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Pre frontal cortex

Becky D Clarkson, Shachi Tyagi, Derek J Griffiths, Neil M Resnick
OBJECTIVE: To assess short-term repeatability of an fMRI protocol widely used to assess brain control of the bladder. fMRI offers the potential to discern incontinence phenotypes as well as the mechanisms mediating therapeutic response. If so, this could enable more targeted efforts to enhance therapy. Such data, however, require excellent test-retest repeatability. METHODS: Fifty-nine older women (age ≥60 years) with urgency incontinence underwent two fMRI scans within 5-10 min with a concurrent bladder infusion/withdrawal protocol...
October 24, 2016: Neurourology and Urodynamics
Ashwani Jha, Beate Diehl, Catherine Scott, Andrew W McEvoy, Parashkev Nachev
An enduring puzzle in the neuroscience of voluntary action is the origin of the remarkably wide dispersion of the reaction time distribution, an interval far greater than is explained by synaptic or signal transductive noise [1, 2]. That we are able to change our planned actions-a key criterion of volition [3]-so close to the time of their onset implies decision-making must reach deep into the execution of action itself [4-6]. It has been influentially suggested the reaction time distribution therefore reflects deliberate neural procrastination [7], giving alternative response tendencies sufficient time for fair competition in pursuing a decision threshold that determines which one is behaviorally manifest: a race model, where action selection and execution are closely interrelated [8-11]...
October 18, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Manuel E Hernandez, Roee Holtzer, Gioella Chaparro, Kharine Jean, Julia M Balto, Brian M Sandroff, Meltem Izzetoglu, Robert W Motl
Mobility and cognitive impairments are common in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), and are expected to worsen with increasing age. However, no studies, to date, in part due to limitations of conventional neuroimaging methods, have examined changes in brain activation patterns during active locomotion in older patients with MS. This study used functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) to evaluate real-time neural activation differences in the pre-frontal cortex (PFC) between middle-aged to older adults with MS and healthy controls during single (Normal Walk; NW) and dual-task (Walking While Talking; WWT) locomotion tasks...
November 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
A G Sartim, F A Moreira, S R L Joca
CB1 and TRPV1 receptors may have opposite roles in modulating neural activity and, consequently, in regulating the stress response. These receptors are widely expressed in several brain structures, including the ventral medial pre-frontal cortex (vmPFC). The functional consequences of the interaction between CB1 and TRPV1, however, have scarcely been explored. Therefore, we investigated if CB1 and TRPV1 receptors located in the vmPFC would be involved in the behavioral changes induced by the stress of the forced swim test (FST)...
October 19, 2016: Neuroscience
María Díez-Cirarda, Natalia Ojeda, Javier Peña, Alberto Cabrera-Zubizarreta, Olaia Lucas-Jiménez, Juan Carlos Gómez-Esteban, Maria Ángeles Gómez-Beldarrain, Naroa Ibarretxe-Bilbao
Cognitive rehabilitation programs have demonstrated efficacy in improving cognitive functions in Parkinson's disease (PD), but little is known about cerebral changes associated with an integrative cognitive rehabilitation in PD. To assess structural and functional cerebral changes in PD patients, after attending a three-month integrative cognitive rehabilitation program (REHACOP). Forty-four PD patients were randomly divided into REHACOP group (cognitive rehabilitation) and a control group (occupational therapy)...
October 18, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
James M Bjork, Thomas K Burroughs, Laura M Franke, Treven C Pickett, Sade E Johns, F Gerard Moeller, William C Walker
In military populations, traumatic brain injury (TBI) also holds potential to increase impulsivity and impair mood regulation due to blast injury effects on ventral frontal cortex - to put military personnel at risk for suicide or substance abuse. We assessed a linkage between depression and impaired behavioral inhibition in 117 blast-exposed service members (SM) and veterans with post-concussion syndrome (PCS), where PCS was defined using a Rivermead Postconcussive Symptom Questionnaire (RPQ) modified to clarify whether each symptom worsened compared to pre-blast...
October 7, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Samantha I Cunningham, Dardo Tomasi, Nora D Volkow
Neuroimaging studies have identified functional interactions between the thalamus, precuneus, and default mode network (DMN) in studies of consciousness. However, less is known about the structural connectivity of the precuneus and thalamus to regions within the DMN. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to parcellate the precuneus and thalamus based on their probabilistic white matter connectivity to each other and DMN regions of interest (ROIs) in 37 healthy subjects from the Human Connectome Database. We further assessed resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) among the precuneus, thalamus, and DMN ROIs...
October 14, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Yukihisa Suzuki, Motohiro Kiyosawa, Kiichi Ishiwata, Keiichi Oda, Kenji Ishii
Bell's phenomenon is a physiological phenomenon wherein the eye ball involuntarily rolls upward during eyelid closing. Although this phenomenon occurs in healthy individuals, the neural mechanism related to Bell's phenomenon has not yet been identified. We aimed to investigate the brain regions relevant to Bell's phenomenon and volitional eye movement using [(15)O] H2O and positron emission tomography (PET). We measured regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 8 normal subjects under 3 conditions: at rest with eyes closed, during opening and closing of the eyelids in response to sound stimuli (lid opening/closing), and during vertical movement of the eyes with lids closed in response to sound stimuli (volitional eye movement)...
2016: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
Jun Ke, Feng Chen, Rongfeng Qi, Qiang Xu, Yuan Zhong, Lida Chen, Jianjun Li, Li Zhang, Guangming Lu
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with alterations in regional brain activation and remote functional connectivity (FC) in limbic and prefrontal cortex. However, little is known about local FC changes following a traumatic event. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance images were collected for typhoon survivors with (n = 27) and without PTSD (n = 33), and healthy controls (n = 30). Local FC was examined by calculating regional homogeneity (ReHo), and remote FC was investigated between regions showing significant ReHo group differences...
October 8, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Anthony P King, Stefanie R Block, Rebecca K Sripada, Sheila A M Rauch, Katherine E Porter, Todd K Favorite, Nicholas Giardino, Israel Liberzon
Combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is common among returning veterans, and is a serious and debilitating disorder. While highly effective treatments involving trauma exposure exist, difficulties with engagement and early drop may lead to sub-optimal outcomes. Mindfulness training may provide a method for increasing emotional regulation skills that may improve engagement in trauma-focused therapy. Here, we examine potential neural correlates of mindfulness training and in vivo exposure (non-trauma focused) using a novel group therapy [mindfulness-based exposure therapy (MBET)] in Afghanistan (OEF) or Iraq (OIF) combat veterans with PTSD...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Miao Wei, Anand A Joshi, Mingxia Zhang, Leilei Mei, Franklin R Manis, Qinghua He, Rachel L Beattie, Gui Xue, David W Shattuck, Richard M Leahy, Feng Xue, Suzanne M Houston, Chuansheng Chen, Qi Dong, Zhong-Lin Lu
In the present study, we explored how Age of Acquisition (AoA) of L2 affected brain structures in bilingual individuals. Thirty-six native English speakers who were bilingual were scanned with high resolution MRI. After MRI signal intensity inhomogeneity correction, we applied both voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and surface-based morphometry (SBM) approaches to the data. VBM analysis was performed using FSL's standard VBM processing pipeline. For the SBM analysis, we utilized a semi-automated sulci delineation procedure, registered the brains to an atlas, and extracted measures of twenty four pre-selected regions of interest...
November 2015: Journal of Neurolinguistics
Sandra G J Boccard, Pedro Rebelo, Binith Cheeran, Alexander Green, James J FitzGerald, Tipu Z Aziz
BACKGROUND: Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is a well-established treatment to reduce tremor, notably in Parkinson Disease. DBS may also be effective in posttraumatic tremor, one of the most common movement disorders caused by head injury. However, these cohorts of patients often have multiple lesions that may impact the outcome depending on which fibre tracts are affected. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 20-year-old man presented after road traffic accident with severe closed head injury and polytrauma...
September 29, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Frøydis Morken, Turid Helland, Kenneth Hugdahl, Karsten Specht
Dyslexia is a literacy disorder affecting the efficient acquisition of reading and writing skills. The disorder is neurobiological in origin. Due to its developmental nature, longitudinal studies of dyslexia are of essence. They are, however, relatively scarce. The present study took a longitudinal approach to cortical connectivity of brain imaging data in reading tasks in children with dyslexia and children with typical reading development. The participants were followed with repeated measurements through Pre-literacy (6 years old), Emergent Literacy (8 years old) and Literacy (12 years old) stages, using Dynamic Causal Modelling (DCM) when analysing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data...
September 26, 2016: NeuroImage
Pirathiv Kugathasan, Jessica Waller, Ligia Westrich, Aicha Abdourahman, Joseph A Tamm, Alan L Pehrson, Elena Dale, Maria Gulinello, Connie Sanchez, Yan Li
Neuroplasticity is fundamental for brain functions, abnormal changes of which are associated with mood disorders and cognitive impairment. Neuroplasticity can be affected by neuroactive medications and by aging. Vortioxetine, a multimodal antidepressant, has shown positive effects on cognitive functions in both pre-clinical and clinical studies. In rodent studies, vortioxetine increases glutamate neurotransmission, promotes dendritic branching and spine maturation, and elevates hippocampal expression of the activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc/Arg3...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Yuri Kriel, Hugo A Kerhervé, Christopher D Askew, Colin Solomon
PURPOSE: High intensity interval training (HIIT) has been proposed as a time-efficient format of exercise to reduce the chronic disease burden associated with sedentary behaviour. Changes in oxygen utilisation at the local tissue level during an acute session of HIIT could be the primary stimulus for the health benefits associated with this format of exercise. The recovery periods of HIIT effect the physiological responses that occur during the session. It was hypothesised that in sedentary individuals, local and systemic oxygen utilisation would be higher during HIIT interspersed with active recovery periods, when compared to passive recovery periods...
2016: PloS One
Lisa Cipolotti, Barbara Spanò, Colm Healy, Carina Tudor-Sfetea, Edgar Chan, Mark White, Francesca Biondo, John Duncan, Tim Shallice, Marco Bozzali
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is known to make fundamental contributions to executive functions. However, the precise nature of these contributions is incompletely understood. We focused on a specific executive function, inhibition, the ability to suppress a pre-potent response. Functional imaging and animal studies have studied inhibition. However, there are only few lesion studies, typically reporting discrepant findings. For the first time, we conducted cognitive and neuroimaging investigations on patients with focal unilateral PFC lesions across two widely used inhibitory tasks requiring a verbal response: The Hayling Part 2 and Stroop Colour-Word Tests...
September 23, 2016: Neuropsychologia
K De Pauw, B Roelands, J Van Cutsem, U Marusic, T Torbeyns, R Meeusen
OBJECTIVE: A direct link between the mouth cavity and the brain for glucose (GLUC) and caffeine (CAF) has been established. The aim of this study is to determine whether a direct link for both substrates also exist between the nasal cavity and the brain. METHODS: Ten healthy male subjects (age 22 ± 1 years) performed three experimental trials, separated by at least 2 days. Each trial included a 20-s nasal spray (NAS) period in which solutions placebo (PLAC), GLUC, or CAF were provided in a double-blind, randomized order...
September 23, 2016: Psychopharmacology
Kai Nitschke, Lena Köstering, Lisa Finkel, Cornelius Weiller, Christoph P Kaller
The ability to mentally design and evaluate series of future actions has often been studied in terms of planning abilities, commonly using well-structured laboratory tasks like the Tower of London (ToL). Despite a wealth of studies, findings on the specific localization of planning processes within prefrontal cortex (PFC) and on the hemispheric lateralization are equivocal. Here, we address this issue by integrating evidence from two different sources of data: First, we provide a systematic overview of the existing lesion data on planning in the ToL (10 studies, 211 patients) which does not indicate any evidence for a general lateralization of planning processes in (pre)frontal cortex...
September 15, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Hannah Glick, Anu Sharma
This review explores cross-modal cortical plasticity as a result of auditory deprivation in populations with hearing loss across the age spectrum, from development to adulthood. Cross-modal plasticity refers to the phenomenon when deprivation in one sensory modality (e.g. the auditory modality as in deafness or hearing loss) results in the recruitment of cortical resources of the deprived modality by intact sensory modalities (e.g. visual or somatosensory systems). We discuss recruitment of auditory cortical resources for visual and somatosensory processing in deafness and in lesser degrees of hearing loss...
September 6, 2016: Hearing Research
Daniel Ferreira, Vesna Jelic, Lena Cavallin, Anne-Rita Oeksengaard, Jon Snaedal, Peter Høgh, Birgitte Bo Andersen, Mala Naik, Knut Engedal, Eric Westman, Lars-Olof Wahlund
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Dementia biomarkers that are accessible and easily applicable in nonspecialized clinical settings are urgently needed. Quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) is a good candidate, and the statistical pattern recognition (SPR) method has recently provided promising results. We tested the diagnostic value of qEEG-SPR in comparison to cognition, structural imaging, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers. METHODS: A total of 511 individuals were recruited from the multicenter NORD EEG study [141 healthy controls, 64 subjective cognitive decline, 124 mild cognitive impairment, 135 Alzheimer's disease (AD), 15 dementia with Lewy bodies/Parkinson's disease with dementia (DLB/PDD), 32 other dementias]...
2016: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
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