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Temperament

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640865/association-between-suicide-related-ideations-and-affective-temperaments-in-the-japanese-general-adult-population
#1
Nobuyuki Mitsui, Yukiei Nakai, Takeshi Inoue, Niki Udo, Kan Kitagawa, Yumi Wakatsuki, Rie Kameyama, Atsuhito Toyomaki, Yoichi M Ito, Yuji Kitaichi, Shin Nakagawa, Ichiro Kusumi
BACKGROUND: Suicide rates are vastly higher in Japan than in many other countries, although the associations between affective temperaments and suicide-related ideations in the general adult population remain unclear. Therefore, we aimed to elucidate these associations in the present study. METHODS: We analyzed data from 638 Japanese volunteers who completed both the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego Auto-questionnaire (TEMPS-A)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636575/the-temperament-and-character-traits-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder-and-bipolar-affective-disorder-with-and-without-suicide-attempt
#2
Anamarija Petek Erić, Ivan Erić, Mario Ćurković, Katarina Dodig-Ćurković, Kristina Kralik, Vlatka Kovač, Pavo Filaković
BACKGROUND: Suicide and mood disorders (especially major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar affective disorder (BD)) represent a significant global health burden. Major depressive disorder and bipolar affective disorder have been associated with increased risk for suicide. Some specific suicide risk factors might be found in underlying individual personality traits. Specific personality features may predispose an individual to mood disorders (MDD or BD) hence increased suicide risk...
June 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635343/primary-psychopathy-and-alcohol-pathology-in-college-students-the-role-of-protective-behavioral-strategies
#3
Matthew P Kramer, Brittany L Stevenson, Robert D Dvorak
OVERVIEW: Though not an official diagnosis, psychopathy has become an important area of research due to the litany of deleterious outcomes associated with this aspect of temperament. Psychopathy is composed of primary and secondary traits. Research consistently links psychopathy to alcohol pathology, though often only via secondary traits which are comprised of intractable aspects of behavior (e.g., poor impulse control). In contrast, primary psychopathy is comprised of behaviors that can be learned and thus may be more malleable (i...
February 13, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634224/igh-myc-translocation-associates-with-brca2-deficiency-and-synthetic-lethality-to-parp1-inhibitors
#4
Silvia Maifrede, Kayla Martin, Paulina Podszywalow-Bartnicka, Katherine Sullivan, Samantha K Langer, Reza Nejadi, Yashodhara Dasgupta, Michael Hulse, Daniel Gritsyuk, Margaret Nieborowska-Skorska, Lena N Lupey-Green, Huaqing Zhao, Katarzyna Piwocka, Mariusz A Wasik, Italo Tempera, Tomasz Skorski
Burkitt lymphoma/leukemia (BL) cells carry t(8;14)(q24;q32) chromosomal translocation encoding IGH/MYC, which results in the constitutive expression of the MYC oncogene. Here, it is demonstrated that untreated and cytarabine (AraC)-treated IGH/MYC-positive BL cells accumulate a high number of potentially lethal DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and display low levels of the BRCA2 tumor suppressor protein, which is a key element of homologous recombination (HR)-mediated DSB repair. BRCA2 deficiency in IGH/MYC-positive cells was associated with diminished HR activity and hypersensitivity to poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1) inhibitors (olaparib, talazoparib) used alone or in combination with cytarabine in vitro...
June 20, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633576/trauma-treatment-and-temperament-from-troubling-times-to-troubled-thinking
#5
Philip Boyce
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628773/temperament-and-behavior-in-toddlers-born-preterm-with-related-clinical-problems
#6
Rafaela Guilherme Monte Cassiano, Claudia Maria Gaspardo, Ricardo Augusto de Deus Faciroli, Francisco Eulógio Martinez, Maria Beatriz Martins Linhares
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare temperament and behavior profiles among groups of preterm toddlers differentiated by level of prematurity and the presence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) or retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), controlling for neonatal clinical conditions and chronological age. METHOD: The sample comprised 100 preterm toddlers segregated according to level of prematurity (75 very preterm and 25 moderate/late preterm) and presence of BPD (n=36) and ROP (n=63)...
June 16, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626860/the-longitudinal-associations-among-temperament-parenting-and-turkish-children-s-prosocial-behaviors
#7
Deborah J Laible, Asiye Kumru, Gustavo Carlo, Cara Streit, Bilge Selcuk, Melike Sayil
In Turkey, responsive behaviors toward kin are expected from children. Despite this, we know little about the factors that influence young Turkish children's prosocial behaviors. The goal was to explore how temperament and parenting are related to children's prosocial development in Turkey. A total of 293 Turkish children (Mage  = 49 months; 48.12% females) were followed up for 3 years. Mothers completed measures of their child's prosocial behaviors, as well as measures of their warmth, inductive reasoning, and the child's approach and reactivity...
June 19, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615770/the-mood-spectrum-and-temperamental-instability-in-unipolar-and-bipolar-disorder
#8
Manish Kumar, Pradeep Kumar Saha, Anwesha Mondal
BACKGROUND: The current categorical split of mood disorders in bipolar (BP) disorders and depressive disorders has recently been questioned. The presence of a significant number of manic/hypomanic symptoms in patients with recurrent unipolar depression seems to challenge the traditional dichotomy of unipolar-BP disorder. Two highly unstable personality features, i.e., the cyclothymic temperament (CT) and borderline personality disorder, have been found to be more common in BP disorder than in major depressive disorder...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614435/personality-characteristics-and-bariatric-surgery-outcomes-a-systematic-review
#9
Suelen Bordignon, Mayra Juliana Galvis Aparício, Juliana Bertoletti, Clarissa Marceli Trentini
Introduction: Numerous studies have focused on psychological assessment of bariatric surgery candidates, aiming to identify which psychological variables, including personality characteristics, are related to successful surgical prognosis. Objective: To analyze, by means of a systematic literature review, longitudinal studies that investigated personality traits and disorders as possible predictors of outcomes in bariatric surgery. Method: PsycInfo, PubMed, and Scopus databases were searched for studies published between 2005 and 2015, using the keywords "bariatric" AND "personality...
June 12, 2017: Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614406/learning-from-the-mistakes-of-others-how-female-elk-cervus-elaphus-adjust-behaviour-with-age-to-avoid-hunters
#10
Henrik Thurfjell, Simone Ciuti, Mark S Boyce
In animal behaviour, there is a dichotomy between innate behaviours (e.g., temperament or personality traits) versus those behaviours shaped by learning. Innate personality traits are supposedly less evident in animals when confounded by learning acquired with experience through time. Learning might play a key role in the development and adoption of successful anti-predator strategies, and the related adaptation has the potential to make animals that are more experienced less vulnerable to predation. We carried out a study in a system involving a large herbivorous mammal, female elk, Cervus elaphus, and their primary predator, i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610629/the-use-of-imepitoin-pexion%C3%A2-on-fear-and-anxiety-related-problems-in-dogs-a-case-series
#11
Kevin J McPeake, Daniel S Mills
BACKGROUND: Fear and anxiety based problems are common in dogs. Alongside behaviour modification programmes, a range of psychopharmacological agents may be recommended to treat such problems, but few are licensed for use in dogs and the onset of action of some can be delayed. The low affinity partial benzodiazepine receptor agonist imepitoin (Pexion™, Boehringer Ingelheim) is licensed for treating canine epilepsy, has a fast onset of action in dogs and has demonstrated anxiolytic properties in rodent models...
June 13, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608282/poly-adp-ribosylated-proteins-in-mononuclear-cells-from-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-identified-by-proteomic-studies
#12
Alessandra Giorgi, Italo Tempera, Giorgia Napoletani, Diego Drovandi, Cinzia Potestà, Sara Martire, Elisabetta Mandosi, Tiziana Filardi, M Eugenia Schininà, Susanna Morano, Maria d'Erme, Bruno Maras
AIMS: In diabetes, hyperglycemia increases reactive oxygen species that induce DNA damage and poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase activation. The aim of this study is to characterize the proteomic profile and the role of poly(ADP-ribosylation) in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A proteomic platform based on 2DE and MALDI-ToF spectrometry was applied to peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from two different cohorts in which diabetic (n = 14) and normoglycemic patients (n = 11) were enrolled...
June 12, 2017: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608168/a-unique-path-to-callous-unemotional-traits-for-children-who-are-temperamentally-fearless-and-unconcerned-about-transgressions-a-longitudinal-study-of-typically-developing-children-from-age-2-to-12
#13
Kathryn C Goffin, Lea J Boldt, Sanghag Kim, Grazyna Kochanska
Despite the acknowledged significance of callous-unemotional (CU) traits in developmental psychopathology, few studies have examined their early antecedents in typically developing children, in long-term longitudinal designs, using observational measures. In 102 community mothers, fathers, and children (N = 51 girls), we examined main and interactive effects of children's fearless temperament and low concern about transgressions from toddler to early school age as predictors of CU traits in middle childhood and early preadolescence...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604231/the-psychometrics-of-the-european-portuguese-version-of-the-temperament-and-character-inventory-revised
#14
Paulo A S Moreira, Claude Robert Cloninger, Maria José Rocha, João Tiago Oliveira, Noémia Ferreira, Daniel Maffasioli Gonçalves, Sándor Rózsa
Cloninger's psychobiological model of personality integrates contributions from behavioral genetics, neurobiology, and psychology in the description of the human personality. The temperament and character inventory (TCI) is its assessment instrument. The Brazilian Portuguese version of the TCI has shown good psychometric properties. However, Portuguese spoken in Brazil presents marked and substantial differences to that spoken in Portugal, and no study has yet described the psychometrics of the European Portuguese version...
January 1, 2017: Psychological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604044/dispositional-negativity-in-the-wild-social-environment-governs-momentary-emotional-experience
#15
Alexander J Shackman, Jennifer S Weinstein, Stanton N Hudja, Conor D Bloomer, Matthew G Barstead, Andrew S Fox, Edward P Lemay
Dispositional negativity-the tendency to experience more frequent or intense negative emotions-is a fundamental dimension of temperament and personality. Elevated levels of dispositional negativity have profound consequences for public health and wealth, drawing the attention of researchers, clinicians, and policymakers. Yet, relatively little is known about the factors that govern the momentary expression of dispositional negativity in the real world. Here, we used smart phone-based experience-sampling to demonstrate that the social environment plays a central role in shaping the moment-by-moment emotional experience of 127 young adults selectively recruited to represent a broad spectrum of dispositional negativity...
June 12, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601111/allometric-control-of-affective-fluctuations-in-early-adolescents-their-association-with-anxiety-symptoms-and-temperament-traits
#16
Aina Fiol-Veny, Alejandro De la Torre-Luque, Maria Balle, Xavier Bornas
Many physiological systems are multistable, i.e. they operate at different time scales under an allometric control process. The multistability of affective fluctuations has been clearly illustrated in a sample of adults, but little is known about their dynamics in adolescents. The main aim of this study was to determine whether affective fluctuations in adolescents show multistability and to explore their relationship with anxiety symptomatology and temperamental factors. Twenty-five early adolescents self-reported their daily mood, anxiety and worry levels twice a day over a 100-day period...
July 2017: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600842/a-scoping-review-of-epidemiologic-risk-factors-for-pediatric-obesity-implications-for-future-childhood-obesity-and-dental-caries-prevention-research
#17
Donald L Chi, Monique Luu, Frances Chu
RESEARCH QUESTIONS: What are the non-modifiable (socioeconomic, genetic) and modifiable factors (physical activity, dietary behaviors) related to childhood (under age 12) obesity? How can this knowledge be applied to oral health professionals' efforts to prevent or manage dental caries in children? OBJECTIVES: Studies have identified risk factors for childhood obesity. The purpose of this scoping review was to develop a conceptual model to identify non-modifiable and modifiable risk factors for childhood obesity and to illustrate how these findings are relevant in developing interventions aimed at preventing obesity and dental caries in children...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Public Health Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596748/the-infant-version-of-the-laboratory-temperament-assessment-battery-lab-tab-measurement-properties-and-implications-for-concepts-of-temperament
#18
Elizabeth M Planalp, Carol Van Hulle, Jeffrey R Gagne, H Hill Goldsmith
We describe large-sample research using the Infant Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery (Lab-TAB; Goldsmith and Rothbart, 1996) in 1,076 infants at 6 and 12 months of age. The Lab-TAB was designed to assess temperament dimensions through a series of episodes that mimic everyday situations. Our goal is to provide guidelines for scoring Lab-TAB episodes to derive temperament composites. We also present a set of analyses examining mean differences and stability of temperament in early infancy, gender differences in infant temperament, as well as a validation of Lab-TAB episodes and composites with parent reported Infant Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ; Rothbart, 1981) scales...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595827/the-ovine-motor-cortex-a-review-of-functional-mapping-and-cytoarchitecture
#19
REVIEW
Sam E John, Timothy J H Lovell, Nicholas L Opie, Stefan Wilson, Theodore C Scordas, Yan T Wong, Gil S Rind, Stephen Ronayne, Sébastien H Bauquier, Clive N May, David B Grayden, Terence J O'Brien, Thomas J Oxley
In recent years, sheep (Ovis aries) have emerged as a useful animal model for neurological research due to their relatively large brain and blood vessel size, their cortical architecture, and their docile temperament. However, the functional anatomy of sheep brain is not as well studied as that of non-human primates, rodents, and felines. For example, while the location of the sheep motor cortex has been known for many years, there have been few studies of the somatotopy of the motor cortex and there were a range of discrepancies across them...
June 16, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590204/differentiation-between-schizophreniform-configurations-and-psychotic-personality-structures
#20
Julie Dauphin
The symptom overlap between primary psychotic and severe personality disorders renders timely diagnosis challenging, which often results in ambiguous treatment and poorly defined outcomes. Kernberg's (1984) structural model of personality, treating symptoms as a non-pathognomonic higher order construct, has much contributed to our understanding of the nature of some severe disorders, highlighting fundamental facets of personality function. However, the model's main focus is on borderline personality organization and thus offers an incomplete formulation of psychotic structure...
2017: Psychodynamic Psychiatry
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