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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434542/norepinephrine-in-the-medial-pre-frontal-cortex-supports-accumbens-shell-responses-to-a-novel-palatable-food-in-food-restricted-mice-only
#1
Emanuele Claudio Latagliata, Stefano Puglisi-Allegra, Rossella Ventura, Simona Cabib
Previous findings from this laboratory demonstrate: (1) that different classes of addictive drugs require intact norepinephrine (NE) transmission in the medial pre Frontal Cortex (mpFC) to promote conditioned place preference and to increase dopamine (DA) tone in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAc Shell); (2) that only food-restricted mice require intact NE transmission in the mpFC to develop conditioned preference for a context associated with milk chocolate; and (3) that food-restricted mice show a significantly larger increase of mpFC NE outflow then free fed mice when experiencing the palatable food for the first time...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421336/do-scores-on-the-food-craving-inventory-and-three-factor-eating-questionnaire-correlate-with-expected-brain-regions-of-interest-in-people-with-obesity
#2
Chanaka Nadeeshan Kahathuduwa, Tyler Davis, Michael O'Boyle, Martin Binks
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether subscales of Food Craving Inventory (FCI) and Three-factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) correlate with brain functional magnetic resonance imaging food-cue reactivity (fMRI-FCR) in the brain. METHODS: Thirty-two male and female adults with obesity (19-60years; 30-39.9kg/m2) participated in a 3-week dietary intervention (1120kcal/day from either 1) total meal replacement shakes, 2) portion-controlled typical food. FCI, TFEQ and fMRI-FCR were measured pre- and post-intervention...
January 27, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421324/effects-of-propofol-anesthesia-on-the-processing-of-noxious-stimuli-in-the-spinal-cord-and-the-brain
#3
Gregor Lichtner, Ryszard Auksztulewicz, Evgeniya Kirilina, Helena Velten, Dionysios Mavrodis, Michael Scheel, Felix Blankenburg, Falk von Dincklage
Drug-induced unconsciousness is an essential component of general anesthesia, commonly attributed to attenuation of higher-order processing of external stimuli and a resulting loss of information integration capabilities of the brain. In this study, we investigated how the hypnotic drug propofol at doses comparable to those in clinical practice influences the processing of somatosensory stimuli in the spinal cord and in primary and higher-order cortices. Using nociceptive reflexes, somatosensory evoked potentials and functional magnet resonance imaging (fMRI), we found that propofol abolishes the processing of innocuous and moderate noxious stimuli at low to medium concentration levels, but that intense noxious stimuli evoked spinal and cerebral responses even during deep propofol anesthesia that caused profound electroencephalogram (EEG) burst suppression...
February 5, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413532/adolescent-pruning-and-stabilization-of-dendritic-spines-on-cortical-layer-5-pyramidal-neurons-do-not-depend-on-gonadal-hormones
#4
Josiah R Boivin, David J Piekarski, A Wren Thomas, Linda Wilbrecht
Pyramidal neurons in the neocortex receive a majority of their synapses on dendritic spines, whose growth, gain, and loss regulate the strength and identity of neural connections. Juvenile brains typically show higher spine density and turnover compared to adult brains, potentially enabling greater capacity for experience-dependent circuit 'rewiring'. Although spine pruning and stabilization in frontal cortex overlap with pubertal milestones, it is unclear if gonadal hormones drive these processes. To address this question, we used hormone manipulations and in vivo 2-photon microscopy to test for a causal relationship between pubertal hormones and spine pruning and stabilization in layer 5 neurons in the frontal cortex of female mice...
January 30, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402275/acute-administration-of-beta-caryophyllene-prevents-endocannabinoid-system-activation-during-transient-common-carotid-artery-occlusion-and-reperfusion
#5
Laura Poddighe, Gianfranca Carta, Maria Pina Serra, Tiziana Melis, Marianna Boi, Sara Lisai, Elisabetta Murru, Laura Muredda, Maria Collu, Sebastiano Banni, Marina Quartu
BACKGROUND: The transient global cerebral hypoperfusion/reperfusion achieved by induction of Bilateral Common Carotid Artery Occlusion followed by Reperfusion (BCCAO/R) has been shown to stimulate early molecular changes that can be easily traced in brain tissue and plasma, and that are indicative of the tissue physiological response to the reperfusion-induced oxidative stress and inflammation. The aim of the present study is to probe the possibility to prevent the molecular changes induced by the BCCAO/R with dietary natural compounds known to possess anti-inflammatory activity, such as the phytocannabinoid beta-caryophyllene (BCP)...
February 5, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397534/chronic-methylphenidate-alters-tonic-and-phasic-glutamate-signaling-in-the-frontal-cortex-of-a-freely-moving-rat-model-of-adhd
#6
Erin M Miller, Jorge E Quintero, Francois Pomerleau, Peter Huettl, Greg A Gerhardt, Paul E A Glaser
Glutamate dysfunction has been implicated in a number of substance of abuse studies, including cocaine and methamphetamine. Moreover, in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), it has been discovered that when the initiation of stimulant treatment occurs during adolescence, there is an increased risk of developing a substance use disorder later in life. The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) serves as a phenotype for ADHD and studies have found increased cocaine self-administration in adult SHRs when treated with the stimulant methylphenidate (MPH) during adolescence...
February 3, 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397190/neural-correlates-of-sine-wave-speech-intelligibility-in-human-frontal-and-temporal-cortex
#7
Sattar Khoshkhoo, Matthew K Leonard, Nima Mesgarani, Edward F Chang
Auditory speech comprehension is the result of neural computations that occur in a broad network that includes the temporal lobe auditory cortex and the left inferior frontal cortex. It remains unclear how representations in this network differentially contribute to speech comprehension. Here, we recorded high-density direct cortical activity during a sine-wave speech (SWS) listening task to examine detailed neural speech representations when the exact same acoustic input is comprehended versus not comprehended...
January 31, 2018: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386049/an-open-label-proof-of-concept-study-of-intrathecal-autologous-bone-marrow-mononuclear-cell-transplantation-in-intellectual-disability
#8
Alok Sharma, Hemangi Sane, Nandini Gokulchandran, Suhasini Pai, Pooja Kulkarni, Vaishali Ganwir, Maitree Maheshwari, Ridhima Sharma, Meenakshi Raichur, Samson Nivins, Prerna Badhe
BACKGROUND: The underlying pathophysiology in intellectual disability (ID) involves abnormalities in dendritic branching and connectivity of the neuronal network. This limits the ability of the brain to process information. Conceptually, cellular therapy through its neurorestorative and neuroregenerative properties can counteract these pathogenetic mechanisms and improve neuronal connectivity. This improved networking should exhibit as clinical efficacy in patients with ID. METHODS: To assess the safety and efficacy of cellular therapy in patients with ID, we conducted an open-label proof-of-concept study from October 2011 to December 2015...
January 31, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385102/preventive-effects-of-resveratrol-on-endocannabinoid-system-and-synaptic-protein-modifications-in-rat-cerebral-cortex-challenged-by-bilateral-common-carotid-artery-occlusion-and-reperfusion
#9
Gianfranca Carta, Laura Poddighe, Maria Pina Serra, Marianna Boi, Tiziana Melis, Sara Lisai, Elisabetta Murru, Laura Muredda, Maria Collu, Sebastiano Banni, Marina Quartu
This study aims to evaluate the putative roles of a single acute dose of resveratrol (RVT) in preventing cerebral oxidative stress induced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion, followed by reperfusion (BCCAO/R) and to investigate RVT's ability to preserve the neuronal structural integrity. Frontal and temporal-occipital cortices were examined in two groups of adult Wistar rats, sham-operated and submitted to BCCAO/R. In both groups, 6 h before surgery, half the rats were gavage-fed with a single dose of RVT (40 mg/per rat in 300 µL of sunflower oil as the vehicle), while the second half received the vehicle alone...
January 31, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366699/a-meta-analytical-review-of-brain-activity-associated-with-intertemporal-decisions-evidence-for-an-anterior-posterior-tangibility-axis
#10
REVIEW
Benjamin J Smith, John R Monterosso, Cheryl J Wakslak, Antoine Bechara, Stephen J Read
In temporal discounting experiments, subjects are repeatedly presented with option sets in which they must choose between receiving a small amount of money sooner (SmallerSooner) or a larger amount of money at a more distant point in time (LargerLater). Although over 50 temporal discounting experiments using fMRI are described in literature, there has not been a meta-analysis identifying regions activated when subjects choose SmallerSooner versus LargerLater alternatives. Evidence suggests a prefrontal cortex 'abstraction hierarchy', from abstract planning in more anterior regions to concrete processing in posterior regions...
January 20, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337133/cathodal-tdcs-of-the-bilateral-anterior-temporal-lobes-facilitates-semantically-driven-verbal-fluency
#11
Richard J Binney, Bonnie M Zuckerman, Hilary N Waller, Jinyi Hung, Sameer A Ashaie, Jamie Reilly
In a verbal fluency task, a person is required to produce as many exemplars of a given category (e.g., 'animals', or words starting with 'f') as possible within a fixed duration. Successful verbal fluency performance relies both on the depth of search within semantic/phonological neighborhoods ('clustering') and the ability to flexibly disengage between exhausted clusters ('switching'). Convergent evidence from functional imaging and neuropsychology suggests that cluster-switch behaviors engage dissociable brain regions...
January 11, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304065/bilateral-theta-burst-magnetic-stimulation-influence-on-event-related-brain-potentials
#12
Nuno Pinto, Marta Duarte, Helena Gonçalves, Ricardo Silva, Jorge Gama, Maria Vaz Pato
Theta-burst stimulation (TBS) can be a non-invasive technique to modulate cognitive functions, with promising therapeutic potential, but with some contradictory results. Event related potentials are used as a marker of brain deterioration and can be used to evaluate TBS-related cognitive performance, but its use remains scant. This study aimed to study bilateral inhibitory and excitatory TBS effects upon neurocognitive performance of young healthy volunteers, using the auditory P300' results. Using a double-blind sham-controlled study, 51 healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to five different groups, two submitted to either excitatory (iTBS) or inhibitory (cTBS) stimulation over the left dorsolateral pre-frontal cortex (DLPFC), two other actively stimulated the right DLPFC and finally a sham stimulation group...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249049/tramadol-ameliorates-behavioural-biochemical-mitochondrial-and-histological-alterations-in-icv-stz-induced-sporadic-dementia-of-alzheimer-s-type-in-rats
#13
Dinesh K Dhull, Anil Kumar
Alzheimer disease represents a major public health issue with limited therapeutic interventions. We explored the possibility of therapeutic approach by repurposing of tramadol in a sporadic animal model of Alzheimer's type. Streptozocin (STZ 3 mg/kg; bilaterally) was injected to male SD rats through intracerebroventricular (ICV) route. Drug treatment was started just after streptozocin administration and continued for 3 weeks. The rats were killed on the 21st day following the last behavioral test, and cytoplasmic fractions of the hippocampus and pre-frontal cortex were prepared for the quantification of acetylcholinesterase, oxidative stress parameter, mitochondrial enzymes activity and histological examination...
December 16, 2017: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203455/quantitative-mri-provides-markers-of-intra-inter-regional-and-age-related-differences-in-young-adult-cortical-microstructure
#14
Daniel Carey, Francesco Caprini, Micah Allen, Antoine Lutti, Nikolaus Weiskopf, Geraint Rees, Martina F Callaghan, Frederic Dick
Measuring the structural composition of the cortex is critical to understanding typical development, yet few investigations in humans have charted markers in vivo that are sensitive to tissue microstructural attributes. Here, we used a well-validated quantitative MR protocol to measure four parameters (R1, MT, R2*, PD*) that differ in their sensitivity to facets of the tissue microstructural environment (R1, MT: myelin, macromolecular content; R2*: myelin, paramagnetic ions, i.e., iron; PD*: free water content)...
December 1, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197227/involvement-of-the-middle-frontal-gyrus-in-language-switching-as-revealed-by-electrical-stimulation-mapping-and-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-bilingual-brain-tumor-patients
#15
Joanna Sierpowska, Alejandro Fernandez-Coello, Alba Gomez-Andres, Àngels Camins, Sara Castañer, Montserrat Juncadella, Andreu Gabarrós, Antoni Rodríguez-Fornells
Neural basis of language switching and the cognitive models of bilingualism remain controversial. We explored the functional neuroanatomy of language switching implementing a new multimodal protocol assessing neuropsychological, functional magnetic resonance and intraoperative electrical stimulation mapping results. A prospective series of 9 Spanish-Catalan bilingual candidates for awake brain surgery underwent a specific language switching paradigm implemented both before and after surgery, throughout the electrical stimulation procedure and during functional magnetic resonance both pre- and postoperatively...
November 14, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186679/functional-specialization-of-the-primate-frontal-lobe-during-cognitive-control-of-vocalizations
#16
Natalja Gavrilov, Steffen R Hage, Andreas Nieder
Cognitive vocal control is indispensable for human language. Frontal lobe areas are involved in initiating purposeful vocalizations, but their functions remain elusive. We explored the respective roles of frontal lobe areas in initiating volitional vocalizations. Macaques were trained to vocalize in response to visual cues. Recordings from the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC), the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and the pre-supplementary motor area (preSMA) revealed single-neuron and population activity differences...
November 28, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180006/modulation-of-electric-brain-responses-evoked-by-pitch-deviants-through-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation
#17
Isabelle Royal, Benjamin Rich Zendel, Marie-Ève Desjardins, Nicolas Robitaille, Isabelle Peretz
Congenital amusia is a neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by a difficulty detecting pitch deviation that is related to abnormal electrical brain responses. Abnormalities found along the right fronto-temporal pathway between the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and the auditory cortex (AC) are the likely neural mechanism responsible for amusia. To investigate the causal role of these regions during the detection of pitch deviants, we applied cathodal (inhibitory) transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over right frontal and right temporal regions during separate testing sessions...
November 24, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167833/disorder-specific-and-shared-brain-abnormalities-during-vigilance-in-autism-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#18
Christina O Carlisi, Luke Norman, Clodagh M Murphy, Anastasia Christakou, Kaylita Chantiluke, Vincent Giampietro, Andrew Simmons, Michael Brammer, Declan G Murphy, David Mataix-Cols, Katya Rubia
Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are often comorbid and share similarities across some cognitive phenotypes, including certain aspects of attention. However, no functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have compared the underlying neural mechanisms contributing to these shared phenotypes. Methods: Age- and IQ-matched boys (11-17 years old) with ASD (n = 20), boys with OCD (n = 20), and healthy control boys (n = 20) performed a parametrically modulated psychomotor vigilance functional magnetic resonance imaging task...
November 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157904/anti-fatigue-activity-of-an-arabinan-rich-pectin-from-acerola-malpighia-emarginata
#19
Rafael Roberto Klosterhoff, Luiz K S Kanazawa, Ana L D M Furlanetto, Joao V C Peixoto, Claudia R Corso, Eliana R Adami, Marcello Iacomini, Rosalvo T H Fogaça, Alexandra Acco, Silvia M S C Cadena, Roberto Andreatini, Lucimara M C Cordeiro
A fraction composed of an arabinan-rich pectin was extracted from acerola fruit (Malpighia emarginata) and named ACWS. This fraction presented 93% of total carbohydrate, relative molecular weight of 7.5×10(4)g/mol, galacturonic acid, arabinose, galactose, xylose and rhamnose in 52.1:32.4:7.2:4.8:3.5 molar ratio and had its structure confirmed by NMR analysis. The anti-fatigue activity of ACWS was evaluated using the weight load swim test on trained mice. ACWS was orally administered at doses of 50mg/kg, 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg for 28 days...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135225/regional-variations-of-spontaneous-transient-adenosine-release-in-brain-slices
#20
Scott T Lee, B Jill Venton
Transient adenosine signaling has been recently discovered in vivo, where the concentration is on average 180 nM and the duration only 3-4 seconds. Characterizing transient adenosine release in brain slices would facilitate pharmacological experiments testing formation and function of adenosine. Here, the goal was to compare the frequency, concentration, and duration of transient events in rat brain slices from the pre-frontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus (CA1), and thalamus using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry...
November 14, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
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