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Commensal bacteria

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650431/illuminating-vital-surface-molecules-of-symbionts-in-health-and-disease
#1
Jason E Hudak, David Alvarez, Ashwin Skelly, Ulrich H von Andrian, Dennis L Kasper
The immunomodulatory surface molecules of commensal and pathogenic bacteria are critical to microorganisms' survival and the host's response(1,2). Recent studies have highlighted the unique and important responses elicited by commensal-derived surface macromolecules(3-5). However, the technology available to track these molecules in host cells and tissues remains primitive. We report, here, an interdisciplinary approach that uses metabolic labelling combined with bioorthogonal click chemistry (that is, reactions performed in living organisms)(6) to specifically tag up to three prominent surface immunomodulatory macromolecules-peptidoglycan, lipopolysaccharide and capsular polysaccharide-either simultaneously or individually in live anaerobic commensal bacteria...
June 26, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646967/the-respiratory-microbiome-and-respiratory-infections
#2
Stefan A Unger, Debby Bogaert
Despite advances over the past ten years lower respiratory tract infections still comprise around a fifth of all deaths worldwide in children under five years of age with the majority in low- and middle-income countries. Known risk factors for severe respiratory infections and poor chronic respiratory health do not fully explain why some children become sick and others do not. The respiratory tract hosts bacteria that can cause respiratory infections but also normal commensal bacteria. Together, this microbial population is called the microbiome...
June 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645257/relationship-between-nasopharyngeal-and-bronchoalveolar-microbial-communities-in-clinically-healthy-feedlot-cattle
#3
Mohamed M Zeineldin, James F Lowe, Elsbeth D Grimmer, Maria R C de Godoy, Mohamed M Ghanem, Yassein M Abd El-Raof, Brian M Aldridge
BACKGROUND: The importance of upper airway structure in the susceptibility of the lower respiratory tract to colonization with potential pathogens is well established. With the advent of rapid, high throughput, next generation sequencing, there is a growing appreciation of the importance of commensal microbial populations in maintaining mucosal health, and a realization that bacteria colonize anatomical locations that were previously considered to be sterile. While upper respiratory tract microbial populations have been described, there are currently no published studies describing the normal microbial populations of the bovine lower respiratory tract...
June 23, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642945/nonribosomal-peptide-synthetase-biosynthetic-clusters-of-eskape-pathogens
#4
REVIEW
Andrew M Gulick
Covering: up to 2017.Natural products are important secondary metabolites produced by bacterial and fungal species that play important roles in cellular growth and signaling, nutrient acquisition, intra- and interspecies communication, and virulence. A subset of natural products is produced by nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs), a family of large, modular enzymes that function in an assembly line fashion. Because of the pharmaceutical activity of many NRPS products, much effort has gone into the exploration of their biosynthetic pathways and the diverse products they make...
June 23, 2017: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642842/the-tick-microbiome-why-non-pathogenic-microorganisms-matter-in-tick-biology-and-pathogen-transmission
#5
REVIEW
Sarah I Bonnet, Florian Binetruy, Angelica M Hernández-Jarguín, Olivier Duron
Ticks are among the most important vectors of pathogens affecting humans and other animals worldwide. They do not only carry pathogens however, as a diverse group of commensal and symbiotic microorganisms are also present in ticks. Unlike pathogens, their biology and their effect on ticks remain largely unexplored, and are in fact often neglected. Nonetheless, they can confer multiple detrimental, neutral, or beneficial effects to their tick hosts, and can play various roles in fitness, nutritional adaptation, development, reproduction, defense against environmental stress, and immunity...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641927/from-prokaryotes-to-cancer-glutamine-flux-in-multicellular-units
#6
REVIEW
Ayelet Erez, Ilana Kolodkin-Gal
Bacteria in nature reside in organized communities, termed biofilms, which are composed of multiple individual cells adhering to each other. Similarly, tumors are a multicellular mass with distinct cellular phenotypes. Both tumors and biofilms are considered to be an active interphase between unicellular and multicellular life states. Because both of these units depend on glutamine for growth and survival, we review here glutamine flux within them as a readout for intra- and inter-commensal metabolism. We suggest that the difference between glutamine fluxes in these cellular communities lies mainly in their global multicellular metabolic organization...
June 19, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641532/trimethylamine-n-oxide-tmao-as-a-new-potential-therapeutic-target-for-insulin-resistance-and-cancer
#7
Jens Oellgaard, Signe Abitz Winther, Tobias Schmidt Hansen, Peter Rossing, Bernt Johan von Scholten
BACKGROUND: The intake of animal products in food has been associated with both the development of insulin resistance and gastrointestinal cancers (GIC). Through the digestion of animal protein and other constituents of animal products, the commensal bacteria in the gut (the gut microbiota) forms metabolites that can contribute to the development of both insulin resistance and cancer. Trimethylamine-N-Oxide (TMAO) is such a molecule and has recently drawn a lot of attention as it may be a risk factor for - and a link between - the gut microbiota and cardiovascular and renal disease...
June 21, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636967/a-few-good-commensals-gut-microbes-use-ifn-%C3%AE-to-fight-salmonella
#8
Kyla S Ost, June L Round
Whereas strong evidence supports the notion that the microbiota promotes immune system maturation in multiple tissues, the identity of the specific microbes that elicit protective immunity to different infections is less clear. In a recent issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Thiemann et al. (2017) report the identification of specific gut bacteria that protect from Salmonella infection by priming host IFN-γ responses.
June 20, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630195/topical-antimicrobial-treatments-can-elicit-shifts-to-resident-skin-bacterial-communities-and-reduce-colonization-by-staphylococcus-aureus-competitors
#9
Adam J SanMiguel, Jacquelyn S Meisel, Joseph Horwinski, Qi Zheng, Elizabeth A Grice
The skin microbiome is a complex ecosystem with important implications for cutaneous health and disease. Topical antibiotics and antiseptics are often employed to preserve the balance of this population, and inhibit colonization by more pathogenic bacteria. Despite their widespread use, however, the impact of these interventions on broader microbial communities remains poorly understood. Here we report the longitudinal effects of topical antibiotics and antiseptics on skin bacterial communities and their role in Staphylococcus aureus colonization resistance...
June 19, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625783/probabilistic-invasion-underlies-natural-gut-microbiome-stability
#10
Benjamin Obadia, Z T Güvener, Vivian Zhang, Javier A Ceja-Navarro, Eoin L Brodie, William W Ja, William B Ludington
Species compositions of gut microbiomes impact host health [1-3], but the processes determining these compositions are largely unknown. An unexplained observation is that gut species composition varies widely between individuals but is largely stable over time within individuals [4, 5]. Stochastic factors during establishment may drive these alternative stable states (colonized versus non-colonized) [6, 7], which can influence susceptibility to pathogens, such as Clostridium difficile. Here we sought to quantify and model the dose response, dynamics, and stability of bacterial colonization in the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) gut...
June 9, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624271/coagulase-negative-staphylococci-species-affect-biofilm-formation-of-other-coagulase-negative-and-coagulase-positive-staphylococci
#11
Coralie Goetz, Yannick D N Tremblay, Daphnée Lamarche, Andréanne Blondeau, Annie M Gaudreau, Josée Labrie, François Malouin, Mario Jacques
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are considered to be commensal bacteria in humans and animals, but are now also recognized as etiological agents in several infections, including bovine mastitis. Biofilm formation appears to be an important factor in CNS pathogenicity. Furthermore, some researchers have proposed that CNS colonization of the intramammary environment has a protective effect against other pathogens. The mechanisms behind the protective effect of CNS have yet to be characterized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CNS isolates with a weak-biofilm phenotype on the biofilm formation of other staphylococcal isolates...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618863/interaction-of-vaginal-lactobacillus-strains-with-hela-cells-plasma-membrane
#12
N Calonghi, C Parolin, G Sartor, L Verardi, B Giordani, G Frisco, A Marangoni, B Vitali
Vaginal lactobacilli offer protection against recurrent urinary and vaginal infections. The precise mechanisms underlying the interaction between lactobacilli and the host epithelium remain poorly understood at the molecular level. Deciphering such events can provide valuable information on the mode of action of commensal and probiotic bacteria in the vaginal environment. We investigated the effects exerted by five Lactobacillus strains of vaginal origin (Lactobacillus crispatus BC1 and BC2, Lactobacillus gasseri BC9 and BC11 and Lactobacillus vaginalis BC15) on the physical properties of the plasma membrane in a cervical cell line (HeLa)...
June 16, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618267/enhancement-of-ifn%C3%AE-production-by-distinct-commensals-ameliorates-salmonella-induced-disease
#13
Sophie Thiemann, Nathiana Smit, Urmi Roy, Till Robin Lesker, Eric J C Gálvez, Julia Helmecke, Marijana Basic, Andre Bleich, Andrew L Goodman, Ulrich Kalinke, Richard A Flavell, Marc Erhardt, Till Strowig
The microbiota contributes to colonization resistance against invading pathogens by competing for metabolites, producing inhibitory substances, and priming protective immune responses. However, the specific commensal bacteria that promote host resistance and immune-mediated protection remain largely elusive. Using isogenic mouse lines with distinct microbiota profiles, we demonstrate that severity of disease induced by enteric Salmonella Typhimurium infection is strongly modulated by microbiota composition in individual lines...
June 14, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618260/protectors-of-the-neonatal-gut-clostridia-send-pathogens-packing
#14
Judith Behnsen
Commensal bacteria are known to provide colonization resistance in the gut. But exactly which ones provide this function? In a recent paper in Science, Kim et al. (2017) revealed that Clostridia added to mouse infant gut microbiota are sufficient to limit colonization of pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae.
June 14, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618237/effect-of-sweetened-dried-cranberry-consumption-on-urinary-proteome-and-fecal-microbiome-in-healthy-human-subjects
#15
Nell Bekiares, Christian G Krueger, Jennifer J Meudt, Dhanansayan Shanmuganayagam, Jess D Reed
The relationship among diet, human health, and disease is an area of growing interest in biomarker research. Previous studies suggest that the consumption of cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon) could beneficially influence urinary and digestive health. The present study sought to determine if daily consumption of sweetened dried cranberries (SDC) changes the urinary proteome and fecal microbiome, as determined in a prospective sample of 10 healthy individuals. Baseline urine and fecal samples were collected from the subjects in the fasted (8-12 h) state...
June 15, 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615683/bacteriocin-gene-trait-matching-across-the-complete-lactobacillus-pan-genome
#16
Fergus W J Collins, Paula M O'Connor, Orla O'Sullivan, Beatriz Gómez-Sala, Mary C Rea, Colin Hill, R Paul Ross
Lactobacilli constitute a large genus of Gram-positive lactic acid bacteria which have widespread roles ranging from gut commensals to starters in fermented foods. A combination of in silico and laboratory-based screening allowed us to determine the overall bacteriocin producing potential of representative strains of each species of the genus. The genomes of 175 lactobacilli and 38 associated species were screened for the presence of antimicrobial producing genes and combined with screening for antimicrobial activity against a range of indicators...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612893/the-mixture-of-bifidobacterium-associated-with-fructo-oligosaccharides-reduces-the-damage-of-the-ocular-surface
#17
G Chisari, E M Chisari, A Francaviglia, C G Chisari
BACKGROUND: Despite its high prevalence Dry Eye Syndrome (DES) in frequently under-recognized owing to its negative influence on patients visual function. METHODS: This clinical trial was a pilot study to evaluate the effects of supplementation with mixture (Bifidobacterium lactis and Bifidobacterium bifido) on the tear film. Following the run-in period subjects were randomized in two groups: group A (N°20 subjects) and group B (N°20 subjects). Group A (control) treated only with substitute tear and group B treated with substitute tear + mixture (symbiotic)...
May 2017: La Clinica Terapeutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610958/sulfate-nitrate-and-blood-pressure-an-epic-interaction-between-sulfur-and-nitrogen
#18
Gunter G Kuhnle, Robert Luben, Kay-Tee Khaw, Martin Feelisch
Nitrate (NO3(-))-rich foods such as green leafy vegetables are not only part of a healthy diet, but increasingly marketed for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and used as ergogenic aids by competitive athletes. While there is abundant evidence for mild hypotensive effects of nitrate on acute application there is limited data on chronic intake in humans, and results from animal studies suggest no long-term benefit. This is important as nitrate can also promote the formation of nitrosamines...
June 10, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607020/targeting-quorum-sensing-signal-biosynthesis-to-fight-antibiotic-resistant-infections-ambuic-acid-as-a-model-inhibitor
#19
Daniel A Todd, Corey P Parlet, Heidi A Crosby, Cheryl L Malone, Kristopher P Heilmann, Alexander R Horswill, Nadja B Cech
There has been major interest by the scientific community in anti-virulence approaches against bacterial infections. However, partly due to a lack of viable lead compounds, anti-virulence therapeutics have yet to reach the clinic. Here we investigate the development of an anti-virulence lead targeting quorum sensing signal-biosynthesis, a process that is conserved in Gram positive bacterial pathogens. Some preliminary studies suggest that the small molecule ambuic acid is a signal biosynthesis inhibitor. To confirm this, we construct a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain that decouples AIP production from regulation, and demonstrate that AIP production is inhibited in this mutant...
June 12, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606364/cefotaxime-resistant-e-coli-in-dairy-and-beef-cattle-farms-joint-analyses-of-two-cross-sectional-investigations-in-germany
#20
Katja Hille, Inga Ruddat, Annette Schmid, Johanna Hering, Maria Hartmann, Christiane von Münchhausen, Bettina Schneider, Ute Messelhäusser, Anika Friese, Rolf Mansfeld, Annemarie Käsbohrer, Stefan Hörmansdorfer, Uwe Roesler, Lothar Kreienbrock
Resistance to third-generation cephalosporins and other beta-lactam antibiotics is of major concern for animal and human health. Knowledge of the prevalence of resistant bacteria in primary production is an important element to estimate transmission along the stages in the food production chain and the exposure of the human population. The primary objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of cefotaxime-resistant commensal E. coli in dairy and beef cattle production units throughout Germany. Secondarily, the association between management factors and the presence of cefotaxime resistance was investigated...
July 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
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