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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324779/frontocingulate-cerebral-blood-flow-and-cerebrovascular-reactivity-associated-with-antidepressant-response-in-late-life-depression
#1
Margarita Abi Zeid Daou, Brian D Boyd, Manus J Donahue, Kimberly Albert, Warren D Taylor
BACKGROUND: Vascular pathology is common in late-life depression (LLD) and may contribute to alterations in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR). In turn, such hemodynamic deficits may adversely affect brain function and clinical course. The goal of this study was to examine whether altered cerebral hemodynamics in depressed elders predicted antidepressant response. METHODS: 21 depressed elders completed cranial 3T MRI, including a pseudo-continuous Arterial Spin Labeling (pcASL) acquisition on both room air and during a hypercapnia challenge...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319879/how-can-we-explain-the-frontal-presentation-of-insular-lobe-epilepsy-the-impact-of-non-linear-analysis-of-insular-seizures
#2
Koichi Hagiwara, Julien Jung, Romain Bouet, Chifaou Abdallah, Marc Guénot, Luis Garcia-Larrea, François Mauguière, Sylvain Rheims, Jean Isnard
OBJECTIVE: For a decade it has been known that the insular lobe epilepsy can mimic frontal lobe epilepsy. We aimed to clarify the pattern of functional coupling occurring during the frontal presentation. METHODS: We analyzed five insular lobe epilepsy patients. Frontal semiology was predominant for three of them, whereas insular semiology was predominant for the two others. We applied the non-linear regression analysis to stereoelectroencephalography-recorded seizures...
February 13, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304298/exercise-training-and-functional-connectivity-changes-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-healthy-elders
#3
Theresa J Chirles, Katherine Reiter, Lauren R Weiss, Alfonso J Alfini, Kristy A Nielson, J Carson Smith
BACKGROUND: Effective interventions are needed to improve brain function in mild cognitive impairment (MCI), an early stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The posterior cingulate cortex (PCC)/precuneus is a hub of the default mode network (DMN) and is preferentially vulnerable to disruption of functional connectivity in MCI and AD. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether 12 weeks of aerobic exercise could enhance functional connectivity of the PCC/precuneus in MCI and healthy elders...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302036/pharmacological-effects-of-turmeric-on-learning-memory-and-expression-of-muscarinic-receptor-genes-m1-m3-and-m5-in-stress-induced-mouse-model
#4
Aliya Khalid, Rabia Shakeel, Saira Justin, Ghazala Iqbal, Syed Adnan Ali Shah, Saadia Zahid, Touqeer Ahmed
Stress is involved in memory impairment by multiple mechanisms including activation of Hypothalamic-Pituitary Axis, which in turn activates release of corticosterone in blood. Cholinergic system blockade by muscarinic antagonist like scopolamine, also impairs memory. AIM: This study aimed to investigate the effect of turmeric (20mg/kg) on learning and memory and cholinergic system in a mouse model of stress along with cholinergic blockade. METHODS: Restrained stress was induced and cholinergic receptors were blocked using scopolamine in mice...
March 15, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277403/methylphenidate-enhances-grip-force-and-alters-brain-connectivity
#5
Michael King, Laurie H Rauch, Samantha J Brooks, Dan J Stein, Kai Lutz
INTRODUCTION: A central fatigue theory proposes that force output during fatiguing exercise is limited to maintain homeostasis. The self-awareness of the body's homeostatic state is known as interoception. Brain regions thought to play a role in interoception, such as the insular and orbital frontal cortex, have been proposed as sites for the upstream regulation of fatiguing exercise. Methylphenidate (MPH) can improve force output during exercise and may alter central processes during fatiguing exercise...
March 8, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258922/cognitive-behavioral-therapy-lowers-elevated-functional-connectivity-in-depressed-adolescents
#6
Shayanti Chattopadhyay, Roger Tait, Tiago Simas, Adrienne van Nieuwenhuizen, Cindy C Hagan, Rosemary J Holt, Julia Graham, Barbara J Sahakian, Paul O Wilkinson, Ian M Goodyer, John Suckling
Imaging studies have implicated altered functional connectivity in adults with major depressive disorder (MDD). Whether similar dysfunction is present in adolescent patients is unclear. The degree of resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) may reflect abnormalities within emotional ('hot') and cognitive control ('cold') neural systems. Here, we investigate rsFC of these systems in adolescent patients and changes following cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) was acquired from adolescent patients before CBT, and 24-weeks later following completed therapy...
February 16, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246517/longitudinal-intrinsic-brain-activity-changes-in-cirrhotic-patients-before-and-one-month-after-liver-transplantation
#7
Yue Cheng, Li-Xiang Huang, Li Zhang, Ming Ma, Shuang-Shuang Xie, Qian Ji, Xiao-Dong Zhang, Gao-Yan Zhang, Xue-Ning Zhang, Hong-Yan Ni, Wen Shen
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the spontaneous brain activity alterations in liver transplantation (LT) recipients using resting-state functional MRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty cirrhotic patients as transplant candidates and 25 healthy controls (HCs) were included in this study. All patients repeated the MRI study one month after LT. Amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) values were compared between cirrhotic patients (both pre- and post-LT) and HCs as well as between the pre- and post-LT groups...
March 2017: Korean Journal of Radiology: Official Journal of the Korean Radiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228081/the-neurobiology-and-psychiatric-perspective-of-vaginismus-linking-the-pharmacological-and-psycho-social-interventions
#8
Zuri Shahidii Kadir, Hatta Sidi, Jaya Kumar, Srijit Das, Marhani Midin, Najwa Baharuddin
Vaginismus is an involuntary muscle contraction of the outer third of vaginal barrel causing sexual penetration almost impossible. It is generally classified under sexual pain disorder (SPD). In Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th edition, it is classified under the new rubric of Genito-Pelvic Pain/Sexual Penetration Disorder. This fear-avoidance condition poses an ongoing significant challenge to the medical and health professionals due to the very demanding needs in health care despite its unpredictable prognosis...
February 22, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131622/perinatal-nicotine-treatment-induces-transient-increases-in-nacho-protein-levels-in-the-rat-frontal-cortex
#9
Franziska Wichern, Majbrit M Jensen, Ditte Z Christensen, Jens D Mikkelsen, Marjorie C Gondré-Lewis, Morten S Thomsen
The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) regulator chaperone (NACHO) was recently identified as an important regulator of nAChR maturation and surface expression. Here we show that NACHO levels decrease during early postnatal development in rats. This decrease occurs earlier and to a greater degree in the frontal cortex (FC) compared with the hippocampus (HIP). We further show that rats exposed to nicotine during pre- and postnatal development exhibit significantly higher NACHO levels in the FC at postnatal day (PND) 21, but not at PND60...
March 27, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126372/emotion-regulation-related-neural-predictors-of-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-response-in-social-anxiety-disorder
#10
Heide Klumpp, Julia Roberts, Amy E Kennedy, Stewart A Shankman, Scott A Langenecker, James J Gross, K Luan Phan
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by aberrant prefrontal activity during reappraisal, an adaptive cognitive approach aimed at downregulating the automatic response evoked by a negative event. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is first-line psychotherapy for SAD, however, many remain symptomatic after treatment indicating baseline individual differences in neurofunctional activity may factor into CBT outcome. An emotion regulation strategy practiced in CBT is cognitive restructuring, a proxy for reappraisal...
April 3, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122876/multidimensional-prediction-of-treatment-response-to-antidepressants-with-cognitive-control-and-functional-mri
#11
Natania A Crane, Lisanne M Jenkins, Runa Bhaumik, Catherine Dion, Jennifer R Gowins, Brian J Mickey, Jon-Kar Zubieta, Scott A Langenecker
Predicting treatment response for major depressive disorder can provide a tremendous benefit for our overstretched health care system by reducing number of treatments and time to remission, thereby decreasing morbidity. The present study used neural and performance predictors during a cognitive control task to predict treatment response (% change in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale pre- to post-treatment). Forty-nine individuals diagnosed with major depressive disorder were enrolled with intent to treat in the open-label study; 36 completed treatment, had useable data, and were included in most data analyses...
February 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122025/intrinsic-functional-connectivity-alterations-of-the-primary-visual-cortex-in-primary-angle-closure-glaucoma-patients-before-and-after-surgery-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#12
Shenghong Li, Ping Li, Honghan Gong, Fei Jiang, Dan Liu, Fengqin Cai, Chonggang Pei, Fuqing Zhou, Xianjun Zeng
PURPOSE: To investigate the altered intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) of the primary visual cortex (V1) in primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) patients before and after surgery using resting-state functional MRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-five preoperative PACG (pre-PACG) patients and 25 well-matched healthy controls (HCs) were included in this study, and 9 PACG patients were assessed again at least 3 months after treatment (post-PACG). We generated the iFC maps of the seed regions in the centers of the left and right V1 and conducted group comparisons...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113105/reorganization-of-brain-function-after-a-short-term-behavioral-intervention-for-stuttering
#13
Chunming Lu, Lifen Zheng, Yuhang Long, Qian Yan, Guosheng Ding, Li Liu, Danling Peng, Peter Howell
This study investigated changes in brain function that occurred over a 7-day behavioral intervention for adults who stutter (AWS). Thirteen AWS received the intervention (AWS+), and 13 AWS did not receive the intervention (AWS-). There were 13 fluent controls (FC-). All participants were scanned before and after the intervention. Whole-brain analysis pre-intervention showed significant differences in task-related brain activation between AWS and FC- in the right inferior frontal cortex (IFC) and left middle temporal cortex, but there were no differences between the two AWS groups...
May 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101340/pseudo-continuous-arterial-spin-labeling-imaging-of-cerebral-blood-perfusion-asymmetry-in-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-patients-with-first-episode-major-depression
#14
Guangdong Chen, Haiman Bian, Deguo Jiang, Mingwei Cui, Shengzhang Ji, Mei Liu, Xu Lang, Chuanjun Zhuo
Many previous studies have reported that regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) aberrations may be one of the pathological characteristics of depression and rCBF has demonstrated a certain degree of asymmetry. However, studies investigating the cerebral blood perfusion asymmetry changes of drug-naïve patients experiencing their first episode of major depression using pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL) are rare. Ten drug-naïve patients experiencing their first major depression episode and 15 healthy volunteers were enrolled in the current study...
December 2016: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035184/prefrontal-cortical-thickness-deficit-in-detoxified-alcohol-dependent-patients
#15
Sujin Bae, Ilhyang Kang, Boung Chul Lee, Yujin Jeon, Han Byul Cho, Sujung Yoon, Soo Mee Lim, Jungyoon Kim, In Kyoon Lyoo, Jieun E Kim, Ihn-Geun Choi
Alcohol dependence is a serious disorder that can be related with a number of potential health-related and social consequences. Cortical thickness measurements would provide important information on the cortical structural alterations in patients with alcohol dependence. Twenty-one patients with alcohol dependence and 22 healthy comparison subjects have been recruited and underwent high-resolution brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and clinical assessments. T1-weighted MR images were analyzed using the cortical thickness analysis program...
December 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028863/stress-and-gender-effects-on-prefrontal-cortex-oxygenation-levels-assessed-during-single-and-dual-task-walking-conditions
#16
Roee Holtzer, Chelsea Schoen, Eleni Demetriou, Jeannette R Mahoney, Meltem Izzetoglu, Cuiling Wang, Joe Verghese
The ability to walk is critical for functional independence and wellbeing. The pre-frontal cortex (PFC) plays a key role in cognitive control of locomotion, notably under attention-demanding conditions. Factors that influence brain responses to cognitive demands of locomotion, however, are poorly understood. Herein, we evaluated the individual and combined effects of gender and perceived stress on stride velocity and PFC Oxygenated Hemoglobin (HbO2 ) assessed during single and dual-task walking conditions. The experimental paradigm included Normal Walk (NW); Cognitive Interference (Alpha); and Walk-While-Talk (WWT) tasks...
March 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018199/near-infrared-spectroscopy-based-neurofeedback-of-prefrontal-cortex-activity-a-proof-of-concept-study
#17
Beatrix Barth, Ute Strehl, Andreas J Fallgatter, Ann-Christine Ehlis
Neurofeedback is a promising tool for treatment and rehabilitation of several patient groups. In this proof of principle study, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) based neurofeedback of frontal cortical areas was investigated in healthy adults. Main aims were the assessment of learning, the effects on performance in a working memory (n-back) task and the impact of applied strategies on regulation. 13 healthy participants underwent eight sessions of NIRS based neurofeedback within 2 weeks to learn to voluntarily up-regulate hemodynamic activity in prefrontal areas...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992533/grey-matter-microstructural-integrity-alterations-in-blepharospasm-are-partially-reversed-by-botulinum-neurotoxin-therapy
#18
Hanganu Alexandru, Muthuraman Muthuraman, Venkata Chaitanya Chirumamilla, Nabin Koirala, Burcu Paktas, Günther Deuschl, Kirsten E Zeuner, Sergiu Groppa
OBJECTIVE: Benign Essential Blepharospasm (BEB) and hemifacial spasm (HFS) are the most common hyperkinetic movement disorders of facial muscles. Although similar in clinical presentation different pathophysiological mechanisms are assumed. Botulinum Neurotoxin (BoNT) is a standard evidence-based treatment for both conditions. In this study we aimed to assess grey matter microstructural differences between these two groups of patients and compared them with healthy controls. In patients we furthermore tracked the longitudinal morphometric changes associated with BoNT therapy...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929075/long-latency-modulation-of-motor-cortex-excitability-by-ipsilateral-posterior-inferior-frontal-gyrus-and-pre-supplementary-motor-area
#19
Francesca Fiori, Emilio Chiappini, Marco Soriano, Riccardo Paracampo, Vincenzo Romei, Sara Borgomaneri, Alessio Avenanti
The primary motor cortex (M1) is strongly influenced by several frontal regions. Dual-site transcranial magnetic stimulation (dsTMS) has highlighted the timing of early (<40 ms) prefrontal/premotor influences over M1. Here we used dsTMS to investigate, for the first time, longer-latency causal interactions of the posterior inferior frontal gyrus (pIFG) and pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) with M1 at rest. A suprathreshold test stimulus (TS) was applied over M1 producing a motor-evoked potential (MEP) in the relaxed hand...
December 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923733/cognitive-control-of-vocalizations-in-the-primate-ventrolateral-dorsomedial-frontal-vlf-dmf-brain-network
#20
REVIEW
Kep Kee Loh, Michael Petrides, William D Hopkins, Emmanuel Procyk, Céline Amiez
This review centers on the neural mechanisms underlying the primate cognitive control of vocalizations, i.e. the capacity to regulate vocal productions in a goal-directed manner. In both human and non-human primates (NHPs), two main frontal brain regions are associated with top-down vocal control: a ventrolateral frontal region (VLF), comprising the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and ventral premotor region; and a dorsomedial frontal region (DMF), comprising the mid-cingulate cortex, pre-supplementary and supplementary motor areas...
December 5, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
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