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Paween Mahinthichaichan, Robert B Gennis, Emad Tajkhorshid
Cytochrome aa3 is the terminal respiratory enzyme of all eukaryotes and many bacteria and archaea, reducing O2 to water and harnessing the free energy from the reaction to generate the transmembrane electrochemical potential. The diffusion of O2 to the heme-copper catalytic site, which is buried deep inside the enzyme, is the initiation step of the reaction chemistry. Our previous molecular dynamics (MD) study with cytochrome ba3 , a homologous enzyme of cytochrome aa3 in Thermus thermophilus, demonstrated that O2 diffuses from the lipid bilayer to its reduction site through a 25-Å long tunnel inferred by Xe-binding sites detected by X-ray crystallography$ ...
March 16, 2018: Biochemistry
Cheryl Ann Green
Prayer is viewed in modern medicine as a complimentary alternative treatment. However, to many patients, it is a source of hope and comfort. Patients, when facing illness, advanced disease, disability or death, can benefit from prayer. For healthcare providers, comfort with praying with patients can be deemed as unprofessional conduct or blurred therapeutic boundaries, particularly, when prayer is offered to patients' unsolicited by the patient or their family member(s). Therefore, it is imperative that healthcare providers await the request of prayer by the patient before prayer is initiated...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Religion and Health
Patrick A Robertson, Luigi Villani, Uresha L M Dissanayake, Luke F Duncan, Belinda M Abbott, David J D Wilson, Evan G Robertson
The electronic spectra of 2-bromoethylbenzene and its chloro and fluoro analogues have been recorded by resonant two-photon ionisation (R2PI) spectroscopy. Anti and gauche conformers have been assigned by rotational band contour analysis and IR-UV ion depletion spectroscopy in the CH region. Hydrate clusters of the anti conformers have also been observed, allowing the role of halocarbons as hydrogen bond acceptors to be examined in this context. The donor OH stretch of water bound to chlorine is red-shifted by 36 cm-1 , or 39 cm-1 in the case of bromine...
March 12, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
M V Ivanova, O V Dragoy, S V Kuptsova, S Akinina Yu, A G Petrushevskii, O N Fedina, A Turken, V M Shklovsky, N F Dronkers
Currently, a distributed bilateral network of frontal-parietal areas is regarded as the neural substrate of working memory (WM), with the verbal WM network being more left-lateralized. This conclusion is based primarily on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data that provides correlational evidence for brain regions involved in a task. However, fMRI cannot differentiate the areas that are fundamentally required for performing a task. These data can only come from brain-injured individuals who fail the task after the loss of specific brain areas...
March 8, 2018: Neuropsychologia
A C Bennett, A Van Camp, V López, C Smith
The link between obesity-induced systemic inflammation and decreased insulin signalling is well-known. It is also known that peripherally produced inflammatory cytokines can cross the blood-brain barrier, resulting in the release of neurotoxins that can ultimately lead to the demise of central nervous system integrity. A high-mesembrine Sceletium tortuosum extract was recently shown to possess cytoprotective and mild anti-inflammatory properties in monocytes and to target specific p450 enzymes to reduce adrenal glucocorticoid synthesis...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Anja Püschel, Rasmus Ebel, Patricia Fuchs, Janet Hofmann, Jochen K Schubert, Jan P Roesner, Stefan Bergt, Andreas Wree, Brigitte Vollmar, Ernst Klar, Carsten M Bünger, Sabine Kischkel
BACKROUND: Paraplegia due to spinal cord ischemia (SCI) is a serious complication after repair of thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysms. For prevention and early treatment of spinal ischemia intraoperative monitoring of spinal cord integrity is essential. This study was intended to improve recognition of SCI through a combination of transcranial motor-evoked potentials (tc-MEPs), serum markers and innovative breath analysis. METHODS: In nine female German landrace pigs, tc-MEPs were captured, markers of neuronal damage were determined in blood and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were analysed in exhaled air...
March 5, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Matthew Healey, William Rowe, Sofia Siati, Muttuswamy Sivakumaran, Mark Platt
Many diseases are defined by patterns of DNA methylation which result in aberrant gene expression. We present a rapid assay based upon Resistive Pulse Sensing, RPS, to characterise sequence specific DNA methylation sites in genomic DNA. We modify the surface of superparamagnetic beads, SPBs, with DNA (capture probe). The particles are added to solution where they bind to and extract sequence specific DNA (Target DNA). The target loaded SPBs are then incubated with antibodies which bind to the methylation sites, and the velocity of the SPBs through the nanopore reveal the number and location of the epigenetic markers within the target...
March 7, 2018: ACS Sensors
Mohammad Reza Akbari, Ali Ahmadi, Shiva Mirkalantari, Jafar Salimian
BACKGROUND: Regarding to the importance of cholera in Iran and the potential advantages of egg yolk antibody (IgY) for immunotherapy, the aim of this study was to produce IgY antibody against V. cholerae Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and determine its potential for V. cholerae treatment. METHODS: LPS was prepared, and the Anti-V. cholerae LPS IgY was purified from egg yolk and serially diluted in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), mixed with V. cholerae and then gavaged into several groups of suckling mice...
February 2018: Journal of the National Medical Association
Mae O Gordon, Michael A Kass
PURPOSE: To utilize results from the Ocular Hypertension Study that can aid patients and clinicians to make evidence based decisions about the management of ocular hypertension DESIGN: 1636 participants with ocular hypertension were randomized to treatment with topical ocular hypotensive treatment or close observation. The goal of treatment was a 20% reduction in intraocular pressure and an intraocular pressure of < 24 mmHg. After a mean of 7.5 years, participants in the observation group also received treatment...
February 28, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Johannes J Fagan
Surgeons in sub-Saharan Africa face different challenges than those in developed countries: extreme shortages of otolaryngologists, speech pathologists, and audiologists; lack of training opportunities; and a paucity of otolaryngology services aggravated by population growth and aging. In addition to common Western diseases, patients have otolaryngology complications related to the human immunodeficiency virus, tuberculosis, malaria, and trauma. Less than 5% of the population has access to timely, safe, affordable surgery; 29 out of 52 African countries have no radiotherapy services...
February 27, 2018: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
Tania Pietrzak, Christina Lohr, Beverly Jahn, Gernot Hauke
We make the case for the possible integration of affect experience induced via embodiment techniques with CBT for the treatment of emotional disorders in clinical settings. Theoretically we propose a possible integration of cognitive behavioural theory, neuroscience, embodied cognition and important processes of client change outcomes such as the therapeutic alliance to enhance client outcomes. We draw from evidence of bidirectional effects between embodiment modes of bottom-up (sensory-motor simulations giving rise to important basis of knowledge) and top-down (abstract mental representations of knowledge) processes such as CBT in psychotherapy...
February 26, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Gulseren Citak Tunc, Gulay Gorak, Nurcan Ozyazicioglu, Bedriye Ak, Ozlem Isil, Pinar Vural
Measurement instruments are needed to assess the child's sexual abuse prevention program. The purpose of the study was to determine the reliability and validity of the WIST (What If Situations Test) for Turkish culture. Participants were children of the 3-6 age group attending pre-school education institutions and the sample size was identified by means of a power analysis. Seventy children were identified as the sample with 0.85 power and 0.05 type I error according to the power analysis. Language validity, content validity, internal validity coefficient (Cronbach alpha coefficient), and test-retest analyses were conducted in terms of validity and reliability in the scope of efforts for adaptation to Turkish culture...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
Yi Yang, Yanpeng Jia, Yao Xiao, Ying Hao, Lan Zhang, Xiaoxin Chen, Jian He, Yongxiang Zhao, Zhiyong Qian
Anti-microRNA-155 (anti-miR-155), an oligonucleotide with a complimentary sequence to microRNA-155, holds great promise for lung cancer therapy, and thus some cationic materials have been used to deliver anti-miR-155 into lung tumors. Although the gene delivery capacity in vitro was favorable, the application in vivo was limited by rapid removal and significant cytotoxicity, which were mainly caused by the positive charge of the gene complexes. Therefore, it was necessary to develop a novel carrier to decrease the positive charge and increase the gene delivery capacity into the tumor site...
February 28, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Ansuya, Baby S Nayak, B Unnikrishnan, Anice George, Shashidhara Y N, Suneel C Mundkur, Vasudev Guddattu
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of malnutrition among children in developing countries is very high. As a step towards reducing the prevalence of malnutrition, there is a need to identify the important determinants of malnutrition in the specific population so that preventive and control measures can be implemented. The objective of the study is to determine the risk factors for malnutrition among preschool children in Rural Karnataka, South India. METHODS: A case-control study was carried out among preschool children, aged between three to six years, attending the Anganwadi centers and their mothers' in Udupi district of Karnataka, India...
February 26, 2018: BMC Public Health
Barbara J Cade-Menun, Kyle R Elkin, Corey W Liu, Ray B Bryant, Peter J A Kleinman, Philip A Moore
Phosphorus (P) can limit crop production in many soils, and soil testing is used to guide fertilizer recommendations. The Mehlich III (M3) soil test is widely used in North America, followed by colorimetric analysis for P, or by inductively coupled plasma-based spectrometry (ICP) for P and cations. However, differences have been observed in M3 P concentrations measured by these methods. Using31 P nuclear magnetic resonance (P-NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS), we characterized P forms in M3 extracts. In addition to the orthophosphate that would be detected during colorimetric analysis, several organic P forms were present in M3 extracts that would be unreactive colorimetrically but measured by ICP (molybdate unreactive P, MUP)...
February 21, 2018: Geochemical Transactions
Ceren Aksoy, Feride Severcan
The effect of aging process on stem cell function is crucial because of their critical role in tissue regeneration and repair. The impact of aging on stem cells needs to be understood clearly for the success of clinical application and obtaining desired therapeutic outcome throughout the novel stem cell based therapies. The existing methods used to monitor and characterize the stem cells have some unwanted effects on the properties of stem cells and these methods also do not provide real-time information about cellular conditions...
February 21, 2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Ricardo N Dos Santos, Allan J R Ferrari, Hugo C R de Jesus, Fábio C Gozzo, Faruck Morcos, Leandro Martínez, Alfonso Valencia
Motivation: Elucidation of protein native states from amino acid sequences is a primary computational challenge. Modern computational and experimental methodologies, such as molecular coevolution and chemical cross-linking mass-spectrometry allowed protein structural characterization to previously intangible systems. Despite several independent successful examples, data from these distinct methodologies have not been systematically studied in conjunction. One challenge of structural inference using coevolution is that it is limited to sequence fragments within a conserved and unique domain for which sufficient sequence datasets are available...
February 12, 2018: Bioinformatics
Oluseyi Oniyangi, Damian H Cohall
BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease, a common recessively inherited haemoglobin disorder, affects people from sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, Mediterranean basin, Indian subcontinent, Caribbean and South America. It is associated with complications and a reduced life expectancy. Phytomedicines (medicine derived from plants in their original state) encompass many of the plant remedies from traditional healers which the populations most affected would encounter. Laboratory research and limited clinical trials have suggested positive effects of phytomedicines both in vivo and in vitro...
February 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Vasiliki Chatzaraki, Michael J Thali, Garyfalia Ampanozi, Wolf Schweitzer
Fatal car-to-pedestrian collisions regularly appear in the forensic pathologist's routine, particularly in places of extended urbanization. Postmortem computed tomography has gained an exceptional role to supplement autopsy worldwide, giving information that is supplementary or complimentary to conventional autopsy. In this retrospective study, a total number of 320 findings in a series of 21 pedestrians fatally hit by cars and trucks of both postmortem computed tomography and autopsy were correlated. According to our results, it is best to combine both methods to give well-founded answers to questions pertaining to both collision reconstruction and cause of death...
February 12, 2018: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
Minsuk Kim, Beom Gi Park, Joonwon Kim, Jin Young Kim, Byung-Gee Kim
Transcriptomics is now recognized as a primary tool for metabolic engineering as it can be used for identifying new strain designs by diagnosing current states of microbial cells. This review summarizes current application of transcriptomic data for strain design. Along with a few successful examples, limitations of conventionally used differentially expressed gene-based strain design approaches have been discussed, which have been major reasons why transcriptomic data are considerably underutilized. Recently, integrative network-based approaches interpreting transcriptomic data in the context of biological networks were invented to provide complimentary solutions for metabolic engineering by overcoming the limitations of conventional approaches...
February 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
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