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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929127/risk-of-fungi-associated-with-aflatoxin-and-fumonisin-in-medicinal-herbal-products-in-the-kenyan-market
#1
Lucia Keter, Richard Too, Nicholas Mwikwabe, Charles Mutai, Jennifer Orwa, Lizzy Mwamburi, Stanley Ndwigah, Christine Bii, Richard Korir
Utilization of herbal products is a major concern due to the possibility of contamination by toxigenic fungi that are mycotoxin producers such as Aspergillus species during processing and packaging. Research was carried out to determine the presence of aflatoxins and fumonisins in herbal medicinal products sold in Eldoret and Mombasa towns in Kenya. The study employed both exploratory and laboratory experimental design. The herbal products were purchased from the market and transported to Kenya Medical Research Institute for processing and analysis...
2017: TheScientificWorldJournal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928090/investigation-of-antidiabetic-potential-of-phyllanthus-niruri-l-using-assays-for-%C3%AE-glucosidase-muscle-glucose-transport-liver-glucose-production-and-adipogenesis
#2
Maliheh Najari Beidokhti, Mia Vesterholm Andersen, Hoda M Eid, Mayra Luz Sanchez Villavicencio, Dan Staerk, Pierre S Haddad, Anna K Jäger
Phyllanthus niruri is used in herbal medicine for treatment of diabetes. The objective of this study was to investigate the antidiabetic potential of P. niruri, using assays for α-glucosidase, muscle glucose transport, liver glucose production and adipogenesis. α-Glucosidase inhibitory activity was performed on aqueous and ethanolic extract of aerial parts of P. niruri. The aqueous and ethanolic extract of P. niruri showed α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 3.7 ± 1.1 and 6.3 ± 4...
September 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925162/-effect-of-corydalis-rhizoma-and-l-tetrahydropalmatine-on-dopamine-system-of-hippocampus-and-striatum-in-morphine-induced-conditioned-place-preference-rats
#3
Shou-Yang Yu, Wei-Feng Bai, Ping Tu, Cheng-Kai Qiu, Pei-Run Yang, Su-Yuan Luo
To investigate the effects of Corydalis Rhizoma and L-tetrahydropalma-tine (L-THP) on the levels of dopamine neurotransmitter (DA), dopamine transporter (DAT) and the second dopamine receptor (D2R) in learning and memory-related brain areas, hippocampus and striatum, the DA, DAT and D2R were detected in conditioned place preference (CPP) rats suffered from morphine. And comparation the degree of similarity and consistency of the pharmacological effects was also studied. The rats were trained in black compartments and white ones (drug-paired compartment) with the increasing doses of morphine for 10 days (hypodermically injected from 10 mg•kg⁻¹ to 100 mg•kg⁻¹)...
October 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923936/isolation-of-exosomes-from-whole-blood-by-integrating-acoustics-and-microfluidics
#4
Mengxi Wu, Yingshi Ouyang, Zeyu Wang, Rui Zhang, Po-Hsun Huang, Chuyi Chen, Hui Li, Peng Li, David Quinn, Ming Dao, Subra Suresh, Yoel Sadovsky, Tony Jun Huang
Exosomes are nanoscale extracellular vesicles that play an important role in many biological processes, including intercellular communications, antigen presentation, and the transport of proteins, RNA, and other molecules. Recently there has been significant interest in exosome-related fundamental research, seeking new exosome-based biomarkers for health monitoring and disease diagnoses. Here, we report a separation method based on acoustofluidics (i.e., the integration of acoustics and microfluidics) to isolate exosomes directly from whole blood in a label-free and contact-free manner...
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922189/acr-acnm-practice-parameter-for-the-performance-of-dopamine-transporter-dat-single-photon-emission-computed-tomography-spect-imaging-for-movement-disorders
#5
Rathan M Subramaniam, Kirk A Frey, Christopher H Hunt, Gustavo A Mercier, Lilja B Solnes, Patrick M Colletti, Yang Lu, Bital Savir-Baruch, Hadyn T Williams
This American College of Radiology and American College of Nuclear Medicine joint clinical practice parameter is for performance of dopamine transporter single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging, for patients with movement disorders. Parkinsonian syndrome (PS) consists of a group of neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson disease (PD), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), multiple system atrophy (MSA), corticobasal degeneration (CBD), and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Accurate diagnosis of PS is critical for clinical management...
September 15, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919558/cellular-uptake-of-extracellular-vesicles-is-mediated-by-clathrin-independent-endocytosis-and-macropinocytosis
#6
Helena Costa Verdera, Jerney J Gitz-Francois, Raymond M Schiffelers, Pieter Vader
Recent evidence has established that extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and microvesicles, form an endogenous transport system through which biomolecules, including proteins and RNA, are exchanged between cells. This endows EVs with immense potential for drug delivery and regenerative medicine applications. Understanding the biology underlying EV-based intercellular transfer of cargo is of great importance for the development of EV-based therapeutics. Here, we sought to characterize the cellular mechanisms involved in EV uptake...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919180/development-of-a-cyclosporin-a-derivative-with-excellent-anti-hepatitis-c-virus-potency
#7
Jiping Fu, Christopher Becker, Li Cao, Michael Capparelli, Regis Denay, Roger Fujimoto, Yu Gai, Zhaobo Gao, Christian Guenat, Subramanian Karur, Hongyong Kim, Weikuan Li, Xiaolin Li, Wei Li, Thomas Lochmann, Amy Lu, Peichao Lu, Alexandre Luneau, Nicole Meier, Wosenu Mergo, Simon Ng, David Parker, Yunshan Peng, Bernard Riss, Alexey Rivkin, Silvio Roggo, Harald Schroeder, Friedrich Schuerch, Robert L Simmons, Feng Sun, Zachary K Sweeney, Meiliana Tjandra, Michael Wang, Ruidong Wang, Andrew H Weiss, Nicolas Wenger, Quanbing Wu, Xin Xiong, Su Xu, Wenjian Xu, Aregahegn Yifru, Jibin Zhao, Jianguang Zhou, Christian Zürcher, Fabrice Gallou
Synthetic modification of cyclosporin A at P3-P4 positions led to the discovery of NIM258, a next generation cyclophilin inhibitor with excellent anti-hepatitis C virus potency, with decreased transporter inhibition, and pharmacokinetics suitable for coadministration with other drugs. Herein is disclosed the evolution of the synthetic strategy to from the original medicinal chemistry route, designed for late diversification, to a convergent and robust development synthesis. The chiral centers in the P4 fragment were constructed by an asymmetric chelated Claisen rearrangement in the presence of quinidine as the chiral ligand...
September 7, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913731/inter-and-intra-observer-reproducibility-of-quantitative-analysis-for-fp-cit-spect-in-patients-with-dlb
#8
Atsutaka Okizaki, Michihiro Nakayama, Kaori Nakajima, Takayuki Katayama, Takahiro Uno, Fumiyoshi Morikawa, Juichiro Naoe, Koji Takahashi
BACKGROUND: Dopamine transporter single photon emission CT (DAT-SPECT) is useful in the evaluation of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). The specific binding ratio (SBR) is an index to measure DAT density. However, poorly reproducible cases are occasionally experienced in clinical practice. We hypothesized that distance-weighted histogram (DWH) may be useful to improve the reproducibility of SBR. The purpose of this study was to investigate inter- and intra-observer reproducibility of SBR with conventional and DWH methods, and to visually evaluate the precision in reference voxel of interest (VOI) definition using these methods...
September 14, 2017: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905079/-falsified-medicines-in-parallel-trade
#9
REVIEW
Heide Muckenfuß
The number of falsified medicines on the German market has distinctly increased over the past few years. In particular, stolen pharmaceutical products, a form of falsified medicines, have increasingly been introduced into the legal supply chain via parallel trading. The reasons why parallel trading serves as a gateway for falsified medicines are most likely the complex supply chains and routes of transport. It is hardly possible for national authorities to trace the history of a medicinal product that was bought and sold by several intermediaries in different EU member states...
September 13, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904560/antidiabetic-effect-of-tibetan-medicine-tang-kang-fu-san-on-high-fat-diet-and-streptozotocin-induced-type-2-diabetic-rats
#10
Bailu Duan, Zhongqiu Zhao, Ling Lin, Jing Jin, Lijun Zhang, Hui Xiong, Na Ta, Tiexiang Gao, Zhinan Mei
The aim of this study was to investigate the antidiabetic effects of a Tibetan medicine, Tang-Kang-Fu-San (TKFS), on experimental type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rats and to explore its underlying mechanisms. Firstly two major chemical compositions of TKFS, gallic acid and curcumin, were characterized by HPLC fingerprint analysis. Next T2DM in rats was induced by high-fat diet and a low-dose streptozotocin (STZ 35 mg/kg). Then oral gavage administration of three different doses of TKFS (0.3 g/kg, 0.6 g/kg, and 1...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894278/agerarin-identified-from-ageratum-houstonianum-stimulates-circadian-clock-mediated-aquaporin-3-gene-expression-in-hacat-keratinocytes
#11
Soon Young Shin, Da Hyun Lee, Ha-Na Gil, Beom Soo Kim, Jeong-Sook Choe, Jung-Bong Kim, Young Han Lee, Yoongho Lim
The juice of Ageratum houstonianum is used in folk medicine as an external wound healing aid for skin injuries. However, the active component of A. houstonianum and its mode of action in skin wound healing has not been investigated. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of A. houstonianum ethanolnolic extract (AHE) on the expression of aquaporin-3 (AQP3), an integral membrane protein for water and glycerol transport in keratinocytes, and to identify the structure of the A. houstonianum bioactive compound...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893735/access-to-healthcare-for-men-and-women-with-disabilities-in-the-uk-secondary-analysis-of-cross-sectional-data
#12
Dikaios Sakellariou, Elena S Rotarou
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate differences in access to healthcare between people with and without disabilities in the UK. The hypotheses were that: (1) people with disabilities would be more likely to have unmet healthcare needs and (2) there would be gender differences, with women more likely to report unmet needs. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We performed secondary analysis, using logistic regressions, of deidentified cross-sectional data from the European Health Interview Survey, Wave 2...
September 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893323/out-of-pocket-expenditure-for-seeking-health-care-for-sick-children-younger-than-5%C3%A2-years-of-age-in-bangladesh-findings-from-cross-sectional-surveys-2009-and-2012
#13
Tazeen Tahsina, Nazia Binte Ali, D M Emdadul Hoque, Tanvir M Huda, Shumona Sharmin Salam, Mohammad Mehedi Hasan, Md Altaf Hossain, Ziaul Matin, Lianne Kuppen, Sarah P Garnett, Shams El Arifeen
BACKGROUND: Bangladesh has committed to universal health coverage, and options to decrease household out-of-pocket expenditure (OPE) are being explored. Understanding the determinants of OPE is an essential step. This study aimed to estimate and identify determinants of OPE in seeking health care for sick under-five children. METHODS: Cross-sectional data was collected by structured questionnaire in 2009 (n = 7362) and 2012 (n = 6896) from mothers of the under-five children...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892154/pharmacogenetics-of-opioid-analgesics-in-dogs
#14
REVIEW
K Kongara
Genetic variation causes interindividual variability in drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion. These pharmacokinetic processes will influence the observed efficacy and toxicity of a drug. Polymorphisms in the genes encoding the metabolizing enzymes, transport proteins and receptors have been linked to the inconsistency in responses to opioid treatment in humans and laboratory animals. Pharmacogenetics is relatively less developed field in veterinary medicine compared to significant advances in knowledge on genetic basis of variation in drug responses and clinical applications in human medicine...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890865/functional-imaging-of-paragangliomas-with-an-emphasis-on-von-hippel-lindau-associated-disease-a-mini-review
#15
REVIEW
Ioannis Ilias, Georgios Meristoudis
Few reports have presented data and results on functional (i.e., nuclear medicine) imaging of paragangliomas and pheochromocytomas (PGLs/PHEOs) for von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) patients. Nuclear medicine localization modalities for chromaffin tumors can be specific or nonspecific. Specific methods make use of the expression of the human norepinephrine transporter (hNET) and vesicular monoamine transporters (VMATs) by these tumors. These permit the use of radiolabeled ligands that enter the synthesis and storage pathway of catecholamines...
2017: Journal of Kidney Cancer and VHL
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890383/interaction-between-rhein-acyl-glucuronide-and-methotrexate-based-on-human-organic-anion-transporters
#16
Yuan Yuan, Hua Yang, Linghua Kong, Yuan Li, Ping Li, Hongjian Zhang, Jianqing Ruan
Rhein, a major bioactive compound of many medicinal herbs and the prodrug of diacerein, is often used with low dose of methotrexate as drug combination to treat rheumatoid arthritis. In this study, potential drug-drug interaction between methotrexate and rhein was investigated based on organic anion transporters (OAT). Our study demonstrated that rhein acyl glucuronide (RAG), the major metabolite of rhein in the human blood circulation, significantly inhibited the uptake of p-aminohippurate in hOAT1 transfected cells with IC50 value of 691 nM and estrone sulfate uptake in hOAT3 transfected cells with IC50 value of 78...
September 7, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886689/predator-versus-pathogen-how-does-predatory-bdellovibrio-bacteriovorus-interface-with-the-challenges-of-killing-gram-negative-pathogens-in-a-host-setting
#17
David Negus, Chris Moore, Michelle Baker, Dhaarini Raghunathan, Jess Tyson, R Elizabeth Sockett
Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is a small deltaproteobacterial predator that has evolved to invade, reseal, kill, and digest other gram-negative bacteria in soils and water environments. It has a broad host range and kills many antibiotic-resistant, clinical pathogens in vitro, a potentially useful capability if it could be translated to a clinical setting. We review relevant mechanisms of B. bacteriovorus predation and the physiological properties that would influence its survival in a mammalian host. Bacterial pathogens increasingly display conventional antibiotic resistance by expressing and varying surface and soluble biomolecules...
September 8, 2017: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886521/permeability-through-the-caco-2-cell-monolayer-of-42-bioactive-compounds-in-the-tcm-formula-gegen-qinlian-decoction-by-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-analysis
#18
Qi Wang, Yi Kuang, Wei Song, Yi Qian, Xue Qiao, De-An Guo, Min Ye
Caco-2 cell monolayer model was used to evaluate the intestinal permeability of 42 bioactive compounds in the famous traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula Gegen-Qinlian Decoction (GQD). These compounds include alkaloids, flavonoids and glycosides, triterpenoid saponins, and coumarins. Their transportations across the cell monolayers in the forms of herb extract and formula extract were monitored by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) analysis. Most alkaloids from Huang-Lian; flavonoid C-glycosides from Ge-Gen and Huang-Qin; O-glycosides from Ge-Gen, Huang-Qin and Gan-Cao; O-glucuronides from Huang-Qin; and coumarins from Gan-Cao exhibited favorable permeability...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885074/clinical-risks-of-st-john-s-wort-hypericum-perforatum-co-administration
#19
Samaneh Soleymani, Roodabeh Bahramsoltani, Roja Rahimi, Mohammad Abdollahi
St. John's wort (SJW) is a common medicinal herb used for the treatment of mild to moderate depression. Hyperforin, one of the chief components of SJW, plays an important role in the induction of cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP) and P-glycoprotein transporter (P-gp), and therefore, affects the pharmacokinetics of various drugs. There are several clinical studies demonstrating the interaction of SJW with the metabolism of conventional drugs which may cause life-threatening events. Areas covered: This review focuses on human studies that have evaluated pharmacokinetic alterations of conventional drugs in concomitant use with different SJW preparations...
September 13, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883884/itraq-based-quantitative-proteomics-analysis-of-the-protective-effect-of-yinchenwuling-powder-on-hyperlipidemic-rats
#20
Zheyu Zhang, Wenbo Wang, Ling Jin, Xin Cao, Gonghui Jian, Ning Wu, Xia Xu, Ye Yao, Dongsheng Wang
Yinchenwuling powder (YCL) is an effective traditional Chinese medicine formula to modulate lipid levels. In this study, we established hyperlipidemic rat models and treated them with YCL. The serum concentrations of lipid, malondialdehyde (MDA), endothelin-1 (ET-1), and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) were measured. Adventitia-free vascular proteins between hyperlipidemic rats and YCL-treated rats were identified using iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics research approach. Proteins with 1.3-fold difference were analyzed through bioinformatics, and proteomic results were verified by Western blot...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
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