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Commensal bacteria

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935839/capsular-polysaccharide-expression-in-commensal-streptococcus-species-genetic-and-antigenic-similarities-to-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#1
Uffe B Skov Sørensen, Kaihu Yao, Yonghong Yang, Hervé Tettelin, Mogens Kilian
: Expression of a capsular polysaccharide is considered a hallmark of most invasive species of bacteria, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, in which the capsule is among the principal virulence factors and is the basis for successful vaccines. Consequently, it was previously assumed that capsule production distinguishes S. pneumoniae from closely related commensals of the mitis group streptococci. Based on antigenic and genetic analyses of 187 mitis group streptococci, including 90 recognized serotypes of S...
November 15, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925695/integrated-biomarker-profiling-of-smokers-with-periodontitis
#2
Radhakrishnan Nagarajan, Mohanad Al-Sabbagh, Dolph Dawson, Jeffrey Ebersole
: In the context of precision medicine, understanding patient-specific variation is an important step in developing targeted and patient-tailored treatment regimens for periodontitis. While several studies have successfully demonstrated the usefulness of molecular expression profiling in conjunction with single classifier systems in discerning distinct disease groups, the majority of these studies do not provide sufficient insights into potential variations within the disease groups. AIM: The goal of the present study is to discern biological response profiles of periodontitis and non-periodontitis smoking subjects using an informed panel of biomarkers across multiple scales (salivary, oral microbiome, pathogens and other markers)...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924596/methods-to-study-antagonistic-activities-among-oral-bacteria
#3
Fengxia Qi, Jens Kreth
Most bacteria in nature exist in multispecies communities known as biofilms. In the natural habitat where resources (nutrient, space, etc.) are usually limited, individual species must compete or collaborate with other neighboring species in order to perpetuate in the multispecies community. The human oral cavity is colonized by >700 microbial species known as the indigenous microbiota. This indigenous flora normally maintains an ecological balance through antagonistic as well as mutualistic interspecies interactions...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924594/adhesion-of-yeast-and-bacteria-to-oral-surfaces
#4
Richard D Cannon, Karl M Lyons, Kenneth Chong, Kathryn Newsham-West, Kyoko Niimi, Ann R Holmes
Colonization of surfaces in the human body by microorganisms is an early, essential, step in the initiation of infectious disease. We have developed in vitro assays to investigate interactions between yeast or bacterial cells and human tissues, fluids, or prostheses. Such assays can be used to identify the adhesins, ligands, and receptors involved in these interactions, for example, by determining which components of the microbe or human tissue/fluid interfere with adherence in the assay. The assays can also be applied to finding ways of preventing adhesion, and subsequent disease, by investigating the effects of different conditions and added compounds on adherence in the in vitro assays...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920201/the-streptococcus-gordonii-adhesin-csha-binds-host-fibronectin-via-a-catch-clamp-mechanism
#5
Catherine R Back, Maryta N Sztukowska, Marisa Till, Richard J Lamont, Howard F Jenkinson, Angela H Nobbs, Paul R Race
Adherence of bacteria to biotic or abiotic surfaces is a prerequisite for host colonization and represents an important step in microbial pathogenicity. This attachment is facilitated by bacterial adhesins at the cell surface. Due to their size and often elaborate multi-domain architectures, these polypeptides represent challenging targets for detailed structural and functional characterization. The multifunctional fibrillar adhesin CshA, which mediates binding to both host molecules and other microorganisms, is an important determinant of colonisation by Streptococcus gordonii, an oral commensal and opportunistic pathogen of animals and humans...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912797/helminth-infections-and-gut-microbiota-a-feline-perspective
#6
Ana M Duarte, Timothy P Jenkins, Maria S Latrofa, Alessio Giannelli, Elias Papadopoulos, Luís Madeira de Carvalho, Matthew J Nolan, Domenico Otranto, Cinzia Cantacessi
BACKGROUND: Investigations of the relationships between the gut microbiota and gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes are attracting growing interest by the scientific community, driven by the need to better understand the contribution of parasite-associated changes in the composition of the gut flora to both host malnutrition and immune modulation. These studies have however been carried out mainly in humans and experimental animals, while knowledge of the make-up of the gut commensal flora in presence or absence of infection by parasitic nematodes in domestic animals is limited...
December 3, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909795/altered-gut-microbiota-in-ra-implications-for-treatment
#7
Y Kang, Y Cai, X Zhang, X Kong, J Su
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease with progressive joint disorder. The complex interplay of genetic and environmental influences is important for the development of the disease. A growing body of evidence has shed light on the association of dysbiosis of gut microbiota with RA. Certain gut microbial strains have been shown to inhibit or attenuate immune responses in RA experimental models, suggesting that specific species among intestinal commensal bacteria may play either a pathogenic or a protective role in the development of RA...
December 1, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Rheumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909428/rapid-fermentable-substance-modulates-interactions-between-ruminal-commensals-and-toll-like-receptors-in-promotion-of-immune-tolerance-of-goat-rumen
#8
Hong Shen, Zhongyan Lu, Zhan Chen, Yufeng Wu, Zanming Shen
Whether dietary non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC), a rapid fermentable substance, affects immune homeostasis of rumen through the modulation of interactions of ruminal microbiota and epithelial toll-like receptors (TLRs) remains unclear. A combination of 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and quantitative PCRs was applied to study the synergetic responses of ruminal microbiota and epithelial TLRs to the dietary NFC switch from 15 to 31% in the goat model. The results showed that the 31% NFC diet caused the radical increases on the richness and diversity of rumen microbiota...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897256/dysbiosis-by-neutralizing-commensal-mediated-inhibition-of-pathobionts
#9
Esteban Rodriguez Herrero, Vera Slomka, Nico Boon, Kristel Bernaerts, Emma Hernandez-Sanabria, Marc Quirynen, Wim Teughels
Dysbiosis in the periodontal microbiota is associated with the development of periodontal diseases. Little is known about the initiation of dysbiosis. It was hypothesized that some commensal bacteria suppress the outgrowth of pathobionts by H2O2 production. However, serum and blood components released due to inflammation can neutralize this suppressive effect, leading to the initiation of dysbiosis. Agar plate, dual-species and multi-species ecology experiments showed that H2O2 production by commensal bacteria decreases pathobiont growth and colonization...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895415/factoring-the-intestinal-microbiome-into-the-pathogenesis-of-autoimmune-hepatitis
#10
EDITORIAL
Albert J Czaja
The intestinal microbiome is a reservoir of microbial antigens and activated immune cells. The aims of this review were to describe the role of the intestinal microbiome in generating innate and adaptive immune responses, indicate how these responses contribute to the development of systemic immune-mediated diseases, and encourage investigations that improve the understanding and management of autoimmune hepatitis. Alterations in the composition of the intestinal microflora (dysbiosis) can disrupt intestinal and systemic immune tolerances for commensal bacteria...
November 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894344/siropins-novel-serine-protease-inhibitors-from-gut-microbiota-acting-on-human-proteases-involved-in-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#11
Héla Mkaouar, Nizar Akermi, Vincent Mariaule, Samira Boudebbouze, Nadia Gaci, Florette Szukala, Nicolas Pons, Josan Marquez, Ali Gargouri, Emmanuelle Maguin, Moez Rhimi
BACKGROUND: In eukaryotes, the serpins constitute a wide family of protease inhibitors regulating many physiological pathways. Many reports stressed the key role of serpins in several human physiopathologies including mainly the inflammatory bowel diseases. In this context, eukaryotic serpins were largely studied and their use to limit inflammation was reported. In comparison to that, bacterial serpins and mainly those from human gut microbiota remain poorly studied. RESULTS: The two genes encoding for putative serpins from the human gut bacterium Eubacterium sireaum, display low sequence identities...
November 29, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890233/establishing-tolerance-to-commensal-skin-bacteria-timing-is-everything
#12
REVIEW
Tiffany C Scharschmidt
Commensal bacteria live intimately and in constant dialogue with skin immune cells. Regulating our immune response to these bacteria is critical for skin homeostasis. Using a new murine model to track Staphylococcus epidermidis-specific T cells, we found that colonization during neonatal but not adult life led to S.epidermidis-specific immune tolerance. This tolerance protected against skin inflammation and was mediated by a wave of regulatory T cells entering neonatal skin. These findings provide new insight into how we establish a healthy symbiosis with commensal microbes and highlight avenues for future research to identify novel therapies for inflammatory skin disease...
January 2017: Dermatologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889997/acute-cystitis-caused-by-commensal-neisseria-oralis-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#13
Yassar Alamri, Aaron Keene, Alan Pithie
Neisseria are usually harmless inhabitants of otherwise asymptomatic persons' upper respiratory mucosal surfaces. It is, therefore, expected that a disturbance in the physiology leads to non-gonococcal, non-meningococcal Neisseria becoming pathogenic. We report the case of a diabetic man who initially presented with non-specific symptoms and was later found to have cystitis caused by N. oralis. We also review the pertinent literature and discuss available evidence on pathophysiological mechanisms of infection with such commensal bacteria...
November 23, 2016: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887954/the-short-chain-fatty-acid-sodium-butyrate-functions-as-a-regulator-of-the-skin-immune-system
#14
Agatha Schwarz, Anika Bruhs, Thomas Schwarz
There is evidence that gut commensal microbes affect the mucosal immune system via expansion of regulatory T cells (Treg) in the colon. This is mediated via short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), bacterial metabolites generated during fiber fermentation, which include butyrate, propionate and acetate. We postulated that SCFA produced by commensal skin bacteria may also activate resident skin Treg, the activity of which is diminished in certain inflammatory dermatoses. Sodium butyrate (SB) either injected s.c. or applied topically onto the ears of hapten-sensitized mice significantly reduced the contact hypersensitivity reaction...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882964/bacteria-establish-an-aqueous-living-space-in-plants-crucial-for-virulence
#15
Xiu-Fang Xin, Kinya Nomura, Kyaw Aung, André C Velásquez, Jian Yao, Freddy Boutrot, Jeff H Chang, Cyril Zipfel, Sheng Yang He
High humidity has a strong influence on the development of numerous diseases affecting the above-ground parts of plants (the phyllosphere) in crop fields and natural ecosystems, but the molecular basis of this humidity effect is not understood. Previous studies have emphasized immune suppression as a key step in bacterial pathogenesis. Here we show that humidity-dependent, pathogen-driven establishment of an aqueous intercellular space (apoplast) is another important step in bacterial infection of the phyllosphere...
November 23, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882211/novel-perspectives-on-the-role-of-the-human-microbiota-in-regenerative-medicine-and-surgery
#16
Tommaso Pellegatta, Marco Saler, Viola Bonfanti, Giovanni Nicoletti, Angela Faga
Plastic surgery is transitioning from a fine craftsmanship to a regenerative science. In wound healing, the role of microorganisms is no longer considered to be just counteracting, but also promoting. Furthermore, host-microbe interactions are essential for numerous aspects of normal mammalian physiology, from metabolic activity to immune homeostasis. Each area of the human body hosts a unique microbial community, and the composition of microbiota is dependent on the host, age and the anatomical area, and it changes according to the characteristics of the microenvironment...
November 2016: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873736/amber-necklaces-reasons-for-use-and-awareness-of-risk-associated-with-bacterial-colonisation
#17
Pauline Machet, Philippe Lanotte, Bruno Giraudeau, Marie Leperlier, Elsa Tavernier, Annabel Maruani
BACKGROUND: Parents are increasingly placing amber necklaces on their infants or toddlers to prevent teething pain. The use of the necklaces can pose a risk of death by strangulation, however, there are no data on the potential infectious risk linked to bacterial colonisation associated with the necklaces. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to analyse bacterial colonisation of amber necklaces worn by children during hospital consultations. MATERIAL & METHODS: This prospective observational study included all children wearing a teething necklace at consultation in the Paediatric Dermatology and the Paediatric Emergency Department of our hospital from April to December 2014...
November 21, 2016: European Journal of Dermatology: EJD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865269/the-immunopathogenesis-of-staphylococcal-skin-infections-a-review
#18
P B Hill, A Imai
Staphylococcus aureus and S. pseudintermedius are the major causes of bacterial skin disease in humans and dogs. These organisms can exist as commensals on the skin, but they can also cause severe or even devastating infections. The immune system has evolved mechanisms to deal with pathogenic microorganisms and has strategies to combat bacteria of this type. What emerges is a delicate "peace" between the opposing sides, but this balance can be disrupted leading to a full blown "war". In the ferocious battle that ensues, both sides attempt to get the upper hand, using strategies that are comparable to those used by modern day armies...
December 2016: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864179/prevalence-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-among-human-gut-derived-bifidobacteria
#19
Sabrina Duranti, Gabriele Andrea Lugli, Leonardo Mancabelli, Francesca Turroni, Christian Milani, Marta Mangifesta, Chiara Ferrario, Rosaria Anzalone, Alice Viappiani, Douwe van Sinderen, Marco Ventura
: The microbiota of the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) may regularly be exposed to antibiotics, which are used to prevent and treat infectious diseases caused by bacteria and fungi. Bacterial communities of the gut retain a reservoir of antibiotic resistance (AR) genes, and antibiotic therapy thus positively selects for those microorganisms that harbor such genetic features, causing microbiota modulation. During the first months following birth, bifidobacteria represent one of the most dominant components of the human gut microbiota, though little is known about their AR gene complement (or resistome)...
November 18, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863931/the-multibiome-the-intestinal-ecosystem-s-influence-on-immune-homeostasis-health-and-disease
#20
REVIEW
Heather A Filyk, Lisa C Osborne
Mammalian evolution has occurred in the presence of mutualistic, commensal, and pathogenic micro- and macro-organisms for millennia. The presence of these organisms during mammalian evolution has allowed for intimate crosstalk between these colonizing species and the host immune system. In this review, we introduce the concept of the 'multibiome' to holistically refer to the biodiverse collection of bacteria, viruses, fungi and multicellular helminthic worms colonizing the mammalian intestine. Furthermore, we discuss new insights into multibiome-host interactions in the context of host-protective immunity and immune-mediated diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease and multiple sclerosis...
October 6, 2016: EBioMedicine
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