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Mirjana Miskovic, Dragan Ravanic, Dragic Bankovic, Nera Zivlak-Radulovic, Visnja Banjac, Tatjana Dragisic
INTRODUCTION: Cloninger's psychological model of temperament and character confirms that the personality development is influenced by biological and psychological processes. The aim of this study is to examine personality dimensions and to determine which variable separates the healthy from the ill in the best way and could be a possible psychological marker for the presence of the illness. METHODS: This research included 152 subjects, 76 patients with schizophrenia and 76 healthy controls, selected on the basis of medical interviews, random population sampling model from a wider social community using the independent T-Tests...
March 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
Ivana Glavina Jelaš, Ivan Dević, Dalibor Karlović
BACKGROUND: the objective of this study was to examine the associations between Cloninger temperament and character dimensions with the DAT1 VNTR and COMT Val158Met polymorphisms. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study was conducted on 101 subjects, consisting of students of the Police College in Zagreb and staff of the Sestre Milosrdnice University Hospital in Zagreb. The Cloninger Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) was used to test personality traits. RESULTS: A main effect of the DAT1 VNTR polymorphism was found on the subscale self-directedness - SD2 (F=5...
March 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
Arthur Bob Karnuah, Gregory Dunga, Arthur Wennah, Walter T Wiles, Edmond Greaves, Roland Varkpeh, Richard Osei-Amponsah, Paul Boettcher
Phenotypic characterization of animal genetic resources (AnGR) involves identification of distinct breed populations, describing their external and production characteristics in a given environment and management, and taking into account the social and economic factors that affect them. A survey involving 346 livestock farmers was conducted in the 15 counties of Liberia to collect data on production practices and phenotypic characteristics of beef cattle. A pre-tested structured questionnaire, focus group discussions, and in-depth interviews were utilized in data collection...
March 15, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Tiffany Field
The increasing prevalence of postnatal anxiety highlights the need for summarizing the recent research on this condition to inform screening and intervention efforts. This narrative review of the literature was derived from a search on PubMed and PsycINFO for papers published since 2010. The demographic risk factors for postnatal anxiety include being a young mother, having more education and being employed. Childbirth risk factors include being primiparous in one sample and multiparous in another, caesarean delivery, fear of the birth and of death during delivery, lack of control during labor, low self-confidence for the delivery and the delivery staff, and premature delivery...
March 12, 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Yaniv Efrati
BACKGROUND: Adolescent compulsive sexual behavior (CSB), and its associations with other personality predispositions (attachment orientations, temperament), gender, religiosity, and psychopathological tendencies. Five alternative empirical models were examined, all based on current theory and research on CSB. METHODS: The sample include 311 high-school adolescents (184 boys, 127 girls) ranging in age from 16 to 18 (M  = 16.94, SD  = .65) and enrolled in the eleventh (43...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy
Emanuela Traini, Rocco Bellantone, Serena Elisa Tempera, Salvatore Russo, Carmela De Crea, Celestino Pio Lombardi, Marco Raffaelli
PURPOSE: Indications and advantages of parathyroidectomy in patients with normocalcemic primary hyperparathyroidism (NHPT) are still matter of debate. We aimed to compare clinical presentation and surgical outcome between normocalcemic and hypercalcemic forms in a consecutive series of patients who underwent parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism. METHODS: Data of 731 consecutive patients were reviewed and retrospectively compared according to normocalcemic (group A) and hypercalcemic (group B) phenotypes...
March 14, 2018: Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery
M G Carta, A Preti, H S Akiskal
Human population is increasing in immense cities with millions of inhabitants, in which life is expected to run 24 hours a day for seven days a week (24/7). Noise and light pollution are the most reported consequences, with a profound impact on sleep patterns and circadian biorhythms. Disruption of sleep and biorhythms has severe consequences on many metabolic pathways. Suppression of melatonin incretion at night and the subsequent effect on DNA methylation may increase the risk of prostate and breast cancer...
2018: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health: CP & EMH
Tiffany G Munzer, Alison L Miller, Karen E Peterson, Holly E Brophy-Herb, Mildred A Horodynski, Dawn Contreras, Julie Sturza, Julie C Lumeng, Jenny Radesky
OBJECTIVE: Excessive screen media exposure in childhood is associated with parent-reported self-regulation difficulties. No studies have used laboratory-based or teacher-reported measures of child self-regulatory behaviors. This study examines cross-sectional associations between preschooler screen media exposure and multiple measures of self-regulatory behaviors. METHODS: Preintervention data were used from 541 preschoolers in the Growing Healthy study, an obesity prevention trial (2011-2015)...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
Irene Tung, Amanda N Noroña, Julia E Morgan, Barbara Caplan, Steve S Lee, Bruce L Baker
Although parenting behavior and friendship quality predict adolescent externalizing behaviors (EBs), individual differences in temperament may differentially affect susceptibility to these factors over time. In a multi-method and multi-informant study of 141 children followed prospectively from toddlerhood to adolescence, we tested the independent and interactive associations of age 3 reactive temperament (e.g., negative emotionality) and age 13 observed parenting (i.e., positive and negative behavior) and friendship (i...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
Lisa B Caruso, Kayla A Martin, Elisabetta Lauretti, Michael Hulse, Micheal Siciliano, Lena N Lupey-Green, Aaron Abraham, Tomasz Skorski, Italo Tempera
The enzyme Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) plays a very important role in the DNA damage response, but its role in numerous aspects is not fully understood. We recently showed that in the absence of DNA damage, PARP1 regulates the expression of the chromatin-modifying enzyme EZH2. Work from other groups has shown that EZH2 participates in the DNA damage response. These combined data suggest that EZH2 could be a target of PARP1 in both untreated and genotoxic agent-treated conditions. In this work we tested the hypothesis that, in response to DNA damage, PARP1 regulates EZH2 activity...
February 13, 2018: Oncotarget
Daphne Stam, Yun-An Huang, Jan Van den Stock
Personality reflects the set of psychological traits and mechanisms characteristic for an individual. Geno-neuro-biologically inspired personality accounts have proposed a set of temperaments and characters that jointly compose personality profiles. The present study addresses the link between neurobiology and personality and investigates the association between temperament traits and regional gray matter volume. Furthermore, the specificity of these associations as well as the underlying components that drive the association are addressed...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Amy J Morgan, Ronald M Rapee, Agus Salim, Jordana K Bayer
Previous research has identified factors related to outcome in child anxiety treatment and parent training programs for child behavior problems. However, it is unclear what factors predict outcomes in interventions delivered online to parents of young children at risk of anxiety. This study investigated predictors of child anxiety outcomes among 433 families with young children (3-6 years) who participated in a randomized controlled trial of Cool Little Kids Online, an eight-module early intervention program for child anxiety based on cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)...
March 2018: Behavior Therapy
Florian Hirsch, Philipp Constantinidis, Ingo Fischer, Sjors Bakels, Anouk Rijs
We investigate the self-reaction of benzyl, C7H7 in a high tempera-ture pyrolysis reactor. The work is motivated by the observation that resonance-stabilized benzyl radicals can accumulate in reactive environments and contribute to the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and soot. Reaction products are detected by IR/UV ion dip spectroscopy, using infrared radiation from the free electron laser FELIX, and are identified by comparison with com-puted spectra. Among the reaction products identified by their IR absorption are several PAH linked to toluene combustion such as bibenzyl, phenanthrene, diphenylmethane and fluorene...
March 12, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Michele Fornaro, Annalisa Anastasia, Francesco Monaco, Stefano Novello, Andrea Fusco, Felice Iasevoli, Domenico De Berardis, Nicola Veronese, Marco Solmi, Andrea de Bartolomeis
BACKGROUND: Treatment-emergent affective switch (TEAS), including treatment-emergent mania (TEM), carry significant burden in the clinical management of bipolar depression, whereas the use of antidepressants raises both efficacy, safety and tolerability concerns. The present study assesses the prevalence and clinical correlates of TEM in selected sample of Bipolar Disorder (BD) Type-II (BD-II) acute depression outpatients. METHODS: Post-hoc analysis of the clinical and psychopathological features associated with TEM among 91 BD-II depressed outpatients exposed to antidepressants...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Amanda K Doughty, Brian J Horton, Nguyen T D Huyen, C Rowdy Ballagh, Ross Corkrey, Geoff N Hinch
We investigated how individuality and lameness altered social organisation by assessing food-directed movement patterns in sheep. One hundred and ninety-six mature Merino ewes were walked in 16 different runs around a 1.1 km track following a food source. Flock position and lameness, were measured and temperament was assessed using an Isolation Box Test. The mean value for the correlations of position between a run and the run preceding it was r = 0.55 ± SEM 0.03. All correlations between runs were positive (r = 0...
March 7, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Shokouhsadat Hamedi, Fatemeh Forouzanfar, Hasan Rakhshandeh, Amirali Arian
OBJECTIVE: In Iranian Traditional Medicine, the herbs with cold and wet temperament can help to improve insomnia. Portulaca oleracea has cold and wet temperament, so the present study was carried out to investigate the sleep-prolonging effect of Portulaca oleracea. METHODS: This work was an experimental study on mice which were randomly divided into these groups: saline (control); Diazepam:) positive control); hydro-alcoholic extract of Portulaca oleracea (12.5, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg/kg) by Soxhlet apparatus and maceration; in the effective (dose25 mg/kg), different fractions of extract were tested...
March 8, 2018: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
Covadonga M Díaz-Caneja, Mª Goretti Morón-Nozaleda, Raquel P Vicente-Moreno, Elisa Rodríguez-Toscano, Laura Pina-Camacho, Elena de la Serna, Gisela Sugranyes, Inmaculada Baeza, Soledad Romero, Vanessa Sánchez-Gistau, Josefina Castro-Fornieles, Carmen Moreno, Dolores Moreno
Shared vulnerability in offspring of individuals with schizophrenia (SzO) and bipolar disorder (BpO) might manifest early during development through common temperament traits. Temperament dimensions in child and adolescent BpO (N = 80), SzO (N = 34) and the offspring of community controls (CcO) (N = 101) were assessed using the Revised Dimensions of Temperament Survey. The association between temperament dimensions and lifetime psychopathology (including threshold and subthreshold DSM-IV-TR diagnoses) and current socio-academic adjustment was assessed using logistic regression...
March 8, 2018: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Thomas H Costello, Ansley Unterberger, Ashley L Watts, Scott O Lilienfeld
Despite widespread assumptions that psychopathy is associated with serious and repeated law-breaking, individuals with psychopathic personality traits do not invariably become chronic criminal offenders. As a partial explanation for this finding, Lykken (1995) ventured that a fearless temperament underlies both psychopathic traits and heroic behavior, and that heroic individuals' early exposure to effective socializing forces such as warm parenting or healthy self-esteem often fosters a characteristic adaption that tends to beget "successful" behaviors, thereby differentiating heroes from convicts...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Raquel Costa, Bárbara Figueiredo
BACKGROUND: Although the original characteristics of temperament tend to remain constant over the course of development, environmental circumstances may influence infants' reactions and behaviour. Parents' reports of infant temperament are rich informants of infant behaviours in different contexts. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the Infant Behaviour Questionnaire - Revised (IBQ-R) and test the adequacy of the original and other previously published structures to the Portuguese data...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology
S Sastre-Riba, T Ortiz
INTRODUCTION: From a differential perspective, high intellectual ability is an expression of intellectual functioning with characteristic functional correlates and structural correlates of the underlying neural activity that suggests an improved executive capacity as a relevant characteristic, highlighting in it a more effective working memory. DEVELOPMENT: The neuroscientific evidences about the neural mechanisms that can explain the differences are analyzed between the intellectual functioning of the high intellectual ability and the typical intellectual capacity...
March 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
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