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Commensal bacteria

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103254/a-highly-active-endo-levanase-bt1760-of-a-dominant-mammalian-gut-commensal-bacteroides-thetaiotaomicron-cleaves-not-only-various-bacterial-levans-but-also-levan-of-timothy-grass
#1
Karin Mardo, Triinu Visnapuu, Heiki Vija, Anneli Aasamets, Katrin Viigand, Tiina Alamäe
Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, an abundant commensal of the human gut, degrades numerous complex carbohydrates. Recently, it was reported to grow on a β-2,6-linked polyfructan levan produced by Zymomonas mobilis degrading the polymer into fructooligosaccharides (FOS) with a cell surface bound endo-levanase BT1760. The FOS are consumed by B. thetaiotaomicron, but also by other gut bacteria, including health-promoting bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. Here we characterize biochemical properties of BT1760, including the activity of BT1760 on six bacterial levans synthesized by the levansucrase Lsc3 of Pseudomonas syringae pv...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099495/intestinal-bacteria-composition-and-translocation-of-bacteria-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#2
Spyros Vrakas, Konstantinos C Mountzouris, George Michalopoulos, George Karamanolis, George Papatheodoridis, Charalampos Tzathas, Maria Gazouli
BACKGROUND: Live commensal intestinal bacteria are present in the peripheral blood where they can induce inflammation. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the intestinal bacteria composition and translocation of bacteria in IBD. METHODS: Both blood and tissue biopsy samples were collected from adult patients with active/inactive Crohn's disease (CD), active/inactive ulcerative colitis (UC) and healthy individuals. Most of the patients were newly diagnosed and none of them received antibiotics...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096994/multiple-liver-abscesses-and-bacteremia-caused-by-streptococcus-constellatus-infection-a-case-report
#3
Nobuhiro Akuzawa, Takashi Hatori, Yonosuke Kitahara, Masahiko Kurabayashi
The Streptococcus milleri group (SMG) comprises commensal mucosal bacteria. Pyogenic liver abscesses due to hematogenous SMG infection are rare but can be observed even in healthy patients. In such cases, physicians should consider the existence of primary lesions that allow penetration of the SMG.
January 2017: Clinical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095502/drosophila-genotype-influences-commensal-bacterial-levels
#4
Angela M Early, Niroshan Shanmugarajah, Nicolas Buchon, Andrew G Clark
Host genotype can influence the composition of the commensal bacterial community in some organisms. Composition, however, is only one parameter describing a microbial community. Here, we test whether a second parameter-abundance of bacteria-is a heritable trait by quantifying the presence of four commensal bacterial strains within 36 gnotobiotic inbred lines of Drosophila melanogaster. We find that D. melanogaster genotype exerts a significant effect on microbial levels within the fly. When introduced as monocultures into axenic flies, three of the four bacterial strains were reliably detected within the fly...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087652/differential-regulation-of-cd103-%C3%AE-e-integrin-expression-in-human-dendritic-cells-by-retinoic-acid-and-toll-like-receptor-ligands
#5
Mandi M Roe, Steve Swain, T Andrew Sebrell, Marisa A Sewell, Madison M Collins, Brian A Perrino, Phillip D Smith, Lesley E Smythies, Diane Bimczok
CD103 (αE integrin) is an important dendritic cell (DC) marker that characterizes functionally distinct DC subsets in mice and humans. However, the mechanism by which CD103 expression is regulated in human DCs and the role of CD103 for DC function are not very well understood. Here, we show that retinoic acid (RA) treatment of human monocyte-derived DCs (MoDCs) increased the ability of the DCs to synthesize RA and induced MoDC expression of CD103 and β7 at the mRNA and protein level. In contrast, RA was unable to induce the expression of CD103 in primary human DCs isolated from the gastric mucosa...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087239/on-going-mechanical-damage-from-mastication-drives-homeostatic-th17-cell-responses-at-the-oral-barrier
#6
Nicolas Dutzan, Loreto Abusleme, Hayley Bridgeman, Teresa Greenwell-Wild, Tamsin Zangerle-Murray, Mark E Fife, Nicolas Bouladoux, Holly Linley, Laurie Brenchley, Kelly Wemyss, Gloria Calderon, Bo-Young Hong, Timothy J Break, Dawn M E Bowdish, Michail S Lionakis, Simon A Jones, Giorgio Trinchieri, Patricia I Diaz, Yasmine Belkaid, Joanne E Konkel, Niki M Moutsopoulos
Immuno-surveillance networks operating at barrier sites are tuned by local tissue cues to ensure effective immunity. Site-specific commensal bacteria provide key signals ensuring host defense in the skin and gut. However, how the oral microbiome and tissue-specific signals balance immunity and regulation at the gingiva, a key oral barrier, remains minimally explored. In contrast to the skin and gut, we demonstrate that gingiva-resident T helper 17 (Th17) cells developed via a commensal colonization-independent mechanism...
January 17, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080049/modeling-diversity-in-structures-of-bacterial-outer-membrane-lipids
#7
Huilin Ma, Daniel D Cummins, Natalie Brooke Edelstein, Jerry Gomez, Aliza Khan, Masud Dikita Llewellyn, Tara Picudella, Sarah Rose Willsey, Shikha Nangia
Lipopolysaccharides are vital components of the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria, and they act as extremely strong stimulators of innate immunity in diverse eukaryotic species. The primary immunostimulatory center of the LPS molecule is lipid A-a disaccharide-bound lipophilic domain. Considering the broad diversity in bacterial species, there are variations in the lipid A structure and their immunogenic potency. In this work, we model the lipid A structures of eight commensal or human pathogenic bacterial species: Helicobacter pylori, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Bacteroides fragilis, Bordetella pertussis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Campylobacter jejuni, Neisseria meningitidis, and Salmonella minnesota...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072925/impact-of-low-and-high-doses-of-marbofloxacin-on-the-selection-of-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-in-the-commensal-gut-flora-of-young-cattle-discussion-of-data-from-2-study-populations
#8
Guillaume Lhermie, Véronique Dupouy, Farid El Garch, Nadine Ravinet, Pierre-Louis Toutain, Alain Bousquet-Mélou, Henri Seegers, Sébastien Assié
In the context of requested decrease of antimicrobial use in veterinary medicine, our objective was to assess the impact of two doses of marbofloxacin administered on young bulls (YBs) and veal calves (VCs) treated for bovine respiratory disease, on the total population of Enterobacteriaceae in gut flora and on the emergence of resistant Enterobacteriaceae. In two independent experiments, 48 YBs from 6 commercial farms and 33 VCs previously colostrum deprived and exposed to cefquinome were randomly assigned to one of the three groups LOW, HIGH, and Control...
January 10, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069756/inside-out-hiv-the-gut-microbiome-and-the-mucosal-immune-system
#9
REVIEW
Jay Liu, Brett Williams, Daniel Frank, Stephanie M Dillon, Cara C Wilson, Alan L Landay
The components of the human gut microbiome have been found to influence a broad array of pathologic conditions ranging from heart disease to diabetes and even to cancer. HIV infection upsets the delicate balance in the normal host-microbe interaction both through alterations in the taxonomic composition of gut microbial communities as well as through disruption of the normal host response mechanisms. In this article we review the current methods of gut microbiome analysis and the resulting data regarding how HIV infection might change the balance of commensal bacteria in the gut...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067105/antimicrobial-effects-of-mastic-extract-against-oral-and-periodontal-pathogens
#10
Stefka Koychev, Henrik Dommisch, Hong Chen, Nicole Pischon
BACKGROUND: Various antimicrobial agents are widely used in the therapy of oral inflammatory diseases. However, their side effects and the appearance of drug resistance justify research on natural antimicrobial agents to target oral pathogens that are safe for the host. In the present study, antimicrobial properties of mastic extract on commensal and pathogenic oral bacteria, as well as its possible cytotoxic effect toward cells of epithelial and mesenchymal origin, were evaluated in comparison to the common antimicrobial agents hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX)...
January 8, 2017: Journal of Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065939/an-expanding-stage-for-commensal-microbes-in-host-immune-regulation
#11
REVIEW
Yan Shi, Libing Mu
Gastrointestinal commensal microbiota is a concentrated mix of microbial life forms, including bacteria, fungi, archaea and viruses. These life forms are targets of host antimicrobial defense in order to establish a homeostatic symbiosis inside the host. However, they are also instrumental in shaping the functions of our immune system via a diverse set of communication mechanisms. In the gut, T helper 17, regulatory T and B cells are continuously tuned by specific microbial strains and metabolic processes. These cells in return help to establish a mutually beneficial exchange with the gut microbial contents...
January 9, 2017: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065740/bacterial-signaling-to-the-nervous-system-via-toxins-and-metabolites
#12
REVIEW
Nicole J Yang, Isaac M Chiu
Mammalian hosts interface intimately with commensal and pathogenic bacteria. It is increasingly clear that molecular interactions between the nervous system and microbes contribute to health and disease. Both commensal and pathogenic bacteria are capable of producing molecules that act on neurons and affect essential aspects of host physiology. Here we highlight several classes of physiologically important molecular interactions that occur between bacteria and the nervous system. First, clostridial neurotoxins block neurotransmission to or from neurons by targeting the SNARE complex, causing the characteristic paralyses of botulism and tetanus during bacterial infection...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063049/isolation-and-flow-cytometry-analysis-of-innate-lymphoid-cells-from-the-intestinal-lamina-propria
#13
Konrad Gronke, Michael Kofoed-Nielsen, Andreas Diefenbach
The intestinal mucosa constitutes the biggest surface area of the body. It is constantly challenged by bacteria, commensal and pathogenic, protozoa, and food-derived irritants. In order to maintain homeostasis, a complex network of signaling circuits has evolved that includes contributions of immune cells. In recent years a subset of lymphocytes, which belong to the innate immune system, has caught particular attention. These so-called innate lymphoid cells (ILC) reside within the lamina propria of the small and large intestines and rapidly respond to environmental challenges...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062579/lactobacillus-plantarum-favors-the-early-emergence-of-fit-and-fertile-adult-drosophila-upon-chronic-undernutrition
#14
Mélisandre A Téfit, François Leulier
Animals are naturally surrounded by a variety of microorganisms with which they constantly interact. Among these microbes, some live closely associated with a host and form its microbiota. These communities are now extensively studied, owing to their contributions to shaping various aspects of animal physiology. One of these commensal species, Lactobacillus plantarum, and in particular the L.p.(WJL) strain, has been shown to promote the growth of Drosophila larvae upon nutrient scarcity, allowing earlier metamorphosis and adult emergence compared to axenic individuals...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062361/redox-signaling-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#15
REVIEW
Salvador Pérez, Raquel Taléns-Visconti, Sergio Rius-Pérez, Isabela Finamor, Juan Sastre
Redox signaling regulates physiological self-renewal, proliferation, migration and differentiation in gastrointestinal epithelium by modulating Wnt/β-catenin and Notch signaling pathways mainly through NADPH oxidases (NOXs). In the intestine, intracellular and extracellular thiol redox status modulates the proliferative potential of epithelial cells. Furthermore, commensal bacteria contribute to intestine epithelial homeostasis through NOX1- and dual oxidase 2-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS). The loss of redox homeostasis is involved in the pathogenesis and development of a wide diversity of gastrointestinal disorders, such as Barrett's esophagus, esophageal adenocarcinoma, peptic ulcer, gastric cancer, ischemic intestinal injury, celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer...
January 3, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061847/role-of-intestinal-microbiota-and-metabolites-on-gut-homeostasis-and-human-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Lan Lin, Jianqiong Zhang
BACKGROUND: A vast diversity of microbes colonizes in the human gastrointestinal tract, referred to intestinal microbiota. Microbiota and products thereof are indispensable for shaping the development and function of host innate immune system, thereby exerting multifaceted impacts in gut health. METHODS: This paper reviews the effects on immunity of gut microbe-derived nucleic acids, and gut microbial metabolites, as well as the involvement of commensals in the gut homeostasis...
January 6, 2017: BMC Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059171/comparison-of-sputum-microbiome-of-legionellosis-associated-patients-and-other-pneumonia-patients-indications-for-polybacterial-infections
#17
Hila Mizrahi, Avi Peretz, René Lesnik, Yana Aizenberg-Gershtein, Sara Rodríguez-Martínez, Yehonatan Sharaby, Nina Pastukh, Ingrid Brettar, Manfred G Höfle, Malka Halpern
Bacteria of the genus Legionella cause water-based infections resulting in severe pneumonia. Here we analyze and compare the bacterial microbiome of sputum samples from pneumonia patients in relation to the presence and abundance of the genus Legionella. The prevalence of Legionella species was determined by culture, PCR, and Next Generation Sequencing (NGS). Nine sputum samples out of the 133 analyzed were PCR-positive using Legionella genus-specific primers. Only one sample was positive by culture. Illumina MiSeq 16S rRNA gene sequencing analyses of Legionella-positive and Legionella-negative sputum samples, confirmed that indeed, Legionella was present in the PCR-positive sputum samples...
January 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054304/comparative-analysis-of-drosophila-melanogaster-gut-microbiota-with-respect-to-host-strain-sex-and-age
#18
Gangsik Han, Hyo Jung Lee, Sang Eun Jeong, Che Ok Jeon, Seogang Hyun
Microbiota has a significant impact on the health of the host individual. The complexity of the interactions between mammalian hosts and their microbiota highlights the value of using Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism, because of its relatively simple microbial community and ease of physiological and genetic manipulation. However, highly variable and sometimes inconsistent results regarding the microbiota of D. melanogaster have been reported for host samples collected from different geographical locations; discrepancies that may be because of the inherent physiological conditions of the D...
January 4, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053219/a-unique-capsule-locus-in-the-newly-designated-actinobacillus-pleuropneumoniae-serovar-16-and-development-of-a-diagnostic-pcr
#19
Janine T Bossé, Yanwen Li, Rita Sárközi, Marcelo Gottschalk, Øystein Angen, Katerina Nedbalcova, Andrew N Rycroft, László Fodor, Paul R Langford
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae causes pleuropneumonia, an economically significant, lung disease of pigs. Recently, isolates of A. pleuropneumoniae that were serologically distinct from the previously characterized 15 serovars were described, and a proposal put forward that they comprised a new serovar 16. Here we used whole genome sequencing of the proposed serovar 16 reference strain A-85/14 to confirm presence of a unique capsular polysaccharide biosynthetic locus. For molecular diagnostics, primers were designed from the capsule locus of A-85/14 and a PCR formulated that differentiated serovar 16 isolates from all 15 known serovars, and other common respiratory pathogenic/commensal bacteria of pigs...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052997/human-three-dimensional-endometrial-epithelial-cell-model-to-study-host-interactions-with-vaginal-bacteria-and-neisseria-gonorrhoeae
#20
Paweł Łaniewski, Adriana Gomez, Geoffrey Hire, Magdalene So, Melissa M Herbst-Kralovetz
Colonization of the endometrium by pathogenic bacteria, ascending from the lower female reproductive tract (FRT), is associated with many gynecologic and obstetric health complications. To study these host-microbe interactions in vitro, we developed a human three-dimensional (3-D) endometrial epithelial cell (EEC) model using the HEC-1A cell line and rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactor technology. Our model, composed of 3-D EEC aggregates, recapitulates several functional/structural characteristics of human endometrial epithelial tissue including cell differentiation, junctional complexes/desmosomes, microvilli, membrane-associated mucins and Toll-like receptors (TLRs)...
January 4, 2017: Infection and Immunity
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