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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156295/components-of-schizophrenia-liability-are-not-uniformly-associated-with-stress-sensitivity-resilience-and-coping
#1
Christian Ruzibiza, Rebecca E Grattan, Rebekah Eder, Richard J Linscott
Stress sensitization is a candidate final common pathway for the development of schizophrenia. In other psychopathologies, resilience attenuates the stressor-outcome relationships. Therefore, we sought to determine whether resilience moderates the association between stress sensitivity and schizophrenia liability. Undergraduates (n = 230) self-reported cognitive-perceptual, interpersonal, and disorganisation attributes of schizophrenia liability as well as ratings of sensitivity to stress, resilience, and dispositional coping behaviour...
November 14, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155285/parasite-infection-of-specific-host-genotypes-relates-to-changes-in-prevalence-in-two-natural-populations-of-bumblebees
#2
Oliver Manlik, Regula Schmid-Hempel, Paul Schmid-Hempel
The antagonistic relationship between parasites and their hosts is strongly influenced by genotype-by-genotype interactions. Defense against parasitism is commonly studied in the context of immune system-based mechanisms and, thus, the focus in the search for candidate genes in host-parasite interactions is often on immune genes. In this study, we investigated the association between prevalence of parasite infection and host mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes in two natural populations of bumblebees (Bombus terrestris)...
November 16, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154892/reflection-on-the-role-of-the-spirit-in-finding-meaning-and-healing-as-clincians
#3
Carolyn Jacobs
Reflections on the Role of the Spirit in Finding Meaning and Healing as Clinicians is based on a presentation for the George Washington Spirituality and Health Summer Institute July 13, 2017. The presentation invited health care professionals to explore contemplative practices as ways to invite the Spirit into strengthening their resilience in caring for themselves and others. As clinicians there is often a longing to be grounded in a regular contemplative practice centering one's inner life and to acknowledge the creative energy of the Spirit in relationships...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154621/sensory-constraints-on-perceptual-simulation-during-sentence-reading
#4
Xuefei Gao, Ting Jiang
Resource-constrained models of language processing predict that perceptual simulation during language understanding would be compromised by sensory limitations (such as reading text in unfamiliar/difficult font), whereas strong versions of embodied theories of language would predict that simulating perceptual symbols in language would not be impaired even under sensory-constrained situations. In 2 experiments, sensory decoding difficulty was manipulated by using easy and hard fonts to study perceptual simulation during sentence reading (Zwaan, Stanfield, & Yaxley, 2002)...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154596/the-moderating-role-of-trauma-type-on-the-relationship-between-event-centrality-of-the-traumatic-experience-and-mental-health-outcomes
#5
Rachel Wamser-Nanney, Kathryn H Howell, Laura E Schwartz, Amanda J Hasselle
OBJECTIVE: Event centrality, or the extent to which traumatic events are perceived to be integral to one's life, has been found to be predictive of trauma-related symptoms, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Less research has been devoted to whether event centrality is related to adaptive outcomes, such as posttraumatic growth (PTG) and resiliency, and psychological well-being (PWB) has not been investigated. Given the unique circumstances of different types of traumas, the relationship between event centrality and posttrauma functioning may differ by the type of trauma experienced...
November 20, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154592/college-females-with-maltreatment-histories-have-atypical-autonomic-regulation-and-poor-psychological-wellbeing
#6
Lourdes P Dale, Samia K Shaikh, Laura C Fasciano, Vanessa D Watorek, Keri J Heilman, Stephen W Porges
OBJECTIVES: This study uniquely examined the impact of maltreatment (without a diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]) on physiological responses to a physical and an emotional stressor. The study sample was composed exclusively of women, because men may differ in maltreatment experience and neural regulation of physiological reactivity. METHOD: Participants were 60 female college students. A significant proportion of the participants reported experiencing childhood maltreatment without a history of PTSD...
November 20, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154569/the-social-transmission-of-risk-maternal-stress-physiology-synchronous-parenting-and-well-being-mediate-the-effects-of-war-exposure-on-child-psychopathology
#7
Galit Halevi, Amir Djalovski, Yaniv Kanat-Maymon, Karen Yirmiya, Orna Zagoory-Sharon, Lee Koren, Ruth Feldman
While chronic early stress increases child susceptibility to psychopathology, risk and resilience trajectories are shaped by maternal social influences whose role requires much further research in longitudinal studies. We examined the social transmission of risk by assessing paths leading from war-exposure to child symptoms as mediated by 3 sources of maternal social influence; stress physiology, synchronous parenting, and psychiatric disorder. Mothers and children living in a zone of continuous war were assessed in early childhood (1...
November 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154559/stress-and-cultural-resilience-among-low-income-latino-adolescents-impact-on-daily-mood
#8
Stephanie A Torres, Catherine DeCarlo Santiago
OBJECTIVES: Given that Latino adolescents endorse more negative mood when compared to their counterparts of other backgrounds (Kann et al., 2016), it is important to evaluate the impact of risk and resilience factors on negative mood among this population. The current study uses daily diary methodology to examine the associations that daily economic stress, daily family stress, familism, and ethnic identity commitment and exploration have with average daily negative mood and variability in daily negative mood...
November 20, 2017: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154558/pilot-evaluation-of-a-resilience-training-program-for-people-with-multiple-sclerosis
#9
Kenneth I Pakenham, Matthew Mawdsley, Felicity L Brown, Nicola W Burton
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility and psychosocial outcomes of an Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT)-based group resilience training program for people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). Research Method/Design: The study used a pre-post group intervention design with 3-month follow-up. The intervention consisted of 8 group sessions of 2.5 hours each with 7 weekly sessions plus a booster Session 5 weeks later. Thirty-seven PwMS completed questionnaires. Primary psychosocial outcomes were resilience, quality of life (QoL), and distress...
November 20, 2017: Rehabilitation Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154406/promoting-resilience-among-african-american-girls-racial-identity-as-a-protective-factor
#10
Sheretta T Butler-Barnes, Seanna Leath, Amber Williams, Christy Byrd, Rona Carter, Tabbye M Chavous
This study examines school climate, racial identity beliefs, and achievement motivation beliefs within a cultural-ecological and risk and resilience framework. Data were drawn from a longitudinal study of 733 (Mage  = 14.49) African American adolescent girls. A linear mixed effects model was used to determine if racial identity dimensions moderated the relationship between school climate and achievement motivation beliefs across four waves. Results revealed that racial identity (private regard and racial centrality) and ideology (nationalist) beliefs were associated with higher achievement motivation beliefs over time, while racial centrality and private regard, and a sense of belonging served as protective factors...
November 20, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154403/paleo-inspired-systems-durability-sustainability-and-remarkable-properties
#11
Loïc Bertrand, Claire Gervais, Admir Masic, Luc Robbiola
We designate as paleo-inspiration, the process of mimicking properties of specific interest (mechanical, optical, structural, etc.) observed in ancient and historical systems. For instance, recovery in archaeology or paleontology identifies materials that are a posteriori extremely resilient to alteration. This is all the more enthusing that many ancient materials were synthesized in soft chemical ways, often using low energy resources, and sometimes rudimentary manufacturing equipment. In this review, we highlight ancient systems as a source of inspiration for innovative conception in the Anthropocene...
November 20, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154280/sisyphus-in-neverland
#12
Isidro Ferrer
The study of life and living organisms and the way in which these interact and organize to form social communities have been central to my career. I have been fascinated by biology, neurology, and neuropathology, but also by history, sociology, and art. Certain current historical, political, and social events, some occurring proximally but others affecting people in apparently distant places, have had an impact on me. Epicurus, Seneca, and Camus shared their philosophical positions which I learned from. Many scientists from various disciplines have been exciting sources of knowledge as well...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154110/authentication-of-eleutherococcus-and-rhodiola-herbal-supplement-products-in-the-united-kingdom
#13
Markus Ruhsam, Peter M Hollingsworth
Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus, Araliaceae) and roseroot (Rhodiola rosea, Rosaceae) are popular herbal supplements which have been shown to improve resilience to conditions such as stress and exhaustion. Using DNA barcoding methods we tested 25 Siberian ginseng and 14 roseroot products which are widely available to UK customers to test whether the herbal ingredient stated on the label is also in the product. All Siberian ginseng supplements contained E. senticosus, however, 36% also contained an Eleutherococcus species other than E...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153531/short-communication-detection-of-lameness-in-dairy-cows-using-a-grooming-device
#14
R Mandel, H Harazy, L Gygax, C J Nicol, A Ben-David, H R Whay, E Klement
Lameness in dairy cattle is a common welfare problem with significant economic implications. All too often, appropriate treatment is delayed or neglected due to insufficient detection of lame cows. Brush usage is considered a low-resilience activity; that is, one that typically decreases when energy resources are limited or when the cost involved in the activity increases, such as during sickness and stress. The aim of this study was to determine the association between brush usage and different degrees of lameness...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153455/could-we-remedy-the-crisis-of-care-by-incorporating-mandatory-group-psychotherapy-in-nurse-education
#15
EDITORIAL
Suzanne Bliss
This paper suggests a tentative proposal for nurse education that may go some way to remedying the 'crisis of care' described by Judge Francis and others. Any viable strategy to improve caring attitudes in nursing students must involve activities across the curriculum that foster self-awareness and empathy. It is suggested that the best way to do this is for all undergraduate nursing students to participate in regular, supervised group psychotherapy sessions as a mandated requirement for registration. This strategy would be helpful in at least two main ways...
November 13, 2017: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153405/describing-genomic-and-epigenomic-traits-underpinning-emerging-fungal-pathogens
#16
Rhys A Farrer, Matthew C Fisher
An unprecedented number of pathogenic fungi are emerging and causing disease in animals and plants, putting the resilience of wild and managed ecosystems in jeopardy. While the past decades have seen an increase in the number of pathogenic fungi, they have also seen the birth of new big data technologies and analytical approaches to tackle these emerging pathogens. We review how the linked fields of genomics and epigenomics are transforming our ability to address the challenge of emerging fungal pathogens. We explore the methodologies and bioinformatic toolkits that currently exist to rapidly analyze the genomes of unknown fungi, then discuss how these data can be used to address key questions that shed light on their epidemiology...
2017: Advances in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152973/epidermal-microfluidic-electrochemical-detection-system-enhanced-sweat-sampling-and-metabolite-detection
#17
Aida Martin, Jayoung Kim, Jonas F Kurniawan, Juliane R Sempionatto, Jose R Moreto, Guangda Tang, Alan C Campbell, Andrew Shin, Min Yul Lee, Xiaofeng Liu, Joseph Wang
Despite tremendous recent efforts, non-invasive sweat monitoring is still far from delivering its early analytical promise. Here, we describe a flexible epidermal microfluidic detection platform fabricated through hybridization of lithographic and screen-printed technologies for efficient sweat sampling and continuous real-time electrochemical monitoring of sweat glucose and lactate levels. This soft, skin-mounted device judiciously merges lab-on-a-chip and electrochemical detection technologies, integrated with a miniaturized flexible electronic board for real-time wireless data transmission to a smart device...
November 20, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152863/using-an-acculturation-stress-resilience-framework-to-explore-latent-profiles-of-latina-o-language-brokers
#18
Jennifer A Kam, Katerina M Marcoulides, Andy J Merolla
With survey data from 243 Latina/o early adolescent language brokers, latent profile analyses were conducted to identify different types (i.e., profiles) of brokers. Profiles were based on how often Latina/o early adolescents brokered for family members, as well as their levels of family-based acculturation stress, negative brokering beliefs, parentification, and positive brokering beliefs. Three brokering profiles emerged: (1) infrequent-ambivalents, (2) occasional-moderates, and (3) parentified-endorsers...
December 2017: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152561/targeted-modulation-of-tropoelastin-structure-and-assembly
#19
Giselle C Yeo, Clair Baldock, Steven G Wise, Anthony S Weiss
Tropoelastin, as the monomer unit of elastin, assembles into elastic fibers that impart strength and resilience to elastic tissues. Tropoelastin is also widely used to manufacture versatile materials with specific mechanical and biological properties. The assembly of tropoelastin into elastic fibers or biomaterials is crucially influenced by key submolecular regions and specific residues within these domains. In this work, we identify the functional contributions of two rarely occurring negatively charged residues, glutamate 345 in domain 19 and glutamate 414 in domain 21, in jointly maintaining the native conformation of the tropoelastin hinge, bridge and foot regions...
November 13, 2017: ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151871/genetic-and-epigenetic-variation-in-spartina-alterniflora-following-the-deepwater-horizon-oil-spill
#20
Marta Robertson, Aaron Schrey, Ashley Shayter, Christina J Moss, Christina Richards
Catastrophic events offer unique opportunities to study rapid population response to stress in natural settings. In concert with genetic variation, epigenetic mechanisms may allow populations to persist through severe environmental challenges. In 2010, the Deepwater Horizon oil spill devastated large portions of the coastline along the Gulf of Mexico. However, the foundational salt marsh grass, Spartina alterniflora, showed high resilience to this strong environmental disturbance. Following the spill, we simultaneously examined the genetic and epigenetic structure of recovering populations of S...
September 2017: Evolutionary Applications
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