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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330694/volatile-compounds-from-beneficial-or-pathogenic-bacteria-differentially-regulate-root-exudation-transcription-of-iron-transporters-and-defense-signaling-pathways-in-sorghum-bicolor
#1
Erasto Hernández-Calderón, Maria Elizabeth Aviles-Garcia, Diana Yazmín Castulo-Rubio, Lourdes Macías-Rodríguez, Vicente Montejano Ramírez, Gustavo Santoyo, José López-Bucio, Eduardo Valencia-Cantero
Our results show that Sorghum bicolor is able to recognize bacteria through its volatile compounds and differentially respond to beneficial or pathogens via eliciting nutritional or defense adaptive traits. Plants establish beneficial, harmful, or neutral relationships with bacteria. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) emit volatile compounds (VCs), which may act as molecular cues influencing plant development, nutrition, and/or defense. In this study, we compared the effects of VCs produced by bacteria with different lifestyles, including Arthrobacter agilis UMCV2, Bacillus methylotrophicus M4-96, Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021, the plant pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, and the commensal rhizobacterium Bacillus sp...
January 12, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330183/campylobacter-jejuni-colonization-in-the-crow-gut-involves-high-deletion-within-the-cytolethal-distending-toxin-gene-cluster
#2
Keya Sen, Jingrang Lu, Piyali Mukherjee, Tanner Berglund, Eunice Varughese, Asish K Mukhopadhyay
Campylobacter spp. are major causes of gastroenteritis worldwide. The virulence potential of Campylobacter shed in crow feces obtained from a roost area in Bothell, Washington, was studied and compared with isolates from other parts of Washington, and from a different crow spp., 7000 miles away, in Kolkata, India. Campylobacter was isolated from 61% and 69 % of the fecal samples obtained from Washington and Kolkata, respectively and were confirmed to be C. jejuni The cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) gene cluster from these isolates revealed a truncated sequence of about 1400 bp...
January 12, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327482/streptococcus-oralis-maintains-homeostasis-in-supragingival-biofilms-by-antagonizing-cariogenic-pathogen-streptococcus-mutans
#3
Thomas Thurnheer, Georgios N Belibasakis
Bacteria residing in oral biofilms live in a state of dynamic equilibrium with one another. The intricate synergistic or antagonistic interactions between them are crucial for determining this balance. Using the 6-species Zürich "supragingival" biofilm model, this study aimed to investigate interactions regarding growth and localization of the constituent species. As control, an inoculum containing all six strains was used, whereas in each of the further five inocula one of the bacterial species was absent, and in the last both streptococci were absent...
January 11, 2018: Molecular Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327043/association-of-oral-microbiome-with-risk-for-incident-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-cancer
#4
Richard B Hayes, Jiyoung Ahn, Xiaozhou Fan, Brandilyn A Peters, Yingfei Ma, Liying Yang, Ilir Agalliu, Robert D Burk, Ian Ganly, Mark P Purdue, Neal D Freedman, Susan M Gapstur, Zhiheng Pei
Importance: Case-control studies show a possible relationship between oral bacteria and head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC). Prospective studies are needed to examine the temporal relationship between oral microbiome and subsequent risk of HNSCC. Objective: To prospectively examine associations between the oral microbiome and incident HNSCC. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nested case-control study was carried out in 2 prospective cohort studies: the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort (CPS-II) and the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO)...
January 11, 2018: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325851/microbial-population-changes-in-patients-with-medication-related-osteonecrosis-of-the-jaw-treated-with-systemic-antibiotics
#5
Lieselotte De Bruyn, Ruxandra Coropciuc, Wim Coucke, Constantinus Politis
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the bacterial population in patients with medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) after treatment with doxycycline and metronidazole. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 38 patients with MRONJ (age range 55-88, mean age 73 + 8.82 standard deviation) treated with doxycycline first and with metronidazole second were enrolled in this study. Two swabs were taken at the margin of the infected MRONJ lesion after applying pressure on the marginal mucosa, and visible pus was secreted...
December 11, 2017: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323530/prevalence-and-molecular-characterization-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-raw-milk-and-raw-milk-cheese-in-egypt
#6
Rabee A Ombarak, Atsushi Hinenoya, Abdel-Rahman M Elbagory, Shinji Yamasaki
The goal of this study was to examine antimicrobial resistance and characterize the implicated genes in 222 isolates of Escherichia coli from 187 samples of raw milk and the two most popular cheeses in Egypt. E. coli isolates were tested for susceptibility to 12 antimicrobials by a disk diffusion method. Among the 222 E. coli isolates, 66 (29.7%) were resistant to one or more antimicrobials, and half of these resistant isolates showed a multidrug resistance phenotype (resistance to at least three different drug classes)...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321512/phenotypic-responses-to-interspecies-competition-and-commensalism-in-a-naturally-derived-microbial-co-culture
#7
Nymul Khan, Yukari Maezato, Ryan S McClure, Colin J Brislawn, Jennifer M Mobberley, Nancy Isern, William B Chrisler, Lye Meng Markillie, Brett M Barney, Hyun-Seob Song, William C Nelson, Hans C Bernstein
The fundamental question of whether different microbial species will co-exist or compete in a given environment depends on context, composition and environmental constraints. Model microbial systems can yield some general principles related to this question. In this study we employed a naturally occurring co-culture composed of heterotrophic bacteria, Halomonas sp. HL-48 and Marinobacter sp. HL-58, to ask two fundamental scientific questions: 1) how do the phenotypes of two naturally co-existing species respond to partnership as compared to axenic growth? and 2) how do growth and molecular phenotypes of these species change with respect to competitive and commensal interactions? We hypothesized - and confirmed - that co-cultivation under glucose as the sole carbon source would result in competitive interactions...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317503/er-stress-mobilization-of-death-associated-protein-kinase-1-dependent-xenophagy-counteracts-mitochondria-stress-induced-epithelial-barrier-dysfunction
#8
Fernando Lopes, Åsa V Keita, Alpana Saxena, Jose Luis Reyes, Nicole Mancini, Ala Al Rajabi, Arthur Wang, Cristiane Baggio, Michael Dicay, Rob van Dalen, Younghee Ahn, Matheus Carneiro, Nathan Peters, Jong M Rho, Wallace MacNaughton, Stephan E Girardin, Humberto Jijon, Dana J Philpott, Johan D Söderholm, Derek M McKay
The gut microbiome contributes to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), in which bacteria can be present within the epithelium. Epithelial barrier function is decreased in IBD, and dysfunctional epithelial mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress have been individually associated with IBD. We therefore hypothesized that the combination of ER and mitochondrial stresses significantly disrupt epithelial barrier function. Here, we treated human colonic biopsies, epithelial colonoids, and epithelial cells with an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation, dinitrophenol (DNP), with or without the ER stressor tunicamycin, and assessed epithelial barrier function by monitoring internalization and translocation of commensal bacteria...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317305/investigation-of-putative-invasion-determinants-of-actinobacillus-species-using-comparative-genomics
#9
Adina R Bujold, Andrew E Shure, Rui Liu, Andrew M Kropinski, Janet I MacInnes
Actinobacillus spp. are Gram-negative bacteria associated with mucosal membranes. While some are commensals, others can cause important human and animal diseases. A. pleuropneumoniae causes severe fibrinous hemorrhagic pneumonia in swine but not systemic disease whereas other species invade resulting in septicemia and death. To understand the invasive phenotype of Actinobacillus spp., complete genomes of eight isolates were obtained and pseudogenomes of five isolates were assembled and annotated. Phylogenetically, A...
January 6, 2018: Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313275/microbiome-immunomodulation-and-the-neuronal-system
#10
REVIEW
Eric Marietta, Irina Horwath, Veena Taneja
Vertebrates harbor both symbiotic and pathogenic bacteria on the body and various mucosal surfaces. Of these surfaces, the intestine has the most diverse composition. This composition is dependent upon various environmental and genetic factors, with diet exerting the maximum influence. Significant roles of the intestinal bacteria are to stimulate the development of a competent mucosal immune system and to maintain tolerance within the intestine. One manner in which this is achieved is by the establishment of epithelial integrity by microbiota found in healthy individuals (healthy microbiota); however, in the case of a disrupted intestinal microbiome (dysbiosis), which can be caused by various conditions, the epithelial integrity is compromised...
January 8, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311232/context-dependent-requirements-for-fimh-and-other-canonical-virulence-factors-in-gut-colonization-by-extraintestinal-pathogenic-escherichia-coli
#11
Colin W Russell, Brittany A Fleming, Courtney A Jost, Alexander Tran, Alan T Stenquist, Morgan A Wambaugh, Mary P Bronner, Matthew A Mulvey
Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) act as commensals within the mammalian gut, but can induce pathology upon dissemination to other host environments such as the urinary tract and bloodstream. ExPEC genomes are likely shaped by evolutionary forces encountered within the gut where the bacteria spend much of their time, provoking the question of how their extraintestinal virulence traits arose. The principle of coincidental evolution, in which a gene that evolved in one niche happens to be advantageous in another, has been used to argue that ExPEC virulence factors originated in response to selective pressures within the gut ecosystem...
January 8, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305555/impaired-lymphoid-extracellular-matrix-impedes-antibacterial-immunity-in-epidermolysis-bullosa
#12
Alexander Nyström, Olivier Bornert, Tobias Kühl, Christine Gretzmeier, Kerstin Thriene, Jörn Dengjel, Andrea Pfister-Wartha, Dimitra Kiritsi, Leena Bruckner-Tuderman
Genetic loss of collagen VII causes recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB), a skin fragility disorder that, unexpectedly, manifests also with elevated colonization of commensal bacteria and frequent wound infections. Here, we describe an unprecedented systemic function of collagen VII as a member of a unique innate immune-supporting multiprotein complex in spleen and lymph nodes. In this complex, collagen VII specifically binds and sequesters the innate immune activator cochlin in the lumen of lymphoid conduits...
January 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305512/molecular-epidemiology-of-dairy-cattle-associated-escherichia-coli-carrying-blactx-m-genes-in-washington-state
#13
Josephine A Afema, Sara Ahmed, Thomas E Besser, Lisa P Jones, William M Sischo, Margaret A Davis
An increase in prevalence of commensal Escherichia coli carrying blaCTX-M genes among dairy cattle was observed between 2008 and 2012 in Washington State. To study the molecular epidemiology of this change, we selected 126 blaCTX-M-positive and 126 blaCTX-M-negative isolates for multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and antibiotic resistance phenotyping from E. coli obtained during a previous study. For 99 isolates we also determined the blaCTX-M alleles using PCR and sequencing and identified the replicon types of blaCTX-M carrying plasmids...
January 5, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302014/the-commensal-microbiome-is-associated-with-anti-pd-1-efficacy-in-metastatic-melanoma-patients
#14
Vyara Matson, Jessica Fessler, Riyue Bao, Tara Chongsuwat, Yuanyuan Zha, Maria-Luisa Alegre, Jason J Luke, Thomas F Gajewski
Anti-PD-1-based immunotherapy has had a major impact on cancer treatment but has only benefited a subset of patients. Among the variables that could contribute to interpatient heterogeneity is differential composition of the patients' microbiome, which has been shown to affect antitumor immunity and immunotherapy efficacy in preclinical mouse models. We analyzed baseline stool samples from metastatic melanoma patients before immunotherapy treatment, through an integration of 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing, metagenomic shotgun sequencing, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction for selected bacteria...
January 5, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301365/how-sweet-are-our-gut-beneficial-bacteria-a-focus-on-protein-glycosylation-in-lactobacillus
#15
REVIEW
Dimitrios Latousakis, Nathalie Juge
Protein glycosylation is emerging as an important feature in bacteria. Protein glycosylation systems have been reported and studied in many pathogenic bacteria, revealing an important diversity of glycan structures and pathways within and between bacterial species. These systems play key roles in virulence and pathogenicity. More recently, a large number of bacterial proteins have been found to be glycosylated in gut commensal bacteria. We present an overview of bacterial protein glycosylation systems (O- and N-glycosylation) in bacteria, with a focus on glycoproteins from gut commensal bacteria, particularly Lactobacilli...
January 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299516/clinical-efficacy-of-a-topical-lactic-acid-bacterial-microbiome-in-chronic-rhinosinusitis-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Anders Mårtensson, Milad Abolhalaj, Malin Lindstedt, Anette Mårtensson, Tobias C Olofsson, Alejandra Vásquez, Lennart Greiff, Anders Cervin
Objective: A locally disturbed commensal microbiome might be an etiological factor in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) in general and in CRS without nasal polyps (CRSsNP) in particular. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been suggested to restore commensal microbiomes. A honeybee LAB microbiome consisting of various lactobacilli and bifidobacteria have been found potent against CRS pathogens in vitro. Recently, we examined effects of single nasal administrations of this microbiome in healthy subjects and found it inert...
December 2017: Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290388/drosophila-perpetuates-nutritional-mutualism-by-promoting-the-fitness-of-its-intestinal-symbiont-lactobacillus-plantarum
#17
Gilles Storelli, Maura Strigini, Théodore Grenier, Loan Bozonnet, Martin Schwarzer, Catherine Daniel, Renata Matos, François Leulier
Facultative animal-bacteria symbioses, which are critical determinants of animal fitness, are largely assumed to be mutualistic. However, whether commensal bacteria benefit from the association has not been rigorously assessed. Using a simple and tractable gnotobiotic model- Drosophila mono-associated with one of its dominant commensals, Lactobacillus plantarum-we reveal that in addition to benefiting animal growth, this facultative symbiosis has a positive impact on commensal bacteria fitness. We find that bacteria encounter a strong cost during gut transit, yet larvae-derived maintenance factors override this cost and increase bacterial population fitness, thus perpetuating symbiosis...
December 26, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289381/recombinant-lactococcus-lactis-co-expressing-omph-of-an-m-cell-targeting-ligand-and-ibdv-vp2-protein-provide-immunological-protection-in-chickens
#18
Linlin Liu, Wang Zhang, Yuxin Song, Wenqian Wang, Yuan Zhang, Tingting Wang, Kai Li, Qing Pan, Xiaole Qi, Yulong Gao, Li Gao, Changjun Liu, Yanping Zhang, Yongqiang Wang, Gaoming He, Xiaomei Wang, Hongyu Cui
Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a highly contagious disease that results in enormous economic losses in the global poultry sector. Lactic acid bacteria are an appealing vehicle for the safe and effective delivery of heterologous protein antigens. Oral administration of the commensal bacterium Lactococcus lactis expressing recombinant fusion proteins has been used to elicit mucosal and systemic immune responses. In this study, a Lactococcus lactis NZ3900 strain co-expressing the outer membrane protein (Omp) H of the microfold (M) cell-targeting ligand and the viral capsid protein (VP)2 antigen of IBDV was genetically engineered, and its immunopotentiating capacity as an oral and injected vaccine in chickens was evaluated...
December 27, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284248/streptococcus-suis-a-re-emerging-pathogen-associated-with-occupational-exposure-to-pigs-or-pork-products-part-i-epidemiology
#19
Jacek Dutkiewicz, Jacek Sroka, Violetta Zając, Bernard Wasiński, Ewa Cisak, Anna Sawczyn, Anna Kloc, Angelina Wójcik-Fatla
<i>Streptococcus suis</i> (ex Elliot 1966, Kilpper-Bälz & Schleifer 1987) is a facultatively anaerobic Gram-positive ovoid or coccal bacterium surrounded by a polysaccharide capsule. Based on the antigenic diversity of the capsule, <i>S. suis</i> strains are classified serologically into 35 serotypes. <i>Streptococcus suis</i> is a commensal of pigs, commonly colonizing their tonsils and nasal cavities, mostly in weaning piglets between 4-10 weeks of age. This species occurs also in cattle and other mammals, in birds and in humans...
December 23, 2017: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281834/sting-dependent-signaling-underlies-il-10-controlled-inflammatory-colitis
#20
Jeonghyun Ahn, Sehee Son, Sergio C Oliveira, Glen N Barber
Intestinal immune homeostasis is preserved by commensal bacteria interacting with the host to generate a balanced array of cytokines that are essential for wound repair and for combatting infection. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which can lead to colitis-associated cancer (CAC), is thought to involve chronic microbial irritation following a breach of the mucosal intestinal epithelium. However, the innate immune pathways responsible for regulating these inflammatory processes remain to be fully clarified...
December 26, 2017: Cell Reports
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