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Commensal bacteria

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231283/rapid-evolution-of-distinct-helicobacter-pylori-subpopulations-in-the-americas
#1
Kaisa Thorell, Koji Yahara, Elvire Berthenet, Daniel J Lawson, Jane Mikhail, Ikuko Kato, Alfonso Mendez, Cosmeri Rizzato, María Mercedes Bravo, Rumiko Suzuki, Yoshio Yamaoka, Javier Torres, Samuel K Sheppard, Daniel Falush
For the last 500 years, the Americas have been a melting pot both for genetically diverse humans and for the pathogenic and commensal organisms associated with them. One such organism is the stomach-dwelling bacterium Helicobacter pylori, which is highly prevalent in Latin America where it is a major current public health challenge because of its strong association with gastric cancer. By analyzing the genome sequence of H. pylori isolated in North, Central and South America, we found evidence for admixture between H...
February 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228596/antimicrobials-from-human-skin-commensal-bacteria-protect-against-staphylococcus-aureus-and-are-deficient-in-atopic-dermatitis
#2
Teruaki Nakatsuji, Tiffany H Chen, Saisindhu Narala, Kimberly A Chun, Aimee M Two, Tong Yun, Faiza Shafiq, Paul F Kotol, Amina Bouslimani, Alexey V Melnik, Haythem Latif, Ji-Nu Kim, Alexandre Lockhart, Keli Artis, Gloria David, Patricia Taylor, Joanne Streib, Pieter C Dorrestein, Alex Grier, Steven R Gill, Karsten Zengler, Tissa R Hata, Donald Y M Leung, Richard L Gallo
The microbiome can promote or disrupt human health by influencing both adaptive and innate immune functions. We tested whether bacteria that normally reside on human skin participate in host defense by killing Staphylococcus aureus, a pathogen commonly found in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) and an important factor that exacerbates this disease. High-throughput screening for antimicrobial activity against S. aureus was performed on isolates of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) collected from the skin of healthy and AD subjects...
February 22, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224999/allograft-inflammatory-factor-1-is-a-regulator-of-transcytosis-in-m-cells
#3
Sari Kishikawa, Shintaro Sato, Satoshi Kaneto, Shigeo Uchino, Shinichi Kohsaka, Seiji Nakamura, Hiroshi Kiyono
M cells in follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) are specialized antigen-sampling cells that take up intestinal luminal antigens. Transcription factor Spi-B regulates M-cell maturation, but the molecules that promote transcytosis within M cells are not fully identified. Here we show that mouse allograft inflammatory factor 1 (Aif1) is expressed by M cells and contributes to M-cell transcytosis. FAE in Aif1(-/-) mice has suppressed uptake of particles and commensal bacteria, compared with wild-type mice. Translocation of Yersinia enterocolitica, but not of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, leading to the generation of antigen-specific IgA antibodies, is also diminished in Aif1-deficient mice...
February 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223922/gut-microbiota-a-potential-regulator-of-neurodevelopment
#4
REVIEW
Paola Tognini
During childhood, our brain is exposed to a variety of environmental inputs that can sculpt synaptic connections and neuronal circuits, with subsequent influence on behavior and learning processes. Critical periods of neurodevelopment are windows of opportunity in which the neuronal circuits are extremely plastic and can be easily subjected to remodeling in response to experience. However, the brain is also more susceptible to aberrant stimuli that might lead to altered developmental trajectories. Intriguingly, postnatal brain development is paralleled by the maturation of the gut microbiota: the ecosystem of symbionts populating our gastro-intestinal tract...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223450/raising-the-alarmone-within-host-evolution-of-antibiotic-tolerant-enterococcus-faecium
#5
Daria Van Tyne, Michael S Gilmore
Enterococci are ancient commensal bacteria that recently emerged as leading causes of antibiotic-resistant, hospital-acquired infection. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) epitomize why drug-resistant enterococcal infections are a problem: VRE readily colonize the antibiotic-perturbed gastrointestinal (GI) tract where they amplify to large numbers, and from there, they infect other body sites, including the bloodstream, urinary tract, and surgical wounds. VRE are resistant to many antimicrobials and host defenses, which facilitates establishment at the site of infection and confounds therapeutic clearance...
February 21, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221970/genomic-tools-for-customized-recovery-and-detection-of-foodborne-shiga-toxigenic-escherichia-coli
#6
Michael Knowles, Sara Stinson, Dominic Lambert, Catherine Carrillo, Adam Koziol, Martine Gauthier, Burton Blais
Genomic antimicrobial resistance (AMR) prediction tools have the potential to support foodborne illness outbreak investigations through their application in the analysis of bacterial genomes from causative strains. The AMR marker profile of a strain of interest, initially identified in outbreak-associated clinical samples, may serve as the basis for customization of selective enrichment media, facilitating its recovery from samples in a food safety investigation. Different possibilities for AMR analyses include the use of comprehensive AMR gene databases such as the Comprehensive Antibiotic Resistance Database, which can be mined with in-house bioinformatics alignment tools (e...
December 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221963/prevalence-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-enterobacteriaceae-in-shell-eggs-from-small-scale-poultry-farms-and-farmers-markets
#7
A Kilonzo-Nthenge, S N Nahashon, S Godwin, S Liu, D Long
Public health concerns over the emergence of antimicrobial resistant bacteria have increased recently. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of antimicrobial resistant Enterobacteriaceae in shell eggs purchased from small poultry farms and farmers' markets. A total of 504 eggs were pooled to make 252 composite samples, consisting of 2 eggs per composite. The microbial quality of shell eggs was determined by standard quantitative, biochemical, and PCR techniques. Susceptibility to 13 antimicrobial agents was determined by the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion technique, and results were interpreted based on Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute values...
December 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221881/antimicrobial-resistance-and-molecular-characterization-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamases-and-other-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-food-of-animal-origin-and-human-intestinal-isolates
#8
Manja Krizman, Jerneja Ambrozic Avgustin, Irena Zdovc, Majda Golob, Marija Trkov, Urska Jamnikar Ciglenecki, Majda Biasizzo, Andrej Kirbis
Antibiotics have always appeared miraculous, saving innumerable lives. However, the unwise use of antimicrobial drugs has led to the appearance of resistant bacteria. The purpose of this study was to evaluate antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli (n =160) isolated from food of animal origin. The focus was on E. coli -producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases. E. coli was chosen because it is a part of the normal microbiota in mammals and can enter the food chain during slaughtering and food manipulation...
January 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217742/piericidin-a1-blocks-yersinia-ysc-type-iii-secretion-system-needle-assembly
#9
Jessica M Morgan, Miles C Duncan, Kevin S Johnson, Andreas Diepold, Hanh Lam, Allison J Dupzyk, Lexi R Martin, Weng Ruh Wong, Judith P Armitage, Roger G Linington, Victoria Auerbuch
The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a bacterial virulence factor expressed by dozens of Gram-negative pathogens but largely absent from commensals. The T3SS is an attractive target for antimicrobial agents that may disarm pathogenic bacteria while leaving commensal populations intact. We previously identified piericidin A1 as an inhibitor of the Ysc T3SS in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Piericidins were first discovered as inhibitors of complex I of the electron transport chain in mitochondria and some bacteria...
January 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216386/serotonin-disturbs-colon-epithelial-tolerance-of-commensal-e-coli-by-increasing-nox-2-derived-superoxide
#10
Suhrid Banskota, Sushil Chandra Regmi, Jaya Gautam, Pallavi Gurung, Yu-Jeong Lee, Sae Kwang Ku, Jin-Hyung Lee, Jintae Lee, Hyeun Wook Chang, Sang Joon Park, Jung-Ae Kim
Adherent-invasive E. coli colonization and Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression are increased in the gut of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. However, the underlying mechanism of such changes has not been determined. In the current study, it was examined whether gut serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) can induce adherent-invasive E. coli colonization and increase TLR expression. In a co-culture system, commensal E. coli strain (BW25113, BW) adhered minimally to colon epithelial cells, but this was significantly enhanced by 5-HT to the level of a pathogenic strain (EDL933)...
February 16, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213732/the-potential-of-lactic-acid-bacteria-to-colonize-biotic-and-abiotic-surfaces-and-the-investigation-of-their-interactions-and-mechanisms
#11
REVIEW
Mattia Pia Arena, Vittorio Capozzi, Giuseppe Spano, Daniela Fiocco
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are a heterogeneous group of Gram-positive bacteria that comprise several species which have evolved in close association with humans (food and lifestyle). While their use to ferment food dates back to very ancient times, in the last decades, LAB have attracted much attention for their documented beneficial properties and for potential biomedical applications. Some LAB are commensal that colonize, stably or transiently, host mucosal surfaces, inlcuding the gut, where they may contribute to host health...
February 17, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213466/mechanisms-of-cell-polarity-controlled-epithelial-homeostasis-and-immunity-in-the-intestine
#12
Leon J Klunder, Klaas Nico Faber, Gerard Dijkstra, Sven C D van IJzendoorn
Intestinal epithelial cell polarity is instrumental to maintain epithelial homeostasis and balance communications between the gut lumen and bodily tissue, thereby controlling the defense against gastrointestinal pathogens and maintenance of immune tolerance to commensal bacteria. In this review, we highlight recent advances with regard to the molecular mechanisms of cell polarity-controlled epithelial homeostasis and immunity in the human intestine.
February 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212864/gpr43-activation-enhances-psoriasis-like-inflammation-through-epidermal-upregulation-of-il-6-and-dual-oxidase-2-signaling-in-a-murine-model
#13
Ahmed Nadeem, Sheikh F Ahmad, Naif O Al-Harbi, Ahmed M El-Sherbeeny, Mohammed M Al-Harbi, Talal S Almukhlafi
The gut is densely inhabited by commensal bacteria, which metabolize dietary fibers/undigested carbohydrates and produce short-chain fatty acids such as acetate. GPR43 is one of the receptors to sense short-chain fatty acids, and expressed in various immune and non-immune cells. Acetate/GPR43 signaling has been shown to affect various inflammatory diseases through Th17 responses and NADPH oxidase (NOX)-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. However, no study has previously explored the effects of GPR43 activation during psoriasis-like inflammation...
February 14, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210979/the-skin-as-a-route-of-allergen-exposure-part-ii-allergens-and-role-of-the-microbiome-and-environmental-exposures
#14
REVIEW
George Knaysi, Anna R Smith, Jeffrey M Wilson, Julia A Wisniewski
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This second part of the article aims to highlight recent contributions in the literature that enhance our understanding of the cutaneous immune response to allergen. RECENT FINDINGS: Several properties of allergens facilitate barrier disruption and cutaneous sensitization. There is a strong epidemiologic relationship between the microbiome, both the gut and skin, and atopic dermatitis (AD). The mechanisms connecting these two entities remain enigmatic; however, recent murine models show that commensal skin bacteria play an active role in supporting skin barrier homeostasis and defense against microbial penetration...
January 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202619/exopolysaccharide-from-bacillus-subtilis-induces-anti-inflammatory-m2-macrophages-that-prevent-t-cell-mediated-disease
#15
Mallory L Paynich, Sara E Jones-Burrage, Katherine L Knight
Commensal bacteria contribute to immune homeostasis in the gastrointestinal tract; however, the underlying mechanisms for this are not well understood. A single dose of exopolysaccharide (EPS) from the probiotic spore-forming bacterium Bacillus subtilis protects mice from acute colitis induced by the enteric pathogen Citrobacter rodentium Adoptive transfer of macrophage-rich peritoneal cells from EPS-treated mice confers protection from disease to recipient mice. In vivo, EPS induces development of anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages in a TLR4-dependent manner, and these cells inhibit T cell activation in vitro and in C...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202617/the-bacterial-peptidoglycan-sensing-molecules-nod1-and-nod2-promote-cd8-thymocyte-selection
#16
Marianne M Martinic, Irina Caminschi, Meredith O'Keeffe, Therese C Thinnes, Raelene Grumont, Steve Gerondakis, Dianne B McKay, David Nemazee, Amanda L Gavin
Nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors NOD1 and NOD2 are cytosolic innate immune receptors that recognize microbial peptidoglycans. Although studies have addressed the role of NOD proteins in innate immune responses, little attention has been given to their impact on the developing adaptive immune system. We have assessed the roles of NOD1 and NOD2 deficiency on T cell development in mice. Our results demonstrate that NOD1 and NOD2 promote the positive selection/maturation of CD8 single-positive thymocytes in a thymocyte-intrinsic manner...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196908/papers-of-note-in-science-translational-medicine9-376
#17
Leslie K Ferrarelli
This week's articles describe a free radical scavenger for treating hypertension; an engineered bacterium as a cancer immunotherapy; commensal bacteria that protect newborn mice from pneumonia; and a form of gastrointestinal E. coli that triggers proinflammatory systemic inflammation, arthritis, and colitis.
February 14, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194152/hsp65-producing-lactococcus-lactis-prevents-inflammatory-intestinal-disease-in-mice-by-il-10-and-tlr2-dependent-pathways
#18
Ana Cristina Gomes-Santos, Rafael Pires de Oliveira, Thaís Garcias Moreira, Archimedes Barbosa Castro-Junior, Bernardo Coelho Horta, Luísa Lemos, Leonardo Augusto de Almeida, Rafael Machado Rezende, Denise Carmona Cara, Sérgio Costa Oliveira, Vasco Ariston Carvalho Azevedo, Anderson Miyoshi, Ana Maria Caetano Faria
Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are highly expressed at all sites of inflammation. As they are ubiquitous and immunodominant antigens, these molecules represent good candidates for the therapeutic use of oral tolerance in autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases. Evidences from human and animal studies indicate that inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) results from uncontrolled inflammatory responses to intestinal microbiota. Hsps are immunodominant proteins expressed by several immune cells and by commensal bacteria...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194099/gut-to-brain-dysbiosis-mechanisms-linking-western-diet-consumption-the-microbiome-and-cognitive-impairment
#19
REVIEW
Emily E Noble, Ted M Hsu, Scott E Kanoski
Consumption of a Western Diet (WD) that is high in saturated fat and added sugars negatively impacts cognitive function, particularly mnemonic processes that rely on the integrity of the hippocampus. Emerging evidence suggests that the gut microbiome influences cognitive function via the gut-brain axis, and that WD factors significantly alter the proportions of commensal bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract. Here we review mechanisms through which consuming a WD negatively impacts neurocognitive function, with a particular focus on recent evidence linking the gut microbiome with dietary- and metabolic-associated hippocampal impairment...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192251/antibiotic-induced-depletion-of-anti-inflammatory-clostridia-is-associated-with-the-development-of-gvhd-in-pediatric-stem-cell-transplant-patients
#20
Tiffany R Simms-Waldrip, Gauri Sunkersett, Laura A Coughlin, Milan R Savani, Carlos Arana, Jiwoong Kim, Minsoo Kim, Xiaowei Zhan, David E Greenberg, Yang Xie, Stella M Davies, Andrew Y Koh
Adult stem cell transplantation (SCT) patients with graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) exhibit significant disruptions in gut microbial communities. These changes are associated with higher overall mortality and appear to be driven by specific antibiotic therapies. It is unclear whether pediatric SCT patients who develop GVHD exhibit similar antibiotic-induced gut microbiota community changes. Here, we show that pediatric SCT patients (from Children's Medical Center Dallas, n=8, and Cincinnati Children's Hospital, n=7) who develop GVHD show a significant decline, up to 10-log fold, in gut anti-inflammatory Clostridia (AIC), compared to those without GVHD...
February 9, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
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