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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918634/an-engineered-probiotic-for-the-inhibition-of-salmonella-via-tetrathionate-induced-production-of-microcin-h47
#1
Jacob D Palmer, Emma Piattelli, Beth McCormick, Mark Silby, Christopher Brigham, Vanni Bucci
Complications arising from antibiotic-resistant bacteria are becoming one of the key issues in modern medicine. Members of drug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae spp. include opportunistic pathogens (e.g. Salmonella spp.) that are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Overgrowth of these bacteria is considered a hallmark of intestinal dysbiosis. Microcins (small antimicrobial peptides) produced by some gut commensals can potentially cure these conditions by inhibiting these pathogens, and have been proposed as a viable alternative to antibiotic treatment...
September 17, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916161/stable-association-of-a-drosophila-derived-microbiota-with-its-animal-partner-and-the-nutritional-environment-throughout-a-fly-population-s-life-cycle
#2
REVIEW
Mélisandre A Téfit, Benjamin Gillet, Pauline Joncour, Sandrine Hughes, François Leulier
In the past years, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has been extensively used to study the relationship between animals and their associated microbes. Compared to the one of wild populations, the microbiota of laboratory-reared flies is less diverse, and comprises fewer bacterial taxa; nevertheless, the main commensal bacteria found in fly microbiota always belong to the Acetobacteraceae and Lactobacillaceae families. The bacterial communities associated with the fly are environmentally acquired, and the partners engage in a perpetual re-association process...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915819/bacteriophage-therapy-to-combat-bacterial-infections-in-poultry
#3
REVIEW
Andrzej Wernicki, Anna Nowaczek, Renata Urban-Chmiel
Infections in poultry are an economic and health problem in Europe and worldwide. The most common infections are associated with salmonellosis, colibacillosis, campylobacteriosis, and others. The prevalence of Campylobacter-positive poultry flocks in European countries varies from 18% to 90%. In the United States, the prevalence of infected flocks is nearly 90%. A similar percentage of infection has been noted for salmonellosis (about 75-90%) and E. coli (90-95%). The occurence of Clostridium perfringens is a major problem for the poultry industry, with some estimates suggesting colonization of as many as 95% of chickens, resulting in clinical or subclinical infections...
September 16, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914794/effects-of-probiotics-prebiotics-and-synbiotics-on-human-health
#4
REVIEW
Paulina Markowiak, Katarzyna Śliżewska
The human gastrointestinal tract is colonised by a complex ecosystem of microorganisms. Intestinal bacteria are not only commensal, but they also undergo a synbiotic co-evolution along with their host. Beneficial intestinal bacteria have numerous and important functions, e.g., they produce various nutrients for their host, prevent infections caused by intestinal pathogens, and modulate a normal immunological response. Therefore, modification of the intestinal microbiota in order to achieve, restore, and maintain favourable balance in the ecosystem, and the activity of microorganisms present in the gastrointestinal tract is necessary for the improved health condition of the host...
September 15, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904330/analysis-of-mucosa-associated-microbiota-in-colorectal-cancer
#5
Kehan Xu, Bo Jiang
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to compare the microbiota community structure, assess differences in intestinal bacterial types, and identify metagenomic biomarkers for disparate stages of colorectal cancer formation. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 160 individuals were recruited: 61 cases with non-tumor colon were regarded as the normal group, 47 cases with histology-substantiated colorectal adenomas were regarded as the adenoma group, and 52 cases with invasive adenocarcinomas were regarded as the cancer group...
September 14, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902840/maternal-gut-bacteria-promote-neurodevelopmental-abnormalities-in-mouse-offspring
#6
Sangdoo Kim, Hyunju Kim, Yeong Shin Yim, Soyoung Ha, Koji Atarashi, Tze Guan Tan, Randy S Longman, Kenya Honda, Dan R Littman, Gloria B Choi, Jun R Huh
Maternal immune activation (MIA) contributes to behavioural abnormalities associated with neurodevelopmental disorders in both primate and rodent offspring. In humans, epidemiological studies suggest that exposure of fetuses to maternal inflammation increases the likelihood of developing autism spectrum disorder. In pregnant mice, interleukin-17a (IL-17a) produced by T helper 17 (TH17) cells (CD4(+) T helper effector cells involved in multiple inflammatory conditions) induces behavioural and cortical abnormalities in the offspring exposed to MIA...
September 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901671/aspartate-tightens-the-anchoring-of-staphylococcal-lipoproteins-to-the-cytoplasmic-membrane
#7
Nimerta Kumari, Friedrich Götz, Minh-Thu Nguyen
In gram-negative bacteria, the ABC transporter LolCDE complex translocates outer membrane-specific lipoproteins (Lpp) from the inner membrane to the outer membrane. Lpp possessing aspartate (Asp) at position +2 are not translocated because it functions as a LolCDE avoidance signal. In gram-positive bacteria, lacking an outer membrane and the Lol system, Lpp are only anchored at the outer leaflet of the cytoplasmic membrane. However, the release of Lpp particularly in pathogenic or commensal species is crucial for immune modulation...
September 13, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892494/infections-by-human-gastrointestinal-helminths-are-associated-with-changes-in-faecal-microbiota-diversity-and-composition
#8
Timothy P Jenkins, Yasara Rathnayaka, Piyumali K Perera, Laura E Peachey, Matthew J Nolan, Lutz Krause, Rupika S Rajakaruna, Cinzia Cantacessi
Investigations of the impact that patent infections by soil-transmitted gastrointestinal nematode parasites exert on the composition of the host gut commensal flora are attracting growing interest by the scientific community. However, information collected to date varies across experiments, and further studies are needed to identify consistent relationships between parasites and commensal microbial species. Here, we explore the qualitative and quantitative differences between the microbial community profiles of cohorts of human volunteers from Sri Lanka with patent infection by one or more parasitic nematode species (H+), as well as that of uninfected subjects (H-) and of volunteers who had been subjected to regular prophylactic anthelmintic treatment (Ht)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886378/eukaryotic-sexual-reproduction-evoked-with-a-little-help-from-my-friends
#9
James Umen, Ursula Goodenough, Joseph Heitman
Bacteria and eukaryotes interact in many ways-from the microbiome that educates the mammalian immune system and enhances nutrition to relationships that are commensal, symbiotic, or parasitic. Now in an unexpected twist, King and colleagues have expanded the repertoire of prokaryotic influence over eukaryotic physiology to include mating.
September 7, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883399/antibiotic-treatment-for-tuberculosis-induces-a-profound-dysbiosis-of-the-microbiome-that-persists-long-after-therapy-is-completed
#10
Matthew F Wipperman, Daniel W Fitzgerald, Marc Antoine Jean Juste, Ying Taur, Sivaranjani Namasivayam, Alan Sher, James M Bean, Vanni Bucci, Michael S Glickman
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the cause of Tuberculosis (TB), infects one third of the world's population and causes substantial mortality worldwide. In its shortest format, treatment of TB requires six months of multidrug therapy with a mixture of broad spectrum and mycobacterial specific antibiotics, and treatment of multidrug resistant TB is longer. The widespread use of this regimen makes this one of the largest exposures of humans to antimicrobials, yet the effects of TB treatment on intestinal microbiome composition and long-term stability are unknown...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878760/respiratory-commensal-bacteria-corynebacterium-pseudodiphtheriticum-improves-resistance-of-infant-mice-to-respiratory-syncytial-virus-and-streptococcus-pneumoniae-superinfection
#11
Paulraj Kanmani, Patricia Clua, Maria G Vizoso-Pinto, Cecilia Rodriguez, Susana Alvarez, Vyacheslav Melnikov, Hideki Takahashi, Haruki Kitazawa, Julio Villena
Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum is a Gram-positive bacterium found as a member of the normal microbiota of the upper respiratory tract. It was suggested that C. pseudodiphtheriticum may be potentially used as a next-generation probiotic for nasal application, although no deep studies were performed in this regard. We hypothesized that human isolate C. pseudodiphtheriticum strain 090104 is able to modulate the respiratory innate immune response and beneficially influence the resistance to viral and bacterial infections...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878025/gallbladder-derived-surfactant-protein-d-regulates-gut-commensal-bacteria-for-maintaining-intestinal-homeostasis
#12
Hana Sarashina-Kida, Hideo Negishi, Junko Nishio, Wataru Suda, Yuki Nakajima, Mika Yasui-Kato, Keiko Iwaisako, Sujin Kang, Nobuyasu Endo, Hideyuki Yanai, Masataka Asagiri, Hiroshi Kida, Masahira Hattori, Atsushi Kumanogoh, Tadatsugu Taniguchi
The commensal microbiota within the gastrointestinal tract is essential in maintaining homeostasis. Indeed, dysregulation in the repertoire of microbiota can result in the development of intestinal immune-inflammatory diseases. Further, this immune regulation by gut microbiota is important systemically, impacting health and disease of organ systems beyond the local environment of the gut. What has not been explored is how distant organs might in turn shape the microbiota via microbe-targeted molecules. Here, we provide evidence that surfactant protein D (SP-D) synthesized in the gallbladder and delivered into intestinal lumen binds selectively to species of gut commensal bacteria...
September 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878001/nlr-nod1-signaling-promotes-survival-of-bcr-engaged-mature-b-cells-through-up-regulated-nod1-as-a-positive-outcome
#13
Kyoko Hayakawa, Anthony M Formica, Yan Zhou, Daiju Ichikawa, Masanao Asano, Yue-Sheng Li, Susan A Shinton, Joni Brill-Dashoff, Gabriel Núñez, Richard R Hardy
Although B cell development requires expression of the B cell antigen receptor (BCR), it remains unclear whether engagement of self-antigen provides a positive impact for most B cells. Here, we show that BCR engagement by self-ligand during development in vivo results in up-regulation of the Nod-like receptor member Nod1, which recognizes the products of intestinal commensal bacteria. In anti-thymocyte/Thy-1 autoreactive BCR knock-in mice lacking self-Thy-1 ligand, immunoglobulin light chain editing occurred, generating B cells with up-regulated Nod1, including follicular and marginal zone B cells with natural autoreactivity...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874750/amixicile-a-novel-strategy-for-targeting-oral-anaerobic-pathogens
#14
Justin A Hutcherson, Kathryn M Sinclair, Benjamin R Belvin, Qin Gui, Paul S Hoffman, Janina P Lewis
The oral microflora is composed of both health-promoting as well as disease-initiating bacteria. Many of the disease-initiating bacteria are anaerobic and include organisms such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Tannerella forsythia. Here we investigated a novel therapeutic, amixicile, that targets pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR), a major metabolic enzyme involved in energy generation through oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate. PFOR is present in these anaerobic pathogenic bacteria and thus we hypothesized that amixicile would effectively inhibit their growth...
September 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869687/ancestral-acquisitions-gene-flow-and-multiple-evolutionary-trajectories-of-the-type-three-secretion-system-and-effectors-in-xanthomonas-plant-pathogens
#15
Déborah Merda, Martial Briand, Eran Bosis, Céline Rousseau, Perrine Portier, Matthieu Barret, Marie-Agnès Jacques, Marion Fischer-Le Saux
Deciphering the evolutionary history and transmission patterns of virulence determinants is necessary to understand the emergence of novel pathogens. The main virulence determinant of most pathogenic proteobacteria is the type three secretion system (T3SS). The Xanthomonas genus includes bacteria responsible for numerous epidemics in agroecosystems worldwide and represents a major threat to plant health. The main virulence factor of Xanthomonas is the Hrp2 family T3SS, however this system is not conserved in all strains and it has not been previously determined whether the distribution of T3SS in this bacterial genus has resulted from losses or independent acquisitions...
September 4, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857734/low-incidence-of-coaggregation-amongst-bacteria-isolated-from-the-upper-respiratory-tract-in-health-and-disease
#16
Gavin J Humphreys, Nirmal Kumar, Andrew J McBain
The nasal cavity harbours a commensal microbiota that reportedly provides colonization resistance against respiratory pathogens. Following the onset of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), a change in sinus microbiota composition is frequently reported in which atypical anaerobic and/or Gram-negative bacteria predominate. We have investigated pairwise interactions between respiratory bacteria isolated from healthy adults (n=3) and individuals exhibiting CRS (n=3). Antagonism was determined using a spot plate methodology and coaggregation scores were determined using a quantitative spectrophotometric assay...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854168/commensal-bacteria-make-gpcr-ligands-that-mimic-human-signalling-molecules
#17
Louis J Cohen, Daria Esterhazy, Seong-Hwan Kim, Christophe Lemetre, Rhiannon R Aguilar, Emma A Gordon, Amanda J Pickard, Justin R Cross, Ana B Emiliano, Sun M Han, John Chu, Xavier Vila-Farres, Jeremy Kaplitt, Aneta Rogoz, Paula Y Calle, Craig Hunter, J Kipchirchir Bitok, Sean F Brady
Commensal bacteria are believed to have important roles in human health. The mechanisms by which they affect mammalian physiology remain poorly understood, but bacterial metabolites are likely to be key components of host interactions. Here we use bioinformatics and synthetic biology to mine the human microbiota for N-acyl amides that interact with G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). We found that N-acyl amide synthase genes are enriched in gastrointestinal bacteria and the lipids that they encode interact with GPCRs that regulate gastrointestinal tract physiology...
August 30, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851366/a-widespread-family-of-polymorphic-toxins-encoded-by-temperate-phages
#18
Anne Jamet, Marie Touchon, Bruno Ribeiro-Gonçalves, João André Carriço, Alain Charbit, Xavier Nassif, Mario Ramirez, Eduardo P C Rocha
BACKGROUND: Polymorphic toxins (PTs) are multi-domain bacterial exotoxins belonging to distinct families that share common features in terms of domain organization. PTs are found in all major bacterial clades, including many toxic effectors of type V and type VI secretion systems. PTs modulate the dynamics of microbial communities by killing or inhibiting the growth of bacterial competitors lacking protective immunity proteins. RESULTS: In this work, we identified a novel widespread family of PTs, named MuF toxins, which were exclusively encoded within temperate phages and their prophages...
August 29, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842466/il-18-drives-ilc3-proliferation-and-promotes-il-22-production-via-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb
#19
Aaron R Victor, Ansel P Nalin, Wenjuan Dong, Susan McClory, Min Wei, Charlene Mao, Raleigh D Kladney, Youssef Youssef, Wing Keung Chan, Edward L Briercheck, Tiffany Hughes, Steven D Scoville, Jason R Pitarresi, Charlie Chen, Sarah Manz, Lai-Chu Wu, Jianying Zhang, Michael C Ostrowski, Aharon G Freud, Gustavo W Leone, Michael A Caligiuri, Jianhua Yu
Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) are important regulators of the immune system, maintaining homeostasis in the presence of commensal bacteria, but activating immune defenses in response to microbial pathogens. ILC3s are a robust source of IL-22, a cytokine critical for stimulating the antimicrobial response. We sought to identify cytokines that can promote proliferation and induce or maintain IL-22 production by ILC3s and determine a molecular mechanism for this process. We identified IL-18 as a cytokine that cooperates with an ILC3 survival factor, IL-15, to induce proliferation of human ILC3s, as well as induce and maintain IL-22 production...
August 25, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835673/the-case-for-periodontitis-in-the-pathogenesis-of-rheumatoid-arthritis
#20
REVIEW
Jan Potempa, Piotr Mydel, Joanna Koziel
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), an autoimmune disease that affects ∼1% of the human population, is driven by autoantibodies that target modified self-epitopes, whereas ∼11% of the global adult population are affected by severe chronic periodontitis, a disease in which the commensal microflora on the tooth surface is replaced by a dysbiotic consortium of bacteria that promote the chronic inflammatory destruction of periodontal tissue. Despite differences in aetiology, RA and periodontitis are similar in terms of pathogenesis; both diseases involve chronic inflammation fuelled by pro-inflammatory cytokines, connective tissue breakdown and bone erosion...
August 24, 2017: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
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