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Temperament

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352827/political-terrorism-and-affective-polarization-in-black-and-red-terrorists-in-italy-during-the-years-1968-1988
#1
Matteo Pacini, Icro Maremmani
Psychiatric evaluations of violent political crime were mostly performed on a case-by-case basis in a forensic environment, which made them unduly dependent on categories of presumed dangerousness and legal responsibility, rather than on a clinical definition of their mental status. In referring to such "clinical" definitions, the disorder we have in mind is not limited to the major, agitated psychotic manias or mixed states. The presence of a dominant temperament, or protracted hypomania, is enough by itself to explain an individual's engagement in a wide range of activities, not necessarily sociopathic or violent...
January 21, 2018: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352501/predictors-of-beef-calf-temperament-at-weaning-and-its-impact-on-temperament-at-breeding-and-reproductive-performance
#2
V R Kasimanickam, R L Abdel Aziz, H M Williams, R K Kasimanickam
Two experiments were conducted to determine (i) factors influencing calf temperament at weaning, (ii) association between heifer-calf temperament at weaning and temperament at breeding and (iii) effect of heifer-calf temperament on pregnancy rate per artificial insemination (P/AI). In experiment 1, beef cows and their calves (n = 285) from three farms were used. Sire docility estimated progeny difference (EPD) score, birth type (normal or assisted), calf gender, calf behaviour (during 1st 4 weeks) and calf health status (until weaning) were recorded...
January 19, 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349589/associations-between-father-temperament-character-rearing-psychopathology-and-child-temperament-in-children-aged-3-6-years
#3
Zehra Babadagi, Koray M Z Karabekiroglu, Filiz Ucar, Gokce Nur Say, Murat Yuce, Zeynep Gulcin Yildirim
Temperament refers to the totality of individual characteristics present from birth that determine a child's unique style of behavior. Maternal personality and attitudes, one of the factors affecting temperament traits in children, is a frequently investigated subject. However, paternal variables have remained insufficiently studied. The purpose of this study is to investigate the associations between the fathers' temperament, character, attitudes, psychopathology and temperament of the 3-6 years-old children...
January 19, 2018: Psychiatric Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345075/genetic-analyses-of-linear-profiling-data-on-3-year-old-swedish-warmblood-horses
#4
Å Viklund, S Eriksson
A linear profiling protocol was introduced in 2013 at tests for 3-year-old Swedish Warmblood horses. In this protocol, traits are subjectively described on a nine-point linear scale from one biological extreme to the other. This complements the traditional scoring where horses are evaluated in relation to the breeding objective. This study aimed to investigate the suitability of the linear information for genetic evaluation. Data on 22 conformation traits, 17 movement traits, 14 jumping traits and one temperament trait from 3,410 horses tested between 2013 and 2016 were analysed using an animal model...
February 2018: Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Zeitschrift Für Tierzüchtung und Züchtungsbiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329066/association-of-suicidal-risk-with-ratings-of-affective-temperaments
#5
Leonardo Tondo, Gustavo H Vázquez, Gabriele Sani, Marco Pinna, Ross J Baldessarini
BACKGROUND: Ratings of particular temperament-types with the TEMPS-A autoquestionnaire have been associated with suicidal risk, and combinations of such ratings may enhance the association. However, the predictive value of scores for individual temperaments and combinations remains to be quantified. METHOD: We evaluated associations of TEMPS-A ratings for anxious (anx), cyclothymic (cyc), dysthymic (dys), hyperthymic (hyp) and irritable (irr) temperaments, with a history of suicidal acts or reported suicidal ideation in 882 patients with bipolar (BD; n = 509), major depressive (MDD; n = 268) or anxiety (ANX; n = 105) disorders...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314839/interplay-between-hydroxyl-density-and-relaxations-in-poly-vinylbenzyltrimethyl-ammonium-b-poly-methylbutylene-membranes-for-electrochemical-applications
#6
Keti Vezzu', Ashley M Maes, Federico Bertasi, Andrew Motz, Tsung-Han Tsai, E Bryan Coughlin, Andrew M Herring, Vito Di Noto
Anion-exchange membranes (AEMs) consisting of poly (vinyl benzyl trimethyl ammonium)-b-poly (methylbutylene) of three different ion exchange capacities (IECs), 1.14, 1.64, and 2.03 meq g-1, are studied by High-Resolution Thermogravim-etry, Modulated Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Dynamic Mechanical Analysis, and Broadband Electrical Spectroscopy in their OH- form. The thermal stability and transitions are elucidated, showing a low temperature Tg and a higher tempera-ture transition assigned to a disorder-order transition, Tδ, which depends on the IEC of the material...
January 9, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310728/bdnf-and-nrg1-polymorphisms-and-temperament-in-selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitor-treated-patients-with-major-depression
#7
Kadri Andre, Olli Kampman, Merja Viikki, Eija Setälä-Soikkeli, Ari Illi, Nina Mononen, Terho Lehtimäki, Esa Leinonen
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the separate effects of and possible interactions between the functional polymorphisms of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) rs11030101, BDNF rs61888800, and neuregulin-1 (NRG1) rs3924999 and NRG1 rs6994992 on change of temperament scores in a clinical sample of subjects with major depression (MDD), who received selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment for a period of 6 weeks. METHODS: The study population consisted of 98 Finnish individuals with MDD...
January 9, 2018: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309654/concurrent-and-longitudinal-associations-among-temperament-parental-feeding-styles-and-selective-eating-in-a-preschool-sample
#8
Katherine M Kidwell, Chelsea Kozikowski, Taylor Roth, Alyssa Lundahl, Timothy D Nelson
Objective: To examine the associations among negative/reactive temperament, feeding styles, and selective eating in a sample of preschoolers because preschool eating behaviors likely have lasting implications for children's health. Methods: A community sample of preschoolers aged 3-5 years (M = 4.49 years, 49.5% female, 75.7% European American) in the Midwest of the United States was recruited to participate in the study (N = 297). Parents completed measures of temperament and feeding styles at two time points 6 months apart...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304427/longitudinal-associations-of-temperament-and-character-with-paranoid-ideation-a-population-based-study
#9
Aino Saarinen, Tom Rosenström, Mirka Hintsanen, Christian Hakulinen, Laura Pulkki-Råback, Terho Lehtimäki, Olli T Raitakari, Claude Robert Cloninger, Liisa Keltikangas-Järvinen
The aim of this study was to examine (a) the associations of temperament and character dimensions with paranoid ideation over a 15-year follow-up in the general population (b) the associations of explosive temperament and organized character profiles with paranoid ideation. 2137 subjects of the Young Finns Study completed the Temperament and Character Inventory and the Paranoid Ideation Scale of the Symptom Checklist-90 Revised in 1997, 2001, and 2012. Temperament dimensions of high novelty seeking, high harm avoidance, low reward dependence and explosive temperament profile were associated with the development of higher paranoid ideation...
December 21, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303955/reward-dysfunction-in-the-manic-spectrum-unable-to-win-the-use-of-biographical-information-to-refine-neurobiological-modeling
#10
David A Kahn
OBJECTIVE: The manic spectrum is thought to be characterized by a hypersensitive biobehavioral reward system, the behavioral activation system. Evidence for this framework comes from questionnaire-based, self-report data collected in cross-sectional and prospective studies of mania, mania in remission, and proneness to hypomania, and from functional neuroimaging investigations of brain reward circuit activity during incentivized choice protocols. Although heightened reward anticipation is consistently documented, the status of later goal attainment activity, hedonic responses, and satiety reactions is less clear...
November 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303954/reward-dysfunction-in-the-manic-spectrum-unable-to-win-the-use-of-biographical-information-to-refine-neurobiological-modeling
#11
John F Gottlieb
OBJECTIVE: The manic spectrum is thought to be characterized by a hypersensitive biobehavioral reward system, the behavioral activation system. Evidence for this framework comes from questionnaire-based, self-report data collected in cross-sectional and prospective studies of mania, mania in remission, and proneness to hypomania, and from functional neuroimaging investigations of brain reward circuit activity during incentivized choice protocols. Although heightened reward anticipation is consistently documented, the status of later goal attainment activity, hedonic responses, and satiety reactions is less clear...
November 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303918/suicidal-risk-and-affective-temperaments-evaluated-with-the-temps-a-scale-a-systematic-review
#12
Gustavo H Vázquez, Xenia Gonda, María Lolich, Leonardo Tondo, Ross J Baldessarini
BACKGROUND: Among risk factors for suicidal behavior, there is growing interest in associations with stable affective temperament types, particularly based on assessment with the TEMPS-A self-rating scale. AIM: As research on this topic has not been reviewed systematically, we synthesized relevant, reported research findings. METHODS: Systematic searching identified peer-reviewed reports pertaining to associations of suicidal behavior or ideation with affective temperament types evaluated with TEMPS-A...
January 2018: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298035/vacuum-ultraviolet-photovoltaic-detector
#13
Wei Zheng, Richeng Lin, Junxue Ran, Zhaojun Zhang, Xu Ji, Feng Huang
Over the past two decades, solar- and astro-physicists and material scientists have been researching and developing new-generation semiconductor-based vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) detectors with low power consumption and small size for replacing traditional heavy and high-energy-consuming microchannel-detection-systems, to study the formation and evolution of stars. However, the most desirable semiconductor-based VUV photovoltaic detector capable of achieving zero-power-consumption, has not yet been achieved. With high-crystallinity multi-step epitaxial grown AlN as VUV-absorbing layer for photogenerated carriers, and p-type graphene (with unexpected VUV transmittance > 96%) as transparent electrode to collect excited-holes, we constructed a heterojunction device with photovoltaic detection for VUV light...
January 3, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296788/mll-af9-leukemias-are-sensitive-to-parp1-inhibitors-combined-with-cytotoxic-drugs
#14
Silvia Maifrede, Esteban Martinez, Margaret Nieborowska-Skorska, Daniela Di Marcantonio, Michael Hulse, Bac Viet Le, Huaqing Zhao, Katarzyna Piwocka, Italo Tempera, Stephen M Sykes, Tomasz Skorski
PARP1 is required for the maintenance of MLL-AF9 leukemias.PARP1 inhibitors enhance the therapeutic effect of cytotoxic drugs against MLL-AF9 leukemias.
August 22, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294818/impact-of-intimate-partner-violence-on-infant-temperament
#15
Maigun Edhborg, Hashima E-Nasreen, Zarina Nahar Kabir
Intimate partner violence (IPV) during the first year postpartum is common in Bangladesh, and many infants are exposed to hostile and aggressive environment. The aim of the current study was to investigate how IPV (physical, emotional, and sexual) impacts on the mother's perception of her infant's temperament 6 to 8 months postpartum, and whether maternal depressive symptom at 6 to 8 months postpartum is a mediator in this association. A total of 656 rural Bangladeshi women and their children 6 to 8 months postpartum were included in this study...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288186/long-term-early-development-research-in-congenital-heart-disease-leader-chd-a-study-protocol-for-a-prospective-cohort-observational-study-investigating-the-development-of-children-after-surgical-correction-for-congenital-heart-defects-during-the-first-3-years
#16
Hannah Ferentzi, Constanze Pfitzer, Lisa-Maria Rosenthal, Felix Berger, Katharina R L Schmitt
INTRODUCTION: Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common birth defect. Studies on the development of children with CHD point towards deficits in motoric, cognitive and language development. However, most studies are cross-sectional and there is a gap in the knowledge concerning developmental trajectories, risk and protective factors and a lack of research concerning environmental predictors. Specifically, no studies have so far considered the importance of early caregiving experiences and child temperament for the development of children with CHD...
December 28, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286553/the-relationship-between-anxious-temperament-and-harm-avoidance-in-medical-students-and-staffs
#17
Masanao Shirahama, Takeshi Terao, Nobuyoshi Ishii, Koji Hatano, Hirofumi Hirakawa, Kentaro Kohno
AIMS: In order to resolve the equivocal relationship between anxious temperament rated by the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego Auto-questionnaire (TEMPS-A) and harm avoidance rated by the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), the present study aims to investigate whether the anxious temperament scale and the harm avoidance scale are significantly associated with adjustment of relevant factors. Our hypothesis is that anxious temperament may be associated with harm avoidance...
December 29, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276449/extending-models-of-sensitive-parenting-of-infants-to-women-at-risk-for-perinatal-depression
#18
Sherryl H Goodman, Roger Bakeman, Meaghan McCallum, Matthew H Rouse, Stephanie F Thompson
Objective: Recognizing that not all mothers at risk for depression engage in insensitive parenting, this study examined predictors of individual differences in sensitive parenting of infants by mothers with histories of depression, who are at elevated risk for depression during the perinatal period. Design: We examined maternal personal characteristics, context, and early infant temperament as predictors of sensitive parenting. Seventy-six women with a history of major depression were followed through pregnancy and postpartum and observed during play and feeding interactions with their 12-month-old infants...
2017: Parenting, Science and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261676/parenting-style-and-family-type-but-not-child-temperament-are-associated-with-television-viewing-time-in-children-at-two-years-of-age
#19
Anna S Howe, Anne-Louise M Heath, Julie Lawrence, Barbara C Galland, Andrew R Gray, Barry J Taylor, Rachel Sayers, Rachael W Taylor
OBJECTIVES: Despite the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommending that electronic media be avoided in children under two years of age, screen use is common in infants and toddlers. The aims of this study were to determine how parenting style, infant temperament, and family type are associated with television viewing in two-year-old children. STUDY DESIGN: Participants were from the Prevention of Overweight in Infancy (POI) randomized controlled trial (n = 802) (Dunedin, New Zealand)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248823/negative-affect-is-related-to-reduced-differential-neural-responses-to-social-and-non-social-stimuli-in-5-to-8-month-old-infants-a-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study
#20
Anne van der Kant, Szilvia Biro, Claartje Levelt, Stephan Huijbregts
Both social perception and temperament in young infants have been related to social functioning later in life. Previous functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) data (Lloyd-Fox et al., 2009) showed larger blood-oxygenation changes for social compared to non-social stimuli in the posterior temporal cortex of five-month-old infants. We sought to replicate and extend these findings by using fNIRS to study the neural basis of social perception in relation to infant temperament (Negative Affect) in 37 five-to-eight-month-old infants...
December 14, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
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