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Joseph Y Ting, Anne Synnes, Ashley Roberts, Akhil C Deshpandey, Kimberly Dow, Junmin Yang, Kyong-Soon Lee, Shoo K Lee, Prakesh S Shah
OBJECTIVE:  The objective is to evaluate the association between antibiotic utilization and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18 to 21 months' corrected age among extremely low gestational age neonates without culture-proven sepsis or necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). STUDY DESIGN:  We conducted a retrospective cohort study of infants born between April 2009 and September 2011 at <29 weeks' gestation and admitted to the neonatal intensive care units contributing data to the Canadian Neonatal Network...
February 23, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
Ming-Yeh Yang, Kai-Chih Chang, Liang-Yu Chen, Po-Ching Wang, Chih-Chiang Chou, Zhong-Bin Wu, Anren Hu
Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) is a non-invasive and safe therapeutic method for microbial infections. Bacterial antibiotic resistance is caused by antibiotics abuse. Drug-resistant Acinetobacter spp. is a serious problem in hospitals around the world. These pathogens from nosocomial infections have high mortality rates in frailer people, and Acinetobacter spp. is commonly found in immunocompromised patients. Visible light is safer than ultraviolet light (UV) for PDI of nosocomial pathogens with mammalian cells...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Nuno F F Moreira, Carlos Narciso-da-Rocha, M Inmaculada Polo-López, Luisa M Pastrana-Martínez, Joaquim L Faria, Célia M Manaia, Pilar Fernández-Ibáñez, Olga C Nunes, Adrián M T Silva
Solar-driven advanced oxidation processes were studied in a pilot-scale photoreactor, as tertiary treatments of effluents from an urban wastewater treatment plant. Solar-H2 O2 , heterogeneous photocatalysis (with and/or without the addition of H2 O2 and employing three different photocatalysts) and the photo-Fenton process were investigated. Chemical (sulfamethoxazole, carbamazepine, and diclofenac) and biological contaminants (faecal contamination indicators, their antibiotic resistant counterparts, 16S rRNA and antibiotic resistance genes), as well as the whole bacterial community, were characterized...
February 3, 2018: Water Research
Thomas P Burke
β-lactam antibiotics and immune enzymes, including lysozyme, kill bacteria by rupturing the cell wall. Curiously, their combination can select for viable, wall-less bacteria. Kawai and colleagues describe the molecular details regarding the emergence of these forms, illustrating a novel and potentially clinically relevant mechanism by which bacteria escape killing by antibiotics.
February 22, 2018: Cell
Idan Yelin, Roy Kishony
Bacterial mechanisms of drug resistance operate at sequential lines of defense tackling drug at entry, accumulation, target binding, or downstream toxicity. These mechanisms are encoded by genomic changes ranging in scale from point mutations, through assembly of preexisting genetic elements, to horizontal import of genes from the environment. A many-to-many relationship prevails between resistance mechanisms and the spectrum of genetic changes encoding them.
February 22, 2018: Cell
Changting Meng, Chunmei Bai, Thomas D Brown, Leroy Hood, Qiang Tian
Human gut microbiota play an essential role in both healthy and diseased states of humans. In the past decade, the interactions between microorganisms and tumors have attracted much attention in the efforts understanding various features of the complex microbial communities, as well as the possible mechanisms through which the microbiota are involved in cancer prevention, carcinogenesis, and anti-cancer therapy. A large number of studies have indicated that microbial dysbiosis contributes to cancer susceptibility via multiple pathways...
February 20, 2018: Genomics, Proteomics & Bioinformatics
Aaron B Morton, Andres Mor, J Matthew Hinkley, Noriko Ichinoseki-Sekine, Demetra D Christou, Ashley J Smuder
Doxorubicin (DOX) is a highly effective anthracycline antibiotic. Unfortunately, the clinical use of DOX is limited by the risk of deleterious effects to cardiac and respiratory (i.e. diaphragm) muscle, resulting from mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. In this regard, exercise is demonstrated to protect against DOX-induced myotoxicity and prevent mitochondrial dysfunction. However, the protective mechanisms are currently unclear. We hypothesized that exercise may induce protection by increasing the expression of mitochondria-specific ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and reducing mitochondrial DOX accumulation...
February 20, 2018: Mitochondrion
Pramod Kumar Maurya, Swati Singh, Ashutosh Mani
Antibiotic resistance is increasing rapidly in pathogenic organisms, creating more complications for treatment of diseases. Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a neglected tropical disease in humans caused by Rickettsia rickettsii for which no effective therapeutic is available. Subtractive genomics methods facilitate the characterization of non-homologous essential proteins that could be targeted for the discovery of potential therapeutic compounds against R. rickettsii to combat RMSF. Present study followed an in-silico based methodology, involving scanning and filtering the complete proteome of Rickettsia rickettsii by using several prioritization parameters in the search of potential candidates for drug development...
February 20, 2018: Acta Tropica
Yixin Ge, Jae Hoon Lee, Baishi Hu, Youfu Frank Zhao
Extensive use of antibiotic streptomycin to control fire blight disease of apples and pears, caused by the enterobacterial plant pathogen Erwinia amylovora, leads to the development of streptomycin-resistant strains in the United States and elsewhere. Kasugamycin (Ksg, kasuminR) has been permitted to be used as an alternative or replacement to control this serious bacterial disease. In this study, we investigated the role of two major peptide ABC-transporter systems in E. amylovora, the dipeptide permease (Dpp) and oligopeptide permease (Opp), in conferring sensitivity to Ksg and blasticidin S (BcS)...
February 23, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Florian Salm, Clemens Ernsting, Adelheid Kuhlmey, Melanie Kanzler, Petra Gastmeier, Paul Gellert
OBJECTIVES: Knowledge concerning antibiotic use in the general population is insufficient. The way health literacy is related to antibiotic use aside from knowledge needs further investigation. Our aim was to compare the levels of knowledge of antibiotics and health literacy in individuals who had taken antibiotics in recent years compared with those who not had taken antibiotics. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional survey of 2,000 individuals aged 35 and older from Berlin, Germany and its surrounding rural and suburban areas (response rate 59%) with strata urban/rural, sex, age, and education...
2018: PloS One
Martin Müller, Ruth Seidenberg, Sabine K Schuh, Aristomenis K Exadaktylos, Clyde B Schechter, Alexander B Leichtle, Wolf E Hautz
OBJECTIVE: Patients presenting with suspected urinary tract infection are common in every day emergency practice. Urine flow cytometry has replaced microscopic urine evaluation in many emergency departments, but interpretation of the results remains challenging. The aim of this study was to develop and validate tools that predict urine culture growth out of urine flow cytometry parameter. METHODS: This retrospective study included all adult patients that presented in a large emergency department between January and July 2017 with a suspected urinary tract infection and had a urine flow cytometry as well as a urine culture obtained...
2018: PloS One
Carmen Ka Man Wong, Kenny Kung, Philip Lung Wai Au-Doung, Margaret Ip, Nelson Lee, Alice Fung, Samuel Yeung Shan Wong
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0177266.].
2018: PloS One
Abigail Shatkin-Margolis, Jenna Warehime, Rachel N Pauls
OBJECTIVES: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common after pelvic reconstructive surgery, likely due to high rates of urinary retention. We sought to determine if prescription of cranberry capsules reduced UTIs in postoperative patients requiring catheter use. METHODS: This was an institutional review board-approved retrospective cohort study. Two 6-month periods were compared: April to September 2015, before cranberry capsules were incorporated, and April to September 2016, after cranberry capsules were implemented...
March 2018: Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery
Mette Reilev, Reimar W Thomsen, Rune Aabenhus, Rikke V Sydenham, Jens Georg Hansen, Anton Pottegård
BACKGROUND: In Denmark, the use of amoxicillin is widespread among children, despite phenoxymethylpenicillin being recommended as first-line therapy. The reason for this apparent discrepancy is not fully understood. We aimed at evaluating prescribing patterns of antibiotics among Danish children aged 0-4 years, with emphasis on incidence of treatment episodes, choice of initial antibiotic treatment and switching patterns between different types of antibiotics. METHODS: We identified all children ≤4 years who filled a prescription of antibiotics from 2000-2015 according to the nationwide Danish National Prescription Registry...
February 22, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Kimiko Ubukata, Miyuki Morozumi, Megumi Sakuma, Misako Takata, Eriko Mokuno, Takeshi Tajima, Satoshi Iwata
BACKGROUND: Acute otitis media (AOM) is a leading cause of childhood morbidity and antibiotic prescriptions. We examined etiologic changes in AOM after introduction of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine as routine immunization for Japanese children in 2014. Serotypes, resistance genotypes, antibiotic susceptibilities, and multilocus sequence typing of pneumococcal isolates were also characterized. METHODS: Otolaryngologists prospectively collected middle ear fluid from 582 children by tympanocentesis or sampling through a spontaneously ruptured tympanic membrane between June 2016 and January 2017...
February 22, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Peng Fei, Yichao Jiang, Shaoying Gong, Ran Li, Yan Jiang, Xiujuan Yuan, Ziyuan Wang, Huaibin Kang, Md Aslam Ali
Cronobacter species (formerly Enterobacter sakazakii) are emerging opportunistic bacterial pathogens that can infect both infants and adults. This study was conducted to isolate and genotype diverse Cronobacter species from drinking water, chilled fresh pork, powdered infant formula, instant noodles, cookies, fruits, vegetables, and dishes in Northeast China and to evaluate the antibiotic resistance and susceptibility of the isolates. Thirty-four Cronobacter strains were isolated and identified: 21 C. sakazakii isolates (61...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Noellie Gay, Alexandre Leclaire, Morgane Laval, Guillaume Miltgen, Maël Jégo, Ramin Stéphane, Julien Jaubert, Olivier Belmonte, Eric Cardinale
In South Western Indian ocean (IO), Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) are a main public health issue. In livestock, ESBL-E burden was unknown. The aim of this study was estimating the prevalence of ESBL-E on commercial farms in Reunion, Mayotte and Madagascar and genes involved. Secondly, risk factors of ESBL-E occurrence in broiler, beef cattle and pig farms were explored. In 2016-2017, commercial farms were sampled using boot swabs and samples stored at 4 °C before microbiological analysis for phenotypical ESBL-E and gene characterization...
February 23, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Alan Hibbitts, Cian O'Leary
In a recent report, the World Health Organisation (WHO) classified antibiotic resistance as one of the greatest threats to global health, food security, and development. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) remains at the core of this threat, with persistent and resilient strains detectable in up to 90% of S. aureus infections. Unfortunately, there is a lack of novel antibiotics reaching the clinic to address the significant morbidity and mortality that MRSA is responsible for. Recently, nanomedicine strategies have emerged as a promising therapy to combat the rise of MRSA...
February 23, 2018: Materials
Marco Artini, Alexandros Patsilinakos, Rosanna Papa, Mijat Božović, Manuela Sabatino, Stefania Garzoli, Gianluca Vrenna, Marco Tilotta, Federico Pepi, Rino Ragno, Laura Selan
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous organism and opportunistic pathogen that can cause persistent infections due to its peculiar antibiotic resistance mechanisms and to its ability to adhere and form biofilm. The interest in the development of new approaches for the prevention and treatment of biofilm formation has recently increased. The aim of this study was to seek new non-biocidal agents able to inhibit biofilm formation, in order to counteract virulence rather than bacterial growth and avoid the selection of escape mutants...
February 23, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Kevin M Claunch, Madeline Bush, Christopher R Evans, Jacob A Malmquist, Matthew C Hale, Shauna M McGillivray
ClpX functions as either an independent chaperone or a component of the ClpXP protease, a conserved intracellular protease that acts as a global regulator in the bacterial cell by degrading regulatory proteins, stress response proteins and rate-limiting enzymes. Previously, we found that loss of clpX in Bacillus anthracis Sterne leads to increased susceptibility to antimicrobial agents that target the cell envelope. The aim of this study was to identify genes within the regulatory network of clpX that contribute to antimicrobial resistance...
February 23, 2018: Microbiology
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