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Formulating questions

Alvaro G Perez, Daniel Lobo, Francesco Chinello, Gabriel Cirio, Monica Malvezzi, Jose San Martin, Domenico Prattichizzo, Miguel A Otaduy
Novel wearable tactile interfaces offer the possibility to simulate tactile interactions with virtual environments directly on our skin. But, unlike kinesthetic interfaces, for which haptic rendering is a well explored problem, they pose new questions about the formulation of the rendering problem. In this work, we propose a formulation of tactile rendering as an optimization problem, which is general for a large family of tactile interfaces. Based on an accurate simulation of contact between a finger model and the virtual environment, we pose tactile rendering as the optimization of the device configuration, such that the contact surface between the device and the actual finger matches as close as possible the contact surface in the virtual environment...
October 20, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Haptics
Diane Whalley, Tanaz Petigara, Lawrence Rasouliyan, Keisuke Tobe, Kaan Tunceli
OBJECTIVE: Orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) offer a valuable treatment option, particularly when swallowing solid tablets with water is difficult or inconvenient. Montelukast is an effective treatment for asthma and allergic rhinitis (AR), and an ODT formulation became available in Japan in 2015. This study investigated levels of satisfaction with this new formulation among adults with asthma and/or AR in Japan. METHODS: Patients aged 20 years or older who were refilling a prescription for montelukast ODT in pharmacies across Japan completed questions on satisfaction with key features of montelukast ODT and the 9-item Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication (TSQM-9)...
October 21, 2016: Current Medical Research and Opinion
Gregory A Schmidt, Timothy D Girard, John P Kress, Peter E Morris, Daniel R Ouellette, Waleed Alhazzani, Suzanne M Burns, Scott K Epstein, Andres Esteban, Eddy Fan, Miquel Ferrer, Gilles L Fraser, Michelle Gong, Catherine Hough, Sangeeta Mehta, Rahul Nanchal, Sheena Patel, Amy J Pawlik, Curtis N Sessler, Thomas Strøm, William Schweickert, Kevin C Wilson, Jonathon D Truwit
BACKGROUND: This clinical practice guideline addresses six questions related to liberation from mechanical ventilation in critically ill adults. It is the result of a collaborative effort between the American Thoracic Society (ATS) and American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST). METHODS: A multi-disciplinary panel posed six clinical questions in a Population, Intervention, Comparator and Outcomes (PICO) format. A comprehensive literature search and evidence synthesis was performed for each question, which included appraising the certainty in the evidence (i...
October 20, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Timothy D Girard, Waleed Alhazzani, John P Kress, Daniel R Ouellette, Gregory A Schmidt, Jonathon D Truwit, Suzanne M Burns, Scott K Epstein, Andres Esteban, Eddy Fan, Miquel Ferrer, Gilles L Fraser, Michelle Gong, Catherine Hough, Sangeeta Mehta, Rahul Nanchal, Sheena Patel, Amy J Pawlik, Curtis N Sessler, Thomas Strøm, William Schweickert, Kevin C Wilson, Peter E Morris
BACKGROUND: Interventions that lead to earlier liberation from mechanical ventilation can improve patient outcomes. This guideline, a collaborative effort between the American Thoracic Society (ATS) and the American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST), provides evidence-based recommendations to optimize liberation from mechanical ventilation in critically ill adults. METHODS: Two methodologists performed evidence syntheses to summarize available evidence relevant to key questions about liberation from mechanical ventilation...
October 20, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Meenakshi Narayanan, P Sekar, M Pasupathi, T Mukhopadhyay
OBJECTIVE: As questions on the safety of some popular preservatives are on the rise, there is a growing interest in developing 'Self Preserving' personal care products. Use of Multi-functional ingredients / actives with antimicrobial properties has been explored as replacements for conventional preservatives. This paper explores the use of combinations of multi-functional actives (MFA) and other cosmetic ingredients in various personal care formulations, to deliver microbiologically safe self-preserving products...
October 20, 2016: International Journal of Cosmetic Science
Debbie Selby, Dori Seccaraccia, Jim Huth, Kristin Kurrpa, Margaret Fitch
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to explore healthcare professionals' (HCPs') perception of their role in provision of spiritual care, in addition to attempting to identify a simple question(s) to help identify spiritual distress. BACKGROUND: Spirituality is well recognized as important to whole-person care, particularly in those with terminal illnesses. Understanding the role of front-line providers in the identification and management of spiritual distress, however, remains challenging...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Palliative Medicine
Rachel Newby, Jane Alty, Peter Kempster
Mind-brain dualism has dominated historical commentary on dystonia, a dichotomous approach that has left our conceptual grasp of it stubbornly incomplete. This is particularly true of functional dystonia, most diagnostically challenging of all functional movement disorders, in which the question of inherent psychogenicity remains a focus of debate. Phenomenological signs considered in isolation lack the specificity to distinguish organic and nonorganic forms, and dystonia's variability has frustrated attempts to develop objective laboratory-supported standards...
October 18, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Hong-Wei Fan, Zhi-Xiang Ma, Jing Chen, Xing-Ye Yang, Jun-Lin Cheng, Ying-Bin Li
INTRODUCTION: Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), 4-aminoquinoline, is an antimalarial drug and has become a basic therapy for rheumatic disease treatment. It can stabilize the condition of SLE patients and reduce the chances of patient relapse through its immunosuppressive function and antiinflammatory effects. This drug was absorbed completely and rapidly by oral administration, but has a prolonged half-life for elimination. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic parameters and relative bioequivalence of a new generic (test) formulation with the branded (reference) formulation of HCQ in healthy Chinese male volunteers...
December 2015: Rheumatol Ther
Sarkis Kiramijyan, Romain Didier, Edward Koifman, Smita I Negi
BACKGROUND: It has become challenging for cardiovascular fellows-in-training (FIT) to determine which national cardiovascular conference (NCC) to attend given the broad range of meetings and the breadth of information offered. The aim of this study was to report our own experiences of the utility and individual strengths of the NCCs and to further understand the interventional cardiology (IC) FITs' viewpoint regarding the benefits of the individual NCCs. METHODS: A survey was formulated with questions and scenarios regarding topics deemed to be of highest importance for an IC-FIT...
October 2016: Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine: Including Molecular Interventions
Anju Grewal, Hanish Kataria, Ira Dhawan
Literature search is a key step in performing good authentic research. It helps in formulating a research question and planning the study. The available published data are enormous; therefore, choosing the appropriate articles relevant to your study in question is an art. It can be time-consuming, tiring and can lead to disinterest or even abandonment of search in between if not carried out in a step-wise manner. Various databases are available for performing literature search. This article primarily stresses on how to formulate a research question, the various types and sources for literature search, which will help make your search specific and time-saving...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
Eucario Leon-Rodriguez, Monica M Rivera-Franco
Busulfan (Bu), an alkylating agent, has been used in pre-transplant conditioning regimens since the 1950s, due to its potent myeloablative effect. Questions have been raised regarding oral or intravenous formulations, although both are known to be associated with serious side effects, including hepatic veno-occlusive disease, and neurotoxicity. The administration of anticonvulsant prophylaxis has become more common during high-dose Bu-based conditioning regimen; however, anticonvulsants can interfere with Bu pharmacokinetics and may have their own side effects, which can affect the outcome of the transplant...
October 8, 2016: International Journal of Hematology
Brandon Michael Henry, Krzysztof A Tomaszewski, Piravin Kumar Ramakrishnan, Joyeeta Roy, Jens Vikse, Marios Loukas, R Shane Tubbs, Jerzy A Walocha
BACKGROUND: Critical appraisal of anatomical studies is essential before the evidence from them undergoes meta-epidemiological synthesis. However, no instrument for appraising anatomical studies with inherent applicability to different study designs is available. We aim to develop a generic yet comprehensive tool for assessing the quality of anatomical studies using a formal consensus method. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study steering committee formulated an initial conceptual design and generated items for a preliminary tool on the basis of a literature review and expert opinion...
October 7, 2016: Clinical Anatomy
Rong Long, Chung-Yuen Hui
The fracture mechanics of hydrogels, especially those with significantly enhanced toughness, has attracted extensive research interests. In this article we discuss the experimental measurement and theoretical interpretation of the fracture toughness for soft hydrogels. We first review the definition of fracture toughness for elastic materials, and the commonly used experimental configurations to measure it. In reality most gels are inelastic. For gels that are rate insensitive, we discuss how to interpret the fracture toughness associated with two distinct scenarios: crack initiation and steady-state crack propagation...
October 4, 2016: Soft Matter
A Bouklouze, M Kharbach, Y Cherrah, Y Vander Heyden
Many different assaying high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) methods have been developed and validated in order to be used in routine analysis in different analytical fields. Validation often starts by the evaluation of the linearity of the calibration curve. Frequently, if the correlation coefficient is close to one, the linear calibration curve model is considered to be proper to predict the unknown concentration in the sample. But is this simple model effective to assess the behavior of the response of an HPTLC method as a function of concentration...
September 27, 2016: Annales Pharmaceutiques Françaises
Angelo Moretto, Ammie Bachman, Alan Boobis, Keith R Solomon, Timothy P Pastoor, Martin F Wilks, Michelle R Embry
The ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) has developed a framework to support a transition in the way in which information for chemical risk assessment is obtained and used (RISK21). The approach is based on detailed problem formulation, where exposure drives the data acquisition process in order to enable informed decision-making on human health safety as soon as sufficient evidence is available. Information is evaluated in a transparent and consistent way with the aim of optimizing available resources...
August 11, 2016: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Keith R Solomon, Martin F Wilks, Ammie Bachman, Alan Boobis, Angelo Moretto, Timothy P Pastoor, Richard Phillips, Michelle R Embry
When the human health risk assessment/risk management paradigm was developed, it did not explicitly include a "problem formulation" phase. The concept of problem formulation was first introduced in the context of ecological risk assessment (ERA) for the pragmatic reason to constrain and focus ERAs on the key questions. However, this need also exists for human health risk assessment, particularly for cumulative risk assessment (CRA), because of its complexity. CRA encompasses the combined threats to health from exposure via all relevant routes to multiple stressors, including biological, chemical, physical and psychosocial stressors...
August 11, 2016: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Margareth S Zanchetta, Susanne Edwards, Bukola Salami, Eunice Osino, Lina Yu, Oluwafunmbi Babalola, Linda Cooper
Members of a nursing research cluster realized that they needed to determine whether, given their diverse philosophies, they could formulate a collective research agenda responding to an administrative recommendation. The cluster's leaders conducted an appraisal of the role and importance of trust as an element for promoting collaboration in a nursing research cluster and for building a collective social identity. The Social Exchange Theory framed the appraisal. A survey and a facilitation session about trust in research partnerships were conducted with eight female nursing researchers/faculty...
2016: Nursing Leadership
See Yung Phang, Kathrin Whitehouse, Lucy Lee, Hisham Khalil, Paul McArdle, Peter C Whitfield
AIMS: CSF leaks are not uncommon after a base of skull fracture. Currently there is no standardised algorithm for the investigation and management of post-traumatic CSF leaks. In this paper we aim to provide an evidence-based framework for managing post-traumatic CSF leaks. METHODS: We searched the English literature over the past 45 years using CINAHL, EMBASE and MEDLINE for the terms (1) post-traumatic CSF leaks or fistulas, and (2) basilar or base of skull fractures, but excluded papers on post-operative and non-traumatic CSF leaks, and papers on paediatric post- traumatic CSF leaks...
September 26, 2016: British Journal of Neurosurgery
Ann-Marie Hughes, Sofia Barbosa Bouças, Jane H Burridge, Margit Alt Murphy, Jaap Buurke, Peter Feys, Verena Klamroth-Marganska, Ilse Lamers, Gerdienke Prange-Lasonder, Annick Timmermans, Thierry Keller
BACKGROUND: The need for cost-effective neurorehabilitation is driving investment into technologies for patient assessment and treatment. Translation of these technologies into clinical practice is limited by a paucity of evidence for cost-effectiveness. Methodological issues, including lack of agreement on assessment methods, limit the value of meta-analyses of trials. In this paper we report the consensus reached on assessment protocols and outcome measures for evaluation of the upper extremity in neurorehabilitation using technology...
2016: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
Pankaj Gupta, Ashna Jain
INTRODUCTION: Hookah smoking has seen a reemergence in popularity in the last 30 years, particularly in the young urban population. This study aimed to compare the prevalence of and the attitude and beliefs about hookah smoking of people with a medical background and compare it with people from a non-medical background. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An anonymous questionnaire with ten questions about various aspects of hookah smoking was formulated using Google forms®, which was then circulated via Facebook®, Whatsapp® and emails to the intended participants and all responses were recorded and analyzed...
2016: Curēus
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