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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042073/functional-network-dysconnectivity-as-a-biomarker-of-treatment-resistance-in-schizophrenia
#1
Carolyn B McNabb, Roger J Tait, Meghan E McIlwain, Valerie M Anderson, John Suckling, Robert R Kydd, Bruce R Russell
Schizophrenia may develop from disruptions in functional connectivity regulated by neurotransmitters such as dopamine and acetylcholine. The modulatory effects of these neurotransmitters might explain how antipsychotics attenuate symptoms of schizophrenia and account for the variable response to antipsychotics observed in clinical practice. Based on the putative mechanisms of antipsychotics and evidence of disrupted connectivity in schizophrenia, we hypothesised that functional network connectivity, as assessed using network-based statistics, would exhibit differences between treatment response subtypes of schizophrenia and healthy controls...
October 14, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036632/mapping-compulsivity-in-the-dsm-5-obsessive-compulsive-and-related-disorders-cognitive-domains-neural-circuitry-and-treatment
#2
Naomi A Fineberg, Annemieke M Apergis-Schoute, M Matilde Vaghi, Paula Banca, Claire M Gillan, Valerie Voon, Samuel R Chamberlain, Cinosi Eduardo, Reid Jemma, Sonia Shahper, Edward T Bullmore, Barbara J Sahakian, Trevor W Robbins
Compulsions are repetitive, stereotyped thoughts and behaviors designed to reduce harm. Growing evidence suggests that the neurocognitive mechanisms mediating behavioural inhibition (motor inhibition, cognitive inflexibility) reversal learning and habit formation (shift from goal-directed to habitual responding) contribute toward compulsive activity in a broad range of disorders. In obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), distributed network perturbation appears focussed around the pre-frontal cortex, caudate, putamen and associated neuro-circuitry...
September 23, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986718/frontal-lobe-connectivity-and-network-community-characteristics-are%C3%A2-associated-with-the-outcome-of-subthalamic-nucleus-deep-brain-stimulation-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Nabin Koirala, Vinzenz Fleischer, Martin Glaser, Kirsten E Zeuner, Günther Deuschl, Jens Volkmann, Muthuraman Muthuraman, Sergiu Groppa
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is nowadays an evidence-based state of the art therapy option for motor and non-motor symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the exact anatomical regions of the cerebral network that are targeted by STN-DBS have not been precisely described and no definitive pre-intervention predictors of the clinical response exist. In this study, we test the hypothesis that the clinical effectiveness of STN-DBS depends on the connectivity profile of the targeted brain networks...
October 6, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959200/open-and-closed-skill-exercise-interventions-produce-different-neurocognitive-effects-on-executive-functions-in-the-elderly-a-6-month-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Chia-Liang Tsai, Chien-Yu Pan, Fu-Chen Chen, Yu-Ting Tseng
This study aimed to explore the effects of open- and closed-skill exercise interventions on the neurocognitive performance of executive functions in the elderly. Sixty-four healthy elderly males were randomly assigned to either a closed-skill (bike riding or brisk walking/jogging, n = 22), open-skill (table tennis, n = 21), or control (n = 21) group. Various neuropsychological [e.g., accuracy rates (AR) and reaction time (RT)] and electrophysiological [e.g., event-related potential (ERP) P3 component] measures were assessed during a variant of the task-switching paradigm, as well as an N-back task at baseline and after either a 6-month exercise intervention or control period...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951450/top-down-modulation-of-auditory-motor-integration-during-speech-production-the-role-of-working-memory
#5
Zhiqiang Guo, Xiuqin Wu, Weifeng Li, Jeffery A Jones, Nan Yan, Stanley Sheft, Peng Liu, Hanjun Liu
Although working memory (WM) is considered as an emergent property of the speech perception and production systems, the role of WM in sensorimotor integration during speech processing is largely unknown. We conducted two event-related potential experiments with female and male young adults to investigate the contribution of WM to the neurobehavioural processing of altered auditory feedback during vocal production. A delayed match-to-sample task that required participants to indicate whether the pitch feedback perturbations they heard during vocalizations in test and sample sequences matched, elicited significantly larger vocal compensations, larger N1 responses in the left middle and superior temporal gyrus, and smaller P2 responses in the left middle and superior temporal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, somatosensory cortex, right inferior frontal gyrus and insula as compared to a control task that did not require memory retention of the sequence of pitch perturbations...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941812/enhanced-error-related-negativity-amplitude-in-medication-na%C3%A3-ve-comorbidity-free-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#6
Hema Nawani, Janardhanan C Narayanaswamy, Shrinivasa Basavaraju, Anushree Bose, Sri Mahavir Agarwal, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian, Y C Janardhan Reddy
Error monitoring and response inhibition is a key cognitive deficit in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Frontal midline regions such as the cingulate cortex and pre-supplementary motor area are considered critical brain substrates of this deficit. Electrophysiological equivalent of the above dysfunction is a fronto-central event related potential (ERP) which occurs after an error called the error related negativity (ERN). In this study, we sought to compare the ERN parameters between medication-naïve, comorbidity-free subjects with OCD and healthy controls (HC)...
September 12, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939939/cognitive-performance-change-of-pediatric-patients-after-conducting-frontal-transcortical-approach-to-treat-lateral-ventricular-tumor
#7
Wanchun Zhu, Jintao He, Xiang Li, Lei Wang, Zheng Lu, Chunde Li, Jian Gong
OBJECTIVE: Applying frontal transcortical approach to treat lateral ventricular tumor is one of the most common neurosurgical manipulations. The frontal transcortical approach generally passes through the middle frontal gyrus in which there is no major function involved in the traditional sense. However, current researches have suggested that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a central role in the whole network of the brain cognitive frame. In addition, cognitive function is crucial in growing and developmental stages and essential for the educational achievement, especially for children...
September 22, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937272/effects-of-movement-music-therapy-with-a-percussion-instrument-on-physical-and-frontal-lobe-function-in-older-adults-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Nobuko Shimizu, Tomohiro Umemura, Masahiro Matsunaga, Takayoshi Hirai
OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypothesis that performing a rhythmic physical task accompanied by a cognitive task, such as multitask movement music therapy (MMT) involving repetitive rhythmic movement with a musical instrument (the Naruko clapper), may improve pre-frontal cortex (PFC) function and cognitive performance. METHOD: Forty-five older adult participants with MCI (74.62 ± 5.05 years) participated in this randomized, controlled, single-blind intervention trial...
September 22, 2017: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929571/repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-over-inferior-frontal-cortex-impairs-the-suppression-but-not-expression-of-action-impulses-during-action-conflict
#9
A Dilene van Campen, Richard Kunert, Wery P M van den Wildenberg, K Richard Ridderinkhof
In the recent literature, the effects of noninvasive neurostimulation on cognitive functioning appear to lack consistency and replicability. We propose that such effects may be concealed unless dedicated, sensitive, and process-specific dependent measures are used. The expression and subsequent suppression of response capture are often studied using conflict tasks. Response-time distribution analyses have been argued to provide specific measures of the susceptibility to make fast impulsive response errors, as well as the proficiency of the selective suppression of these impulses...
September 20, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928072/orbitofrontal-epilepsy-case-series-and-review-of-literature
#10
Imane Samah Chibane, Olivier Boucher, François Dubeau, Thi Phuoc Yen Tran, Ismail Mohamed, Richard McLachlan, R Mark Sadler, Richard Desbiens, Lionel Carmant, Dang Khoa Nguyen
BACKGROUND: Orbitofrontal epilepsy (OFE) is less known and is poorly characterized in comparison with temporal lobe epilepsy, partly because it is rare and possibly because it is unrecognized and therefore underestimated. OBJECTIVE: This paper aimed to better characterize seizure semiology, presurgical findings, and surgical outcomes in patients with OFE. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all confidently established OFE cases from six Canadian epilepsy monitoring units between 1988 and 2014, and in the literature between 1972 and 2017...
September 16, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893928/content-specific-codes-of-parametric-vibrotactile-working-memory-in-humans
#11
Timo Torsten Schmidt, Yuan-Hao Wu, Felix Blankenburg
To understand how the brain handles mentally represented information flexibly in the absence of sensory stimulation, working memory (WM) studies have been essential. A seminal finding in monkey research is that neurons in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) retain stimulus-specific information when vibrotactile frequencies were memorized. A direct mapping between monkey studies and human research is still controversial. Although oscillatory signatures, in terms of frequency-dependent parametric beta-band modulation, have been observed recently in human EEG studies, the content specificity of these representations in terms of multivariate pattern analysis has not yet been shown...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878714/modulating-the-activity-of-the-dlpfc-and-ofc-has-distinct-effects-on-risk-and-ambiguity-decision-making-a-tdcs-study
#12
Xiaolan Yang, Mei Gao, Jinchuan Shi, Hang Ye, Shu Chen
Human beings are constantly exposed to two types of uncertainty situations, risk and ambiguity. Neuroscientific studies suggest that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the orbital frontal cortex (OFC) play significant roles in human decision making under uncertainty. We applied the transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) device to modulate the activity of participants' DLPFC and OFC separately, comparing the causal relationships between people's behaviors and the activity of the corresponding brain cortex when confronted with situations of risk and ambiguity...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868118/effects-of-left-prefrontal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-the-acquisition-of-contextual-and-cued-fear-memory
#13
Shahsanam Abbasi, Mohammad Nasehi, Hamid Reza Soleimanpour Lichaei, Mohammad-Reza Zarrindast
OBJECTIVES: Behavioral and neuroimaging studies have shown that transcranial direct current stimulation, as a non-invasive neuromodulatory technique, beyond regional effects can modify functionally interconnected remote cortical and subcortical areas. In this study, we hypothesized that the induced changes in cortical excitability following the application of cathodal or anodal tDCS over the left frontal cortex as pre-training would affect functional connectivity in resting-state circuits of fear memory and consequently could improve or disturb the acquisition of fear memory...
June 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867993/impact-of-prefrontal-theta-burst-stimulation-on-clinical-neuropsychological-tasks
#14
Raquel Viejo-Sobera, Diego Redolar-Ripoll, Mercè Boixadós, Marc Palaus, Antoni Valero-Cabré, Elena M Marron
Theta burst stimulation (TBS) protocols hold high promise in neuropsychological rehabilitation. Nevertheless, their ability to either decrease (continuous, cTBS) or increase (intermittent, iTBS) cortical excitability in areas other than the primary motor cortex, and their consistency modulating human behaviors with clinically relevant tasks remain to be fully established. The behavioral effects of TBS over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) are particularly interesting given its involvement in working memory (WM) and executive functions (EF), often impaired following frontal brain damage...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865755/the-relationship-between-the-superior-frontal-cortex-and-alpha-oscillation-in-a-flanker-task-simultaneous-recording-of-electroencephalogram-eeg-and-near-infrared-spectroscopy-nirs
#15
Kota Suzuki, Yasuko Okumura, Yosuke Kita, Yuhei Oi, Haruo Shinoda, Masumi Inagaki
Activity in the alpha band of the electroencephalogram (EEG) reflects functional inhibition of the cerebral cortex. The superior frontal cortex (SFC) is known to control alpha activity. Based on this relationship between SFC and alpha, we hypothesized that SFC controlled alpha mediates proactive control over interference. In this study, we examined the relationship between SFC and alpha in the flanker task by simultaneously recording EEG and near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Forty participants performed a flanker task with occasional (compatible 75%, incompatible 25%) and successive (incompatible 100%) conditions...
August 30, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855126/effects-of-epicatechin-on-frontal-cortex-dapc-and-dysbindin-of-the-mdx-mice
#16
Francisco J Estrada-Mena, Alonso Rodriguez, Patricia Mendoza-Lorenzo, Teresa Neri-Gomez, Gabriel Manjarrez-Gutierrez, Andric C Perez-Ortiz, Rosa Ordonez-Razo, Guillermo Ceballos, Francisco Villarreal, Israel Ramirez-Sanchez
INTRODUCTION: Multiple components of the dystrophin-associated protein complex (DAPC) are expressed in numerous tissues including the brain. Members of the DAPC and dysbindin are abnormally expressed in the brain of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) patients, which has been associated with cognitive impairments. However, little is known about the expression pattern of individual members of the DAPC in animal models of DMD and their relationship with dysbindin. METHODS: Ten mdx mice were randomly allocated into a control and intervention group [(-)-epicatechin (Epi) 1mg/kg/day for four weeks] and results compared to a wild-type mice...
September 29, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852156/the-neural-mechanism-underpinning-balance-calibration-between-action-inhibition-and-activation-initiated-by-reward-motivation
#17
Hsin-Ju Lee, Fa-Hsuan Lin, Wen-Jui Kuo
In everyday life, it is often the case that in some situations we are motivated and want not only to speed up our actions but also to avoid mistakes-for example, ballgames. How our brain works at that moment to resolve the situations and react properly has created an active research field. Previous findings indicated that maintaining a balance between withholding and executing an action are highly dynamic and involve many executive control processes. This fMRI study was set up to investigate how motivation affects these balancing processes...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844098/the-toxic-influence-of-dibromoacetic-acid-on-the-hippocampus-and-pre-frontal-cortex-of-rat-involvement-of-neuroinflammation-response-and-oxidative-stress
#18
Wenbo Jiang, Bai Li, Yingying Chen, Shuying Gao
Dibromoacetic acid (DBA) exsits in drinking water as a by-product of disinfection as a result of chlorination or ozonation processes. Hippocampus and pre-frontal cortex are the key structures in memory formation and weanling babies are more sensitive to environmental toxicant than adults, so this study was conducted to evaluate the potential neurotoxicity effects of DBA exposure when administered intragastrically for 4 weeks to weanling Sprague-Dawley rats, at concentration of 0, 20, 50, 125 mg/kg via the neurobehavioral and neurochemical effects...
August 26, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838107/contralateral-anterior-interhemispheric-approach-to-medial-frontal-arteriovenous-malformations-surgical-technique-and-results
#19
Ahmad Hafez, Kunal P Raygor, Michael T Lawton
BACKGROUND: Medial frontal arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) require opening the interhemispheric fissure and are traditionally accessed through an ipsilateral anterior interhemispheric approach (IAIA). The contralateral anterior interhemispheric approach (CAIA) flips the positioning with the midline still positioned horizontally for gravity retraction, but with the AVM on the upside and the approach from the contralateral, dependent side. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the perpendicular angle of attack associated with the IAIA converts to a more favorable parallel angle of attack with the CAIA...
August 1, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831125/exploration-of-the-brain-in-rest-resting-state-functional-mri-abnormalities-in-patients-with-classic-galactosemia
#20
Britt van Erven, Bernadette M Jansma, M Estela Rubio-Gozalbo, Inge Timmers
Patients with classic galactosemia, a genetic metabolic disorder, encounter cognitive impairments, including motor (speech), language, and memory deficits. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate spontaneous functional connectivity during rest to investigate potential abnormalities in neural networks. We characterized networks using seed-based correlation analysis in 13 adolescent patients and 13 matched controls. Results point towards alterations in several networks, including well-known resting-state networks (e...
August 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
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