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Temperament

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784756/clinical-features-of-children-with-autism-who-passed-18-month-screening
#1
Roald A Øien, Synnve Schjølberg, Fred R Volkmar, Frederick Shic, Domenic V Cicchetti, Anders Nordahl-Hansen, Nina Stenberg, Mady Hornig, Alexandra Havdahl, Anne-Siri Øyen, Pamela Ventola, Ezra S Susser, Martin R Eisemann, Katarzyna Chawarska
OBJECTIVES: We compared sex-stratified developmental and temperamental profiles at 18 months in children screening negative for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) on the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) but later receiving diagnoses of ASD (false-negative group) versus those without later ASD diagnoses (true-negative group). METHODS: We included 68 197 screen-negative cases from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (49.1% girls). Children were screened by using the 6 critical items of the M-CHAT at 18 months...
May 21, 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783936/identifying-and-assessing-the-benefits-of-interventions-for-postnatal-depression-a-systematic-review-of-economic-evaluations
#2
Binu Gurung, Louise J Jackson, Mark Monahan, Ruth Butterworth, Tracy E Roberts
BACKGROUND: Economic evaluations of interventions for postnatal depression (PND) are essential to ensure optimal healthcare decision-making. Due to the wide-ranging effects of PND on the mother, baby and whole family, there is a need to include outcomes for all those affected and to include health and non-health outcomes for accurate estimates of cost-effectiveness. This study aimed to identify interventions to prevent or treat PND for which an economic evaluation had been conducted and to evaluate the health and non-health outcomes included...
May 21, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766543/assessing-preschoolers-interactive-behaviour-a-validation-study-of-the-coding-system-for-mother-child-interaction
#3
R Baiao, J Baptista, A Carneiro, R Pinto, C Toscano, P Fearon, I Soares, A R Mesquita
BACKGROUND: The preschool years are a period of great developmental achievements, which impact critically on a child's interactive skills. Having valid and reliable measures to assess interactive behaviour at this stage is therefore crucial. The aim of this study was to describe the adaptation and validation of the child coding of the Coding System for Mother-Child Interactions and discuss its applications and implications in future research and practice. METHODS: Two hundred twenty Portuguese preschoolers and their mothers were videotaped during a structured task...
May 15, 2018: Child: Care, Health and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764524/a-qualitative-examination-of-the-factors-related-to-the-development-and-maintenance-of-insomnia-in-cancer-survivors
#4
Sheila N Garland, Frances K Barg, Brigid Cakouros, Philip Gehrman, Katherine N DuHamel, Jun J Mao
OBJECTIVE: Insomnia is underrecognized and inadequately managed, with close to 60% of cancer survivors experiencing insomnia at some point in the treatment trajectory. The objective of this study was to further understand predisposing, precipitating, and perpetuating factors in the development and maintenance of insomnia in cancer survivors. METHOD: A heterogeneous sample of 63 patients who had completed active treatment was recruited. Participants were required to have a score >7 on the Insomnia Severity Index and meet the diagnostic criteria for insomnia disorder...
May 16, 2018: Palliative & Supportive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762711/use-of-random-regression-to-estimate-genetic-parameters-of-temperament-across-an-age-continuum-in-a-crossbred-cattle-population
#5
B P Littlejohn, D G Riley, T H Welsh, R D Randel, S T Willard, R C Vann
The objective was to estimate genetic parameters of temperament in beef cattle across an age continuum. The population consisted predominantly of Brahman-British crossbred cattle. Temperament was quantified by: 1) pen score (PS), the reaction of a calf to a single experienced evaluator on a scale of 1 to 5 (1 = calm, 5 = excitable); 2) exit velocity (EV), the rate (m/sec) at which a calf traveled 1.83 m upon exiting a squeeze chute; and 3) temperament score (TS), the numerical average of PS and EV. Covariates included days of age and proportion of Bos indicus in the calf and dam...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761836/acceptability-and-caregiver-reported-outcomes-for-young-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-whose-parents-attended-a-preventative-population-based-intervention-for-anxiety-a-pilot-study
#6
Natalie L Bischof, Ronald M Rapee, Kristelle Hudry, Jordana K Bayer
This pilot study explored acceptability to parents and outcomes for children of a preventive intervention for anxiety problems in pre-schoolers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who were an identified sub-group within a population-based randomised trial of the Cool Little Kids parenting group programme. The population trial included 545 temperamentally inhibited pre-schoolers recruited across eight economically diverse areas of Melbourne, Australia. Within this sample, 26 parents reported that their child had received an ASD diagnosis...
May 15, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759025/impact-of-infant-supraglottoplasty-on-quality-of-life
#7
Nathan D Vandjelovic, Jason R Brown, Henri T Traboulsi, Prasad John Thottam
Objectives The objective of the present study is to examine the impact of supraglottoplasty on the quality of life (QOL) of caregivers and infants with severe laryngomalacia and moderate laryngomalacia with feeding difficulties. Study Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Tertiary children's hospital. Subjects and Methods Thirty-nine infants who underwent supraglottoplasty were examined. The primary caregiver answered the 47-item short form of the Infant and Toddler Quality of Life Questionnaire-47 pre- and postoperatively; the subsection scores were compared...
May 1, 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751240/temperament-clusters-associate-with-anxiety-disorder-comorbidity-in-depression
#8
Vesa Paavonen, Kaisa Luoto, Antero Lassila, Esa Leinonen, Olli Kampman
BACKGROUND: Individual temperament is associated with psychiatric morbidity and could explain differences in psychiatric comorbidities. We investigated the association of temperament profile clusters with anxiety disorder comorbidity in patients with depression. METHODS: We assessed the temperament of 204 specialized care-treated depressed patients with the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI-R) and their diagnoses with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750979/ketamine-facilitates-extinction-of-avoidance-behavior-and-enhances-synaptic-plasticity-in-a-rat-model-of-anxiety-vulnerability-implications-for-the-pathophysiology-and-treatment-of-anxiety-disorders
#9
Ashley M Fortress, Ian M Smith, Kevin C H Pang
Anxiety disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) share a common feature of pathological avoidance behavior. The Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat has been used as a model of anxiety vulnerability, expressing a behaviorally inhibited temperament, acquiring avoidance behavior more rapidly and displaying extinction-resistant avoidance compared to Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Subanesthetic levels of ketamine have gained attention as a rapid antidepressant in treatment-resistant depression. While traditional antidepressants are commonly used to treat anxiety disorders and PTSD, the therapeutic utility of ketamine for these disorders is much less understood...
May 8, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750619/a-study-of-the-relationship-of-parenting-styles-child-temperament-and-operatory-behavior-in-healthy-children
#10
Amanda K Tsoi, Stephen Wilson, S Thikkurissy
AIM: The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship of the child's temperament, parenting styles, and parents' prediction of their child's behavior in the dental setting. STUDY DESIGN: Subjects were healthy children 4-12 years of age attending a dental clinic. A Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ) was given to parents to determine their parenting style. Parents completed the Emotionality, Activity, Sociability Temperament (EAS) survey to measure their child's temperament...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749666/adverse-adult-consequences-of-different-alcohol-use-patterns-in-adolescence-an-integrative-analysis-of-data-to-age-30-years-from-four-australasian-cohorts
#11
Edmund Silins, L John Horwood, Jake M Najman, George C Patton, John W Toumbourou, Craig A Olsson, Delyse M Hutchinson, Louisa Degenhardt, David Fergusson, Denise Becker, Joseph M Boden, Rohan Borschmann, Maria Plotnikova, George J Youssef, Robert J Tait, Philip Clare, Wayne D Hall, Richard P Mattick
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Studies have linked adolescent alcohol use with adverse consequences in adulthood; yet it is unclear how strong the associations are and to what extent they may be due to confounding. Our aim was to estimate the strength of association between different patterns of adolescent drinking and longer-term psychosocial harms taking into account individual, family, and peer factors. DESIGN: Participant-level data were integrated from four long running longitudinal studies: Australian Temperament Project; Christchurch Health and Development Study; Mater Hospital and University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy; Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study...
May 10, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748737/psychosocial-risks-for-constipation-and-soiling-in-primary-school-children
#12
Carol Joinson, Mariusz T Grzeda, Alexander von Gontard, Jon Heron
To examine prospective associations between psychosocial problems and childhood constipation and soiling. We used latent classes of constipation and soiling ('constipation alone', 'soiling alone', 'constipation with soiling') extracted from longitudinal maternally reported data on constipation (4-10 years) and soiling (4-9 years) from 8435 children (4353 males, 4082 females) from the ALSPAC cohort. We examined the association between maternally reported psychosocial problems at 2-3 years (difficult temperament, behaviour/emotional problems, temper tantrums, behavioural sleep problems and stressful events) and the latent classes using multinomial logistic regression adjusted for a range of confounders relating to the child and family (reference category = normative latent class with very low probability of constipation/soiling)...
May 10, 2018: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747614/there-is-more-to-mental-illness-than-negative-affect-comprehensive-temperament-profiles-in-depression-and-generalized-anxiety
#13
Irina Trofimova, William Sulis
BACKGROUND: Temperament and mental illness are thought to represent varying degrees along the same continuum of neurotransmitter imbalances. A taxonomy of temperament could provide the basis for a new taxonomy of mental illness. Most popular models of temperament, being based heavily on emotionality traits, show very poor ability to discriminate between mental disorders. The main goal of this study was to examine whether a temperament model based on modern neurophysiology and possessing an extensive set of non-emotionality traits provides better discrimination between Major Depression (MD), Generalized Anxiety (GAD) and Comorbid MD and GAD, in comparison to emotionality-based temperament models...
May 10, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731696/negative-but-not-positive-parenting-interacts-with-infant-negative-affect-to-predict-infant-approach-evidence-of-diathesis-stress
#14
Jacob B Holzman, Nicole M Burt, Erin S Edwards, Leanna D Rosinski, David J Bridgett
Temperament by parenting interactions may reflect that individuals with greater risk are more likely to experience negative outcomes in adverse contexts (diathesis-stress) or that these individuals are more susceptible to contextual influences in a 'for better or for worse' pattern (differential susceptibility). Although such interactions have been identified for a variety of child outcomes, prior research has not examined approach characteristics - excitement and approach toward pleasurable activities - in the first year of life...
May 2018: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729425/prenatal-material-hardships-and-infant-regulatory-capacity-at-10-months-old-in-low-income-hispanic-mother-infant-pairs
#15
Anne Fuller, Mary Jo Messito, Alan L Mendelsohn, Suzette O Oyeku, Rachel S Gross
OBJECTIVE: Prenatal maternal stresses have been associated with infant temperament patterns linked to later behavioral difficulties. Material hardships, defined as inability to meet basic needs, are important prenatal stressors. Our objective was to determine the associations between prenatal material hardships and infant temperament at 10 months. METHODS: This was a longitudinal study of mother-infant pairs in a randomized controlled trial of a primary care-based early obesity prevention program (Starting Early)...
May 2, 2018: Academic Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723729/cortical-associates-of-emotional-reactivity-and-regulation-in-childhood-stuttering
#16
Hatun Zengin-Bolatkale, Edward G Conture, Alexandra P Key, Tedra A Walden, Robin M Jones
PURPOSE: This study sought to determine the cortical associates of emotional reactivity and emotion regulation (as indexed by the amplitude of evoked response potentials [ERP]) in young children who do and do not stutter during passive viewing of pleasant, unpleasant and neutral pictures. METHOD: Participants were 17 young children who stutter and 22 young children who do not stutter (between 4 years 0 months to 6 years 11 months). The dependent measures were (1) mean amplitude of late positive potential (LPP, an ERP sensitive to emotional stimuli) during passive (i...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Fluency Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722995/from-theoretical-to-empirical-considering-reflections-of-psychopathy-across-the-thin-blue-line
#17
Diana M Falkenbach, Justin Balash, Maria Tsoukalas, Stephanie Stern, Scott O Lilienfeld
The majority of psychopathy research has focused on negative outcomes in criminal populations. However, psychopathy encompasses a variety of traits, and recent research suggests that certain features of psychopathy, such as a fearless temperament, may be related to psychological resiliency, "successful" functioning, and even heroic behavior (Hall & Benning, 2006; Lykken, 1995). Despite anecdotal discussion, little is known about the possible "successful" or adaptive reflections of psychopathic personality traits in ostensible heroes...
May 3, 2018: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722047/the-acceptability-feasibility-and-possible-benefits-of-a-neurobiologically-informed-5-day-multifamily-treatment-for-adults-with-anorexia-nervosa
#18
Christina E Wierenga, Laura Hill, Stephanie Knatz Peck, Jason McCray, Laura Greathouse, Danika Peterson, Amber Scott, Ivan Eisler, Walter H Kaye
OBJECTIVE: Novel treatments for adults with anorexia nervosa (AN) are lacking. Recent scientific advances have identified neurobiologically-driven temperament contributors to AN symptoms that may guide development of more effective treatments. This preliminary study evaluates the acceptability, feasibility and possible benefits of a multicenter open trial of an intensive 5-day neurobiologically-informed multifamily treatment for adults with AN and their supports (SU). The temperament-focused treatment combines psychoeducation of AN neurobiology and SU involvement to develop skills to manage traits contributing to disease chronicity...
May 2, 2018: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719519/psychological-intrusion-an-overlooked-aspect-of-dental-fear
#19
REVIEW
Helen R Chapman, Nick Kirby-Turner
Dental fear/anxiety is a widely recognised problem affecting a large proportion of the population. It can result in avoidance and/or difficulty accepting dental care. We believe that psychological intrusion may play a role in the aetiology and maintenance of dental fear for at least some individuals. In this narrative review we will take a developmental perspective in order to understand its impact across the lifespan. We will consider the nature of 'self,' parenting styles, the details of intrusive parenting or parental psychological control, and briefly touch upon child temperament and parental anxiety...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715443/the-salience-network-and-human-personality-integrity-of-white-matter-tracts-within-anterior-and-posterior-salience-network-relates-to-the-self-directedness-character-trait
#20
Conrad Prillwitz, Theodor Rüber, Martin Reuter, Christian Montag, Bernd Weber, Christian E Elger, Sebastian Markett
A prevailing topic in personality neuroscience is the question how personality traits are reflected in the brain. Functional and structural networks have been examined by functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging, however, the structural correlates of functionally defined networks have not been investigated in a personality context. By using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI), the present study assesses in a sample of 116 healthy participants how personality traits proposed in the framework of the biopsychosocial theory on personality relate to white matter pathways delineated by functional network imaging...
April 28, 2018: Brain Research
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