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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163449/dietary-and-microbial-metabolites-in-the-regulation-of-host-immunity
#1
REVIEW
Naoko Shibata, Jun Kunisawa, Hiroshi Kiyono
Mucosal surfaces in the body, especially the intestine, are constantly exposed to trillions of microbiomes. Accumulating evidence has revealed that changes in the composition of the gut microbiome, especially that of the commensal bacteria population, are frequently associated with immunologic disorders. These changes coincide with changes in the production of certain dietary metabolites. Recent studies have uncovered the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the relationships among diet, commensal bacteria, and the host immune system...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163445/in-silico-analysis-of-putrefaction-pathways-in-bacteria-and-its-implication-in-colorectal-cancer
#2
Harrisham Kaur, Chandrani Das, Sharmila S Mande
Fermentation of undigested proteins in human gastrointestinal tract (gut) by the resident microbiota, a process called bacterial putrefaction, can sometimes disrupt the gut homeostasis. In this process, essential amino acids (e.g., histidine, tryptophan, etc.) that are required by the host may be utilized by the gut microbes. In addition, some of the products of putrefaction, like ammonia, putrescine, cresol, indole, phenol, etc., have been implicated in the disease pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC). We have investigated bacterial putrefaction pathways that are known to be associated with such metabolites...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162991/magnusiomyces-capitatus-a-new-and-emerging-pathogen-linked-to-keratomycosis
#3
Ankit Shah, Thomas Mauger
We describe our experience managing a case of fungal keratitis in a 71-year-old immunocompetent woman. Intracameral cultures isolated Magnusiomyces capitatus, a dimorphic commensal microbe with limited pathogenicity, in an immune competent patient. Repeated corneal cultures for bacteria and fungus were negative. Initial broad-spectrum topical fortified antibiotics were eventually escalated to include topical natamycin and voriconazole and oral voriconazole. The patient underwent emergent corneal transplantation, but recurrent infection eventually required anterior chamber washout and intracameral injection of amphotericin B...
2017: Digital Journal of Ophthalmology: DJO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159825/modulation-of-the-intestinal-bile-acid-fxr-fgf15-axis-improves-alcoholic-liver-disease-in-mice
#4
Phillipp Hartmann, Katrin Hochrath, Angela Horvath, Peng Chen, Caroline T Seebauer, Cristina Llorente, Lirui Wang, Yazen Alnouti, Derrick E Fouts, Peter Stärkel, Rohit Loomba, Sally Coulter, Christopher Liddle, Ruth T Yu, Lei Ling, Stephen J Rossi, Alex M DePaoli, Michael Downes, Ronald M Evans, David A Brenner, Bernd Schnabl
Alcoholic liver disease is associated with changes in the intestinal microbiota. Functional consequences of alcohol-associated dysbiosis are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to identify a mechanism of how changes in the intestinal microbiota contribute to alcoholic liver disease. Metagenomic sequencing of intestinal contents demonstrated that chronic ethanol feeding in mice is associated with an overrepresentation of bacterial genomic DNA encoding choloylglycine hydrolase, which deconjugates bile acids in the intestine...
November 21, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159146/lactobacillus-plantarum-induces-apoptosis-in-oral-cancer-kb-cells-through-upregulation-of-pten-and-downregulation-of-mapk-signalling-pathways
#5
Abbas Asoudeh-Fard, Abolfazl Barzegari, Alireza Dehnad, Sepideh Bastani, Asal Golchin, Yadollah Omidi
Introduction: The oral tumor is the sixth most prevalent type of cancer worldwide and the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Although chemotherapy and immunotherapy are the main strategies for the treatment of oral cancer, an emergence of inevitable resistance to these treatment modalities is the major drawback that causes recurrence of the disease. Nowadays, probiotics have been suggested as adjunctive and complementary treatment modalities for improving the impacts of chemotherapy and immunotherapy agents...
2017: BioImpacts: BI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155090/proteome-and-phosphoproteome-analysis-of-commensally-induced-dendritic-cell-maturation-states
#6
Ali Giray Korkmaz, Todor Popov, Loulou Peisl, Marius Cosmin Codrea, Sven Nahnsen, Alexander Steimle, Ana Velic, Boris Macek, Martin von Bergen, Joerg Bernhardt, Julia-Stefanie Frick
Dendritic cells (DCs) can shape the immune system towards an inflammatory or tolerant state depending on the bacterial antigens and the environment they encounter. In this study we provide a proteomic catalogue of differentially expressed proteins between distinct DC maturation states, brought about by bacteria that differ in their endotoxicity. To achieve this, we have performed proteomics and phosphoproteomics on murine DC cultures. Symbiont and pathobiont bacteria were used to direct dendritic cells into a semi-mature and fully-mature state, respectively...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154820/cytotoxic-t-cell-responses-to-streptococcus-are-associated-with-improved-prognosis-of-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#7
Jie Wang, Feng Sun, Xiaoyu Lin, Zaiye Li, Xiaohe Mao, Canhua Jiang
Several species of Streptococcus, such as S. salivarius, S. mitis, and S. anginosus, are found to extensively colonize the oral cavity and the upper respiratory tract, and have been shown to increase in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Accumulating evidence have revealed that commensal bacteria are involved in antitumor immunity via T cell-mediated mechanisms, but the role of Streptococcus enrichment in OSCC is yet unclear. In this study, we stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from non-cancer controls (NCs) and OSCC patients with S...
November 14, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152585/total-lipopolysaccharide-from-the-human-gut-microbiome-silences-toll-like-receptor-signaling
#8
Eva d'Hennezel, Sahar Abubucker, Leon O Murphy, Thomas W Cullen
Cohabitation of microbial communities with the host enables the formation of a symbiotic relationship that maintains homeostasis in the gut and beyond. One prevailing model suggests that this relationship relies on the capacity of host cells and tissues to remain tolerant to the strong immune stimulation generated by the microbiota such as the activation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) pathways by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Indeed, gut microbial LPS is thought to be one of the most potent activators of innate immune signaling and an important mediator of the microbiome's influence on host physiology...
November 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148895/characterization-of-cefotaxime-and-ciprofloxacin-resistant-commensal-escherichia-coli-originating-from-belgian-farm-animals-indicates-high-antibiotic-resistance-transfer-rates
#9
Ellen Lambrecht, Eva Van Meervenne, Nico Boon, Tom Van de Wiele, Pierre Wattiau, Lieve Herman, Marc Heyndrickx, Els Van Coillie
Food-producing animals represent one of the sources of antibiotic resistant commensal bacteria. There is an increasing awareness that these bacteria might have the potential to transfer their resistance genes to other (pathogenic) bacteria. In this study, 50 commensal Escherichia coli strains originating from food-producing animals and resistant to the "highest priority, critically important antibiotics" cefotaxime and/or ciprofloxacin, were selected for further characterization. For each strain (i) an antibiogram, (ii) the phylogenetic group, (iii) plasmid replicon type, (iv) presence and identification of integrons, and (v) antibiotic resistance transfer ratios were determined...
November 17, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147594/lactobacillus-gasseri-causing-bilateral-empyema
#10
Angela Esquibel, Ala S Dababneh, Bharath Raj Palraj
Lactobacilli are common commensal bacteria found in the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract. Although they are usually thought to be nonpathogenic, there have been several cases that demonstrate severe infections caused by these microorganisms. This is a case of a 49-year-old male with previously undiagnosed type two diabetes mellitus who presented with a 3-month history of cough and was found to have right sided Lactobacillus gasseri empyema for which he underwent video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) with chest tube placement...
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146497/nocardiosis-from-1888-to-2017
#11
REVIEW
Mehdi Fatahi-Bafghi
The genus Nocardia is an aerobic bacterium, Gram-positive and catalase positive that is in Nocardiaceae family. This bacterium first described by Edmond Nocard in 1888 and is not in human commensal bacteria. To date, nocardiosis incidence is increasing due to increase population growth rate, increase in patients with immune disorder diseases and immunocompromised patients. We surveyed taxonomic position, isolation methods, phenotypic and molecular identification at the genus and species levels, antibiogram, treatment and epidemiology in the world from 1888 to 2017...
November 13, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146383/not-just-antibiotics-is-cancer-chemotherapy-driving-antimicrobial-resistance
#12
REVIEW
Lito E Papanicolas, David L Gordon, Steve L Wesselingh, Geraint B Rogers
The global spread of antibiotic-resistant pathogens threatens to increase the mortality of cancer patients significantly. We propose that chemotherapy contributes to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria within the gut and, in combination with antibiotics, drives pathogen overgrowth and translocation into the bloodstream. In our model, these processes are mediated by the effects of chemotherapy on bacterial mutagenesis and horizontal gene transfer, the disruption of commensal gut microbiology, and alterations to host physiology...
November 13, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142211/the-microbiota-protects-against-respiratory-infection-via-gm-csf-signaling
#13
Rebecca L Brown, Richard P Sequeira, Thomas B Clarke
The microbiota promotes resistance to respiratory infection, but the mechanistic basis for this is poorly defined. Here, we identify members of the microbiota that protect against respiratory infection by the major human pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae and Klebsiella pneumoniae. We show that the microbiota enhances respiratory defenses via granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) signaling, which stimulates pathogen killing and clearance by alveolar macrophages through extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling...
November 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138298/first-insights-into-the-diverse-human-archaeome-specific-detection-of-archaea-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract-lung-and-nose-and-on-skin
#14
Kaisa Koskinen, Manuela R Pausan, Alexandra K Perras, Michael Beck, Corinna Bang, Maximilian Mora, Anke Schilhabel, Ruth Schmitz, Christine Moissl-Eichinger
Human-associated archaea remain understudied in the field of microbiome research, although in particular methanogenic archaea were found to be regular commensals of the human gut, where they represent keystone species in metabolic processes. Knowledge on the abundance and diversity of human-associated archaea is extremely limited, and little is known about their function(s), their overall role in human health, or their association with parts of the human body other than the gastrointestinal tract and oral cavity...
November 14, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136611/gut-microbiota-in-health-and-disease
#15
Yuichiro Yamashiro
Intestinal regulatory T (Treg) cells are critical to maintaining immune tolerance to dietary antigens and gut microbiota. This paper reviews several papers on this topic that were recently published by Japanese researchers. Specifically, Prof. K. Honda and his group have found that commensal microbiota capable of metabolizing butyrate induces the differentiation of colonic Treg cells. In a separate work, Prof. Y. Yokoyama and his group used a novel, culture-independent analytical method (the Yakult Intestinal Flora-Scan) for detection of bacteria in the bloodstream...
November 14, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133389/selective-killing-of-helicobacter-pylori-with-ph-responsive-helix-coil-conformation-transitionable-antimicrobial-polypeptides
#16
Menghua Xiong, Yan Bao, Xin Xu, Hua Wang, Zhiyuan Han, Zhiyu Wang, Yeqing Liu, Songyin Huang, Ziyuan Song, Jinjing Chen, Richard M Peek, Lichen Yin, Lin-Feng Chen, Jianjun Cheng
Current clinical treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection, the main etiological factor in the development of gastritis, gastric ulcers, and gastric carcinoma, requires a combination of at least two antibiotics and one proton pump inhibitor. However, such triple therapy suffers from progressively decreased therapeutic efficacy due to the drug resistance and undesired killing of the commensal bacteria due to poor selectivity. Here, we report the development of antimicrobial polypeptide-based monotherapy, which can specifically kill H...
November 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133078/enteric-delivery-of-regenerating-family-member-3-alpha-alters-the-intestinal-microbiota-and-controls-inflammation-in-mice-with-colitis
#17
Marion Darnaud, Alexandre Dos Santos, Patrick Gonzalez, Sandrine Augui, Claire Lacoste, Christophe Desterke, Gert De Hertogh, Emma Valentino, Emilie Braun, Jinzi Zheng, Raphael Boisgard, Christel Neut, Laurent Dubuquoy, Franck Chiappini, Didier Samuel, Patricia Lepage, Francesca Guerrieri, Joel Doré, Christian Bréchot, Nicolas Moniaux, Jamila Faivre
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Paneth cell dysfunction causes deficiencies in intestinal C-type lectins and antimicrobial peptides, which leads to dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota, alters the mucosal barrier, and promotes development of inflammatory bowel diseases. We investigated whether transgenic expression of the human regenerating family member 3 alpha gene (REG3A) alters the fecal microbiota and affects development of colitis in mice. METHODS: We performed studies with C57BL/6 mice that express human regenerating family member 3 alpha (hREG3A) in hepatocytes, via the albumin gene promoter...
November 10, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120746/segmented-filamentous-bacteria-provoke-lung-autoimmunity-by-inducing-gut-lung-axis-th17-cells-expressing-dual-tcrs
#18
C Pierce Bradley, Fei Teng, Krysta M Felix, Teruyuki Sano, Debdut Naskar, Katharine E Block, Haochu Huang, Kenneth S Knox, Dan R Littman, Hsin-Jung Joyce Wu
Lung complications are a major cause of rheumatoid arthritis-related mortality. Involvement of gut microbiota in lung diseases by the gut-lung axis has been widely observed, but the underlying mechanism remains mostly unknown. Using an autoimmune arthritis model, we show that a constituent of the gut microbiota, segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB), distantly provoke lung pathology. SFB induce autoantibodies in lung during the pre-arthritic phase, and SFB-dependent lung pathology requires the T helper 17 (Th17) responses...
November 8, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119726/cotrimoxazole-prophylaxis-was-associated-with-enteric-commensal-bacterial-resistance-among-hiv-exposed-infants-in-a-randomized-controlled-trial-botswana
#19
Kathleen M Powis, Sajini Souda, Shahin Lockman, Gbolahan Ajibola, Kara Bennett, Jean Leidner, Michael D Hughes, Sikhulile Moyo, Erik van Widenfelt, Haruna B Jibril, Joseph Makhema, Max Essex, Roger L Shapiro
INTRODUCTION: Despite declining risk of vertical HIV transmission, prophylactic cotrimoxazole (CTX) remains widely used to reduce morbidity and mortality in the event of HIV infection among exposed infants, with an inherent risk of conferring commensal antimicrobial resistance. Using data from a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of infant CTX prophylaxis, we sought to quantify emergence of antibiotic resistance. METHODS: HIV-exposed uninfected infants enrolled in the Botswana Mpepu study were randomized to prophylactic CTX or placebo between 14 and 34 days of life and continued through 15 months...
November 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119707/impaired-expression-of-cxcl5-and-matrix-metalloproteinases-in-the-lungs-of-mice-with-high-susceptibility-to-streptococcus-pneumoniae-infection
#20
Rubia I Mancuso, Eliane N Miyaji, Cristiane C F Silva, Fernanda V Portaro, Alessandra Soares-Schanoski, Orlando G Ribeiro, Maria Leonor S Oliveira
INTRODUCTION: Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizes the nasopharynx of healthy individuals establishing a commensal relationship with the host. In some conditions, bacteria invade the lower respiratory tract and innate immune responses are crucial to avoid diseases such as pneumonia, sepsis, or meningitis. METHODS: Here, we compared the susceptibility to pneumococcal respiratory infection of two outbred mouse lines, AIRmin and AIRmax, selected for low or high acute inflammatory responses, respectively...
November 9, 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
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