records of children with gastroenteritis admitted to a pediatric medical center were evaluated...
May 16, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526588/adam10-and-%C3%AE-secretase-regulate-sensory-regeneration-in-the-avian-vestibular-organs
#15
Mark E Warchol, Jennifer Stone, Matthew Barton, Jeffrey Ku, Rose Veile, Nicolas Daudet, Michael Lovett
The loss of sensory hair cells from the inner ear is a leading cause of hearing and balance disorders. The mammalian ear has a very limited ability to replace lost hair cells, but the inner ears of non-mammalian vertebrates can spontaneously regenerate hair cells after injury. Prior studies have shown that replacement hair cells are derived from epithelial supporting cells and that the differentiation of new hair cells is regulated by the Notch signaling pathway. The present study examined molecular influences on regeneration in the avian utricle, which has a particularly robust regenerative ability...
May 16, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526570/role-of-medicinal-plants-on-growth-performance-and-immune-status-in-fish
#16
REVIEW
Elham Awad, Amani Awaad
Disease outbreaks increase proportionally with increases in intensive aquaculture. Natural products including medicinal plants have been known from thousands of years for treating some human diseases. It is well known that many active compounds are responsible for potential bio-activities. For that reason, there has been considerable interest in the use of medicinal plants in aquaculture with a view to providing safe and eco-friendly compounds for replacing antibiotics and chemical compounds as well as to enhance immune status and control fish diseases...
May 16, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526569/total-joint-replacement-for-neglected-posterior-knee-dislocation-following-septic-arthritis-after-arthroscopy
#17
Yusuf Öztürkmen, Yunus Emre Akman, Ethem Ayhan Ünkar, Erhan Şükür
This report presents the first case of a knee dislocation following septic arthritis after arthroscopy. A 65-year-old woman had an arthroscopy with irrigation and debridement (I&D) of the joint and microfracture for the chondral lesions. She had complaints of postarthroscopic infection but non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication and local ice compression was recommended. She revisited her physician twice and at the last visit she had a large purulent effusion in her knee. The gram stain of the joint fluid aspirate demonstrated gram-positive cocci and the cultures grew methicilline-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus...
May 16, 2017: Acta Orthopaedica et Traumatologica Turcica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526567/synergistic-effects-of-polymyxin-and-ionic-liquids-on-lipid-vesicle-membrane-stability-and-aggregation
#18
Sylvia L Hanna, Jenny L Huang, Alana J Swinton, Gregory A Caputo, Timothy D Vaden
Ionic liquids (ILs) have been investigated for potential antibacterial and antibiotic applications due to their ability to destabilize and permeabilize the lipid bilayers in cell membranes. Bacterial assays have shown that combining ILs with antibiotics can provide a synergistic enhancement of their antibacterial activities. We have characterized the mechanism by which the conventional ILs 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMICl) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMIBF4) enhance the lipid membrane permeabilization of the well-known antibiotic polymyxin B (PMB)...
May 11, 2017: Biophysical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526548/at-the-nexus-of-antibiotics-and-metals-the-impact-of-cu-and-zn-on-antibiotic-activity-and-resistance
#19
REVIEW
Keith Poole
Environmental influences on antibiotic activity and resistance can wreak havoc with in vivo antibiotic efficacy and, ultimately, antimicrobial chemotherapy. In nature, bacteria encounter a variety of metal ions, particularly copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn), as contaminants in soil and water, as feed additives in agriculture, as clinically-used antimicrobials, and as components of human antibacterial responses. Importantly, there is a growing body of evidence for Cu/Zn driving antibiotic resistance development in metal-exposed bacteria, owing to metal selection of genetic elements harbouring both metal and antibiotic resistance genes, and metal recruitment of antibiotic resistance mechanisms...
May 16, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526496/molecular-characterization-and-antimicrobial-resistance-profile-of-clostridium-perfringens-type-a-isolates-from-humans-animals-fish-and-their-environment
#20
Jay Prakash Yadav, Suresh Chandra Das, Pankaj Dhaka, Deepthi Vijay, Manesh Kumar, Asish Kumar Mukhopadhyay, Goutam Chowdhury, Pranav Chauhan, Rahul Singh, Kuldeep Dhama, Satya Veer Singh Malik, Ashok Kumar
The study was aimed to characterize, and determine antibiogram of C. perfringens type A isolated from the feces of human and animal diarrhoeal cases, as well as healthy animals, meat of pigs and goats, gills and intestine of fish and samples from fish pond. A total of 460 samples, including human diarrhoeal cases (n = 130); diarrhoeal cases of pig (n = 52) and goat (n = 50); fecal samples from healthy pig (n = 50) and goat (n = 50); meat samples viz. pork meat (n = 52); goat meat (n = 50) and fish including their environmental sources (n = 26) were used for isolation and identification of C...
May 16, 2017: Anaerobe
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