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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509934/the-role-of-the-prefrontal-cortex-in-freezing-of-gait-in-parkinson-s-disease-insights-from-a-deep-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-exploratory-study
#1
Moria Dagan, Talia Herman, Anat Mirelman, Nir Giladi, Jeffrey M Hausdorff
Freezing of Gait (FOG) is one of the most debilitating gait impairments in Parkinson's disease (PD), leading to increased fall risk and reduced health-related quality of life. The utility of parkinsonian medications is often limited in the case of FOG and it frequently becomes dopamine resistant. Recent studies have suggested that pre-frontal cortex (PFC) dysfunction contributes to FOG; however, most previous findings provide only indirect evidence. To better understand the role of the PFC, we aimed to investigate the impact of high frequency, deep, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (drTMS) of the medial PFC on FOG and its mediators...
May 16, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507595/differential-therapeutic-effects-of-atomoxetine-and-methylphenidate-in-childhood-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-as-measured-by-near-infrared-spectroscopy
#2
Yoko Nakanishi, Toyosaku Ota, Junzo Iida, Kazuhiko Yamamuro, Naoko Kishimoto, Kosuke Okazaki, Toshifumi Kishimoto
BACKGROUND: The stimulant methylphenidate (MPH) and the nonstimulant atomoxetine (ATX) are the most commonly-prescribed pharmacological treatments for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the drug-specific mechanism of action on brain function in ADHD patients is not well known. This study examined differences in prefrontal hemodynamic activity between MPH and ATX in children with ADHD as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) using the Stroop color-word task...
2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506658/-cognitive-neuroscience-of-aging-explanatory-models
#3
Fabrissio Grandi, Javier Tirapu Ustárroz
The aim of the cognitive neuroscience of aging is the study of brain activity and the cognitive processes associated with age. In order to understand the dynamics of neurocognitive activity in older people, the present review highlights four explanatory models. The first one (HAROLD) highlights brain bilaterality, mainly in the pre-frontal cortex. The second paradigm (PASA) places special emphasis on neuronal polarisation (anterior-posterior). The third model (CRUNCH) relates the manifest activity of the brain to the level of complexity of the task...
May 12, 2017: Revista Española de Geriatría y Gerontología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488021/striatal-reward-sensitivity-predicts-therapy-related-neural-changes-in-alcohol-addiction
#4
Alena Becker, Martin Fungisai Gerchen, Martina Kirsch, Sabine Hoffmann, Falk Kiefer, Peter Kirsch
Individual differences in reward sensitivity along with weakened executive control are characteristic for alcohol use disorder (AUD). Emerging translational models of psychotherapy propose the integration of such neurobiological risk profiles to elucidate the mechanisms underlying behavior change in order to improve intervention efficacy. The primary aim of the study was to investigate whether striatal baseline reward sensitivity can be used as a neurobiological predictor of intervention-specific changes in neural functioning during AUD therapy...
May 9, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472633/the-effect-of-left-frontal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-propranolol-induced-fear-memory-acquisition-and-consolidation-deficits
#5
Mohammad Nasehi, Mozhgan Khani-Abyaneh, Mohaddeseh Ebrahimi-Ghiri, Mohammad-Reza Zarrindast
Accumulating evidence supports the efficacy of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in modulating numerous cognitive functions. Despite the fact that tDCS has been used for the enhancement of memory and cognition, very few animal studies have addressed its impact on the modulation of fear memory. This study was designed to determine whether pre/post-training frontal tDCS application would alter fear memory acquisition and/or consolidation deficits induced by propranolol in NMRI mice. Results indicated that administration of β1-adrenoceptor blocker propranolol (0...
May 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457650/orthostatic-myoclonus-after-brain-tumor-radiation-insights-from-two-lesional-cases
#6
Jeremy K Cutsforth-Gregory, Julie E Hammack, Joseph Y Matsumoto
INTRODUCTION: Orthostatic myoclonus (OM) is a recognized syndrome of gait unsteadiness accompanied by lower limb myoclonus provoked by the assumption of an upright posture. OM typically affects the elderly and is often associated with neurodegenerative disease. We sought to review the clinical and electrophysiologic characteristics of OM due to brain tumor treatment, the first reported lesional cases of this rare disorder. METHODS: The database of the Mayo Clinic Rochester Movement Disorders Laboratory was searched for all patients diagnosed with OM from January 2007 to December 2016...
April 26, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453876/age-associated-changes-in-the-blood-brain-barrier-comparative-studies-in-human-and-mouse
#7
Emily F Goodall, Chunfang Wang, Julie E Simpson, David J Baker, David R Drew, Paul R Heath, M Jill Saffrey, Ignacio A Romero, Stephen B Wharton
AIMS: While vascular pathology is a common feature of a range of neurodegenerative diseases, we hypothesised that vascular changes occur in association with normal ageing. Therefore we aimed to characterise age-associated changes in the blood brain barrier (BBB) in human and mouse cohorts. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry and Evans Blue assays were used to characterise BBB dysfunction (tight junction protein expression and serum plasma protein accumulation), vascular pathology (pericyte loss and vascular density) and glial pathology (astrocyte and microglial density) in ageing neurological control human pre-frontal cortex (a total of 23 cases from 5 age groups representing the spectrum of young adult to old age: 20-30yrs, 31-45yrs, 46-60yrs, 61-75yrs and 75+) and C57BL/6 mice (3 month, 12 month, 18 month and 24 month, n=5/6 per group)...
April 28, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451068/preventing-ptsd-with-oxytocin-effects-of-oxytocin-administration-on-fear-neurocircuitry-and-ptsd-symptom-development-in-recently-trauma-exposed-individuals
#8
Jessie L Frijling
Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating psychiatric disorder which develops in approximately 10% of trauma-exposed individuals. Currently, there are few early preventive interventions available for PTSD. Intranasal oxytocin administration early posttrauma may prevent PTSD symptom development, as oxytocin administration was previously found to beneficially impact neurobiological (e.g. amygdala reactivity) and socio-emotional PTSD vulnerability factors. Objective: The overall aim of this dissertation was to investigate the potential of intranasal oxytocin administration as early preventive intervention for PTSD...
2017: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449649/a-case-of-recurrent-depressive-disorder-presenting-with-alice-in-wonderland-syndrome-psychopathology-and-pre-and-post-treatment-fdg-pet-findings
#9
Tatsushi Yokoyama, Tsuyoshi Okamura, Miwako Takahashi, Toshimitsu Momose, Shinsuke Kondo
BACKGROUND: Alice in Wonderland syndrome (AIWS) is a rare neuropsychiatric syndrome that typically manifests in distortion of extrapersonal visual image, altered perception of one's body image, and a disturbed sense of the passage of distance and time. Several conditions have been reported to contribute to AIWS, although its biological basis is still unknown. Here, we present the first case demonstrating a clear concurrence of recurrent depressive disorder and AIWS. The clinical manifestations and pre- and post-treatment fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomographic (FDG-PET) images provide insights into the psychopathological and biological basis of AIWS...
April 27, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441408/short-term-internet-search-using-makes-people-rely-on-search-engines-when-facing-unknown-issues
#10
Yifan Wang, Lingdan Wu, Liang Luo, Yifen Zhang, Guangheng Dong
The Internet search engines, which have powerful search/sort functions and ease of use features, have become an indispensable tool for many individuals. The current study is to test whether the short-term Internet search training can make people more dependent on it. Thirty-one subjects out of forty subjects completed the search training study which included a pre-test, a six-day's training of Internet search, and a post-test. During the pre- and post- tests, subjects were asked to search online the answers to 40 unusual questions, remember the answers and recall them in the scanner...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428769/individualized-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-treatment-in-chronic-tinnitus
#11
Peter M Kreuzer, Timm B Poeppl, Rainer Rupprecht, Veronika Vielsmeier, Astrid Lehner, Berthold Langguth, Martin Schecklmann
BACKGROUND: Prefrontal and temporo-parietal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in patients suffering from chronic tinnitus have shown significant but only moderate effectiveness with high interindividual variability in treatment response. This open-label pilot study was designed to examine the general feasibility of an individualized fronto-temporal rTMS protocol and to explore what criteria are needed for a more detailed evaluation in randomized clinical studies. METHODS: During the first session of a 2-week rTMS protocol, we applied different rTMS protocols to the left and right temporo-parietal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in 25 tinnitus patients...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424572/functional-sensitivity-of-2d-simultaneous-multi-slice-echo-planar-imaging-effects-of-acceleration-on-g-factor-and-physiological-noise
#12
Nick Todd, Oliver Josephs, Peter Zeidman, Guillaume Flandin, Steen Moeller, Nikolaus Weiskopf
Accelerated data acquisition with simultaneous multi-slice (SMS) imaging for functional MRI studies leads to interacting and opposing effects that influence the sensitivity to blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal changes. Image signal to noise ratio (SNR) is decreased with higher SMS acceleration factors and shorter repetition times (TR) due to g-factor noise penalties and saturation of longitudinal magnetization. However, the lower image SNR is counteracted by greater statistical power from more samples per unit time and a higher temporal Nyquist frequency that allows for better removal of spurious non-BOLD high frequency signal content...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424423/the-antidepressant-like-effect-of-trans-astaxanthin-involves-the-serotonergic-system
#13
Xi Jiang, Keqi Zhu, Quanyi Xu, Guokang Wang, Jiajia Zhang, Rongrong Cao, Jiang Ye, Xuefeng Yu
The antidepressant-like effect of trans-astaxanthin, a compound present rich in algae, was evaluated through behavioral and neurochemical methods. Results showed that trans-astaxanthin treatment significantly decreased the immobility time in force swim test and tail suspension test, but did not influence locomotor activity. Trans-astaxanthin treatment did not effectively antagonize hypothermia and ptosis induced by reserpine. However, pre-treatment with para-chlorophenylalanine abolished the anti-immobility effect of trans-astaxanthin in force swim and tail suspension test...
April 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416039/pig-cognitive-bias-affects-the-conversion-of-muscle-into-meat-by-antioxidant-and-autophagy-mechanisms
#14
Y Potes, M Oliván, A Rubio-González, B de Luxán-Delgado, F Díaz, V Sierra, L Arroyo, R Peña, A Bassols, J González, R Carreras, A Velarde, M Muñoz-Torres, A Coto-Montes
Slaughter is a crucial step in the meat production chain that could induce psychological stress on each animal, resulting in a physiological response that can differ among individuals. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between an animal's emotional state, the subsequent psychological stress at slaughter and the cellular damage as an effect. In all, 36 entire male pigs were reared at an experimental farm and a cognitive bias test was used to classify them into positive bias (PB) or negative bias (NB) groups depending on their decision-making capabilities...
April 18, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415873/structural-brain-changes-in-schizophrenia-at-different-stages-of-the-illness-a-selective-review-of-longitudinal-magnetic-resonance-imaging-studies
#15
Bruno Dietsche, Tilo Kircher, Irina Falkenberg
OBJECTIVE: Schizophrenia is a devastating mental disorder accompanied by aberrant structural brain connectivity. The question whether schizophrenia is a progressive brain disorder is yet to be resolved. Thus, it is not clear when these structural alterations occur and how they develop over time. METHODS: In our selective review, we summarized recent findings from longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging studies investigating structural brain alterations and its impact on clinical outcome at different stages of the illness: (1) subjects at ultra-high risk of developing psychosis, (2) patients with a first episode psychosis, and (3) chronically ill patients...
May 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413706/basic-taste-processing-recruits-bilateral-anteroventral-and-middle-dorsal-insulae-an-activation-likelihood-estimation-meta-analysis-of-fmri-studies
#16
Andy Wai Kan Yeung, Tazuko K Goto, Wai Keung Leung
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Numerous task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have reported the locations of basic taste representations in the human brain, but they usually employed a limited number of subjects (<20) with different methodologies and stimuli. Moreover, the reported brain regions were sometimes inconsistent. Thus, we aimed at performing a meta-analysis of the published data to identify locations consistently activated across studies, and performed a connectivity analysis to reveal how these taste processing regions connect with other brain regions...
April 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407555/thalamocortical-connectivity-in-major-depressive-disorder
#17
Elliot C Brown, Darren L Clark, Stefanie Hassel, Glenda MacQueen, Rajamannar Ramasubbu
BACKGROUND: Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is highly prevalent and potentially devastating, with widespread aberrations in brain activity. Thalamocortical networks are a potential candidate marker for psychopathology in MDD, but have not yet been thoroughly investigated. Here we examined functional connectivity between major cortical areas and thalamus. METHOD: Resting-state fMRI from 54 MDD patients and 40 healthy controls were collected. The cortex was segmented into six regions of interest (ROIs) consisting of frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes and pre-central and post-central gyri...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385921/the-effects-of-physical-exercise-on-non-motor-symptoms-and-on-neuroimmune-rage-network-in-experimental-parkinsonism
#18
Sofia D Viana, Inês R Pita, Cristina Lemos, Daniel Rial, Patrícia Couceiro, Paulo Rodrigues-Santos, Francisco Caramelo, Félix Carvalho, Syed F Ali, Rui D Prediger, Carlos A Fontes Ribeiro, Frederico C Pereira
Parkinson's disease (PD) prodromic stages comprise neuropsychiatric perturbations that critically compromise patient's quality of life. These non-motor symptoms (NMS) are associated with exacerbated innate immunity, a hallmark of overt PD. Physical exercise (PE) has the potential to improve neuropsychiatric deficits and to modulate immune network including receptors for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in distinct pathological settings. Accordingly, the present study aimed to test the hypothesis that PE i) alleviates PD NMS and ii) modulates neuroimmune RAGE-network in experimental PD...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382759/development-of-infant-sustained-attention-and-its-relation-to-eeg-oscillations-an-eeg-and-cortical-source-analysis-study
#19
Wanze Xie, Brittany M Mallin, John E Richards
The current study examined the relation between infant sustained attention and infant EEG oscillations. Fifty-nine infants were tested at 6 (N = 15), 8 (N = 17), 10 (N = 14), and 12 (N = 13) months. Three attention phases, stimulus orienting, sustained attention, and attention termination, were defined based on infants' heart rate changes. Frequency analysis using simultaneously recorded EEG focused on infant theta (2-6 Hz), alpha (6-9 Hz), and beta (9-14 Hz) rhythms. Cortical source analysis of EEG oscillations was conducted with realistic infant MRI models...
April 5, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380532/effects-of-a-simulated-wolf-encounter-on-brain-and-blood-biomarkers-of-stress-related-psychological-disorders-in-beef-cows-with-or-without-previous-exposure-to-wolves
#20
R F Cooke, L R Mehrkam, R S Marques, K D Lippolis, D W Bohnert
This experiment compared mRNA expression of brain-blood biomarkers associated with stress-related psychological disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), in beef cows from wolf-naïve and wolf-experienced origins that were subjected to a simulated wolf encounter. Multiparous, non-pregnant, non-lactating Angus-crossbred cows from the Eastern Oregon Agricultural Research Center (Burns, OR; CON; = 10) and from a commercial operation near Council, ID (WLF; = 10) were used. To date, gray wolves are not present around Burns, OR, and thus CON were naïve to wolves...
March 2017: Journal of Animal Science
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