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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321561/ethics-and-epistemology-in-big-data-research
#1
Wendy Lipworth, Paul H Mason, Ian Kerridge, John P A Ioannidis
Biomedical innovation and translation are increasingly emphasizing research using "big data." The hope is that big data methods will both speed up research and make its results more applicable to "real-world" patients and health services. While big data research has been embraced by scientists, politicians, industry, and the public, numerous ethical, organizational, and technical/methodological concerns have also been raised. With respect to technical and methodological concerns, there is a view that these will be resolved through sophisticated information technologies, predictive algorithms, and data analysis techniques...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320937/meta-assessment-of-bias-in-science
#2
Daniele Fanelli, Rodrigo Costas, John P A Ioannidis
Numerous biases are believed to affect the scientific literature, but their actual prevalence across disciplines is unknown. To gain a comprehensive picture of the potential imprint of bias in science, we probed for the most commonly postulated bias-related patterns and risk factors, in a large random sample of meta-analyses taken from all disciplines. The magnitude of these biases varied widely across fields and was overall relatively small. However, we consistently observed a significant risk of small, early, and highly cited studies to overestimate effects and of studies not published in peer-reviewed journals to underestimate them...
March 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306144/exclusion-of-elderly-people-from-randomized-clinical-trials-of-drugs-for-ischemic-heart-disease
#3
Florence T Bourgeois, Liat Orenstein, Sarita Ballakur, Kenneth D Mandl, John P A Ioannidis
OBJECTIVES: To measure exclusion of elderly adults from randomized trials studying drug interventions for ischemic heart disease (IHD) and describe the characteristics of these trials. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis. SETTING: Interventional clinical trials studying a drug intervention for IHD that started in 2006 and after were identified in ClinicalTrials.gov. Data were extracted on study features, including age-based inclusion criteria...
March 17, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298413/the-reproducibility-wars-successful-unsuccessful-uninterpretable-exact-conceptual-triangulated-contested-replication
#4
John P A Ioannidis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286545/erratum-to-iroa-international-register-of-open-abdomen-preliminary-results
#5
Federico Coccolini, Giulia Montori, Marco Ceresoli, Fausto Catena, Rao Ivatury, Michael Sugrue, Massimo Sartelli, Paola Fugazzola, Davide Corbella, Francesco Salvetti, Ionut Negoi, Monica Zese, Savino Occhionorelli, Stefano Maccatrozzo, Sergei Shlyapnikov, Christian Galatioto, Massimo Chiarugi, Zaza Demetrashvili, Daniele Dondossola, Yovcho Yovtchev, Orestis Ioannidis, Giuseppe Novelli, Mirco Nacoti, Desmond Khor, Kenji Inaba, Demetrios Demetriades, Torsten Kaussen, Asri Che Jusoh, Wagih Ghannam, Boris Sakakushev, Ohad Guetta, Agron Dogjani, Stefano Costa, Sandeep Singh, Dimitrios Damaskos, Arda Isik, Kuo-Ching Yuan, Francesco Trotta, Stefano Rausei, Aleix Martinez-Perez, Giovanni Bellanova, Vinicius Cordeiro Fonseca, Fernando Hernández, Athanasios Marinis, Wellington Fernandes, Martha Quiodettis, Miklosh Bala, Andras Vereczkei, Rafael L Curado, Gustavo Pereira Fraga, Bruno M Pereira, Mahir Gachabayov, Guillermo Perez Chagerben, Miguel Leon Arellano, Sefa Ozyazici, Gianluca Costa, Tugan Tezcaner, Luca Ansaloni
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1186/s13017-017-0123-8.].
2017: World Journal of Emergency Surgery: WJES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282605/variations-of-renal-tissue-oxygenation-during-abdominal-compartment-syndrome-and-sepsis
#6
Stavros Kalfadis, Vaia Nalbanti, Orestis Ioannidis, George Porfiriou, Dimitrios Botsios, Konstantinos Tsalis
PURPOSE: This experimental study was designed to evaluate the renal tissue oxygenation under the coexistence of abdominal compartment syndrome and sepsis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fourteen non-breed dogs were divided into two groups: the control group (8) and the study group (6). Sepsis was established with intravenous endotoxin infusion at 100μg/kg for over 30min. Insufflation of CO2 in the peritoneal cavity was used for the increase in intra-abdominal pressure (IAP)...
March 7, 2017: Advances in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282371/increasing-efficiency-of-preclinical-research-by-group-sequential-designs
#7
Konrad Neumann, Ulrike Grittner, Sophie K Piper, Andre Rex, Oscar Florez-Vargas, George Karystianis, Alice Schneider, Ian Wellwood, Bob Siegerink, John P A Ioannidis, Jonathan Kimmelman, Ulrich Dirnagl
Despite the potential benefits of sequential designs, studies evaluating treatments or experimental manipulations in preclinical experimental biomedicine almost exclusively use classical block designs. Our aim with this article is to bring the existing methodology of group sequential designs to the attention of researchers in the preclinical field and to clearly illustrate its potential utility. Group sequential designs can offer higher efficiency than traditional methods and are increasingly used in clinical trials...
March 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273140/a-simulation-study-of-the-strength-of-evidence-in-the-recommendation-of-medications-based-on-two-trials-with-statistically-significant-results
#8
Don van Ravenzwaaij, John P A Ioannidis
A typical rule that has been used for the endorsement of new medications by the Food and Drug Administration is to have two trials, each convincing on its own, demonstrating effectiveness. "Convincing" may be subjectively interpreted, but the use of p-values and the focus on statistical significance (in particular with p < .05 being coined significant) is pervasive in clinical research. Therefore, in this paper, we calculate with simulations what it means to have exactly two trials, each with p < .05, in terms of the actual strength of evidence quantified by Bayes factors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270433/waste-leaks-and-failures-in-the-biomarker-pipeline
#9
REVIEW
John P A Ioannidis, Patrick M M Bossuyt
BACKGROUND: The large, expanding literature on biomarkers is characterized by almost ubiquitous significant results, with claims about the potential importance, but few of these discovered biomarkers are used in routine clinical care. CONTENT: The pipeline of biomarker development includes several specific stages: discovery, validation, clinical translation, evaluation, implementation (and, in the case of nonutility, deimplementation). Each of these stages can be plagued by problems that cause failures of the overall pipeline...
March 7, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267829/success-and-survival-of-various-types-of-all-ceramic-single-crowns-a-critical-review-and-analysis-of-studies-with-a-mean-follow-up-of-5-years-or-longer
#10
Alhanoof Aldegheishem, George Ioannidis, Wael Att, Haralampos Petridis
PURPOSE: The aim of this critical review was to assess the survival and success rates of all-ceramic single crowns manufactured using different ceramic materials with a mean follow-up time of 5 years or longer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An electronic search of studies published between 1980 and 2014 complemented by manual searching was conducted in Medline and Scopus. The terms ceramic, crown, survival, success, longevity, and complications were selected as keywords...
March 2017: International Journal of Prosthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260530/do-systematic-reviews-on-pediatric-topics-need-special-methodological-considerations
#11
Mufiza Farid-Kapadia, Lisa Askie, Lisa Hartling, Despina Contopoulos-Ioannidis, Zulfiqar A Bhutta, Roger Soll, David Moher, Martin Offringa
BACKGROUND: Systematic reviews are key tools to enable decision making by healthcare providers and policymakers. Despite the availability of the evidence based Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA-2009 and PRISMA-P 2015) statements that were developed to improve the transparency and quality of reporting of systematic reviews, uncertainty on how to deal with pediatric-specific methodological challenges of systematic reviews impairs decision-making in child health...
March 6, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259142/avoiding-the-pitfalls-of-gene-set-enrichment-analysis-with-setrank
#12
Cedric Simillion, Robin Liechti, Heidi E L Lischer, Vassilios Ioannidis, Rémy Bruggmann
BACKGROUND: The purpose of gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) is to find general trends in the huge lists of genes or proteins generated by many functional genomics techniques and bioinformatics analyses. RESULTS: Here we present SetRank, an advanced GSEA algorithm which is able to eliminate many false positive hits. The key principle of the algorithm is that it discards gene sets that have initially been flagged as significant, if their significance is only due to the overlap with another gene set...
March 4, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253258/empirical-assessment-of-published-effect-sizes-and-power-in-the-recent-cognitive-neuroscience-and-psychology-literature
#13
Denes Szucs, John P A Ioannidis
We have empirically assessed the distribution of published effect sizes and estimated power by analyzing 26,841 statistical records from 3,801 cognitive neuroscience and psychology papers published recently. The reported median effect size was D = 0.93 (interquartile range: 0.64-1.46) for nominally statistically significant results and D = 0.24 (0.11-0.42) for nonsignificant results. Median power to detect small, medium, and large effects was 0.12, 0.44, and 0.73, reflecting no improvement through the past half-century...
March 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249046/impact-of-vaccine-herd-protection-effects-in-cost-effectiveness-analyses-of-childhood-vaccinations-a-quantitative-comparative-analysis
#14
Marisa Holubar, Maria Christina Stavroulakis, Yvonne Maldonado, John P A Ioannidis, Despina Contopoulos-Ioannidis
BACKGROUND: Inclusion of vaccine herd-protection effects in cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) can impact the CEAs-conclusions. However, empirical epidemiologic data on the size of herd-protection effects from original studies are limited. METHODS: We performed a quantitative comparative analysis of the impact of herd-protection effects in CEAs for four childhood vaccinations (pneumococcal, meningococcal, rotavirus and influenza). We considered CEAs reporting incremental-cost-effectiveness-ratios (ICERs) (per quality-adjusted-life-years [QALY] gained; per life-years [LY] gained or per disability-adjusted-life-years [DALY] avoided), both with and without herd protection, while keeping all other model parameters stable...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241194/meta-analyses-can-be-credible-and-useful-a-new-standard
#15
John P A Ioannidis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 22, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239409/iroa-international-register-of-open-abdomen-preliminary-results
#16
Federico Coccolini, Giulia Montori, Marco Ceresoli, Fausto Catena, Rao Ivatury, Michael Sugrue, Massimo Sartelli, Paola Fugazzola, Davide Corbella, Francesco Salvetti, Ionut Negoi, Monica Zese, Savino Occhionorelli, Stefano Maccatrozzo, Sergei Shlyapnikov, Christian Galatioto, Massimo Chiarugi, Zaza Demetrashvili, Daniele Dondossola, Yovcho Yovtchev, Orestis Ioannidis, Giuseppe Novelli, Mirco Nacoti, Desmond Khor, Kenji Inaba, Demetrios Demetriades, Torsten Kaussen, Asri Che Jusoh, Wagih Ghannam, Boris Sakakushev, Ohad Guetta, Agron Dogjani, Stefano Costa, Sandeep Singh, Dimitrios Damaskos, Arda Isik, Kuo-Ching Yuan, Francesco Trotta, Stefano Rausei, Aleix Martinez-Perez, Giovanni Bellanova, Vinicius Cordeiro Fonseca, Fernando Hernández, Athanasios Marinis, Wellington Fernandes, Martha Quiodettis, Miklosh Bala, Andras Vereczkei, Rafael L Curado, Gustavo Pereira Fraga, Bruno M Pereira, Mahir Gachabayov, Guillermo Perez Chagerben, Miguel Leon Arellano, Sefa Ozyazici, Gianluca Costa, Tugan Tezcaner, Luca Ansaloni
BACKGROUND: No definitive data about open abdomen (OA) epidemiology and outcomes exist. The World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) and the Panamerican Trauma Society (PTS) promoted the International Register of Open Abdomen (IROA). METHODS: A prospective observational cohort study including patients with an OA treatment. Data were recorded on a web platform (Clinical Registers®) through a dedicated website: www.clinicalregisters.org. RESULTS: Four hundred two patients enrolled...
2017: World Journal of Emergency Surgery: WJES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223365/the-eortc-module-for-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-thyroid-cancer-phase-iii
#17
Susanne Singer, Susan Jordan, Laura D Locati, Monica Pinto, Iwona M Tomaszewska, Claudia Araujo, Eva Hammerlid, E Vidhubala, Olga Husson, Naomi Kiyota, Christine Brannan, Dina Salem, Eva Gamper, Juan Ignacio Arraras, Georgios Ioannidis, Guy Andry, Johanna Inhestern, Vincent Gregoire, Lisa Licitra
We pilot-tested a questionnaire measuring health related quality of life (QoL) in thyroid cancer patients to be used with the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) core questionnaire EORTC QLQ-C30. A provisional questionnaire with 47 items was administered to patients treated for thyroid cancer within the last 2 years. Patients were interviewed about time and help needed to complete the questionnaire and whether they found the items understandable, confusing, or annoying. Items were kept in the questionnaire if they fulfilled pre-defined criteria: relevant to the patients, easy to understand, not confusing, few missing values, neither floor nor ceiling effects, and high variance...
February 21, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223307/next-generation-systematic-reviews-prospective-meta-analysis-individual-level-data-networks-and-umbrella-reviews
#18
EDITORIAL
John Ioannidis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 21, 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207736/congenital-toxoplasmosis-in-france-and-the-united-states-one-parasite-two-diverging-approaches
#19
Francois Peyron, Rima Mc Leod, Daniel Ajzenberg, Despina Contopoulos-Ioannidis, François Kieffer, Laurent Mandelbrot, L David Sibley, Hervé Pelloux, Isabelle Villena, Martine Wallon, Jose G Montoya
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196819/outcome-reporting-bias-in-clinical-trials-why-monitoring-matters
#20
John Pa Ioannidis, Arthur L Caplan, Rafael Dal-Ré
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 14, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
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