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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716966/hierarchically-organized-medial-frontal-cortex-basal-ganglia-loops-selectively-control-task-and-response-selection
#1
Franziska M Korb, Jiefeng Jiang, Joseph A King, Tobias Egner
Adaptive behavior requires context-sensitive configuration of task-sets that specify time-varying stimulus-response mappings. Intriguingly, response time costs associated with changing task-sets and motor responses are known to be strongly interactive: switch costs at the task-level are small in the presence of a response-switch but large when accompanied by a response-repetition, and vice versa for response-switch costs. The reasons behind this well-known inter-dependence between task- and response-level control processes are currently not well understood...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710894/short-frontal-plane-fractures-involving-the-dorsoproximal-articular-surface-of-the-proximal-phalanx-description-of-the-injury-and-a-technique-for-repair
#2
I M Wright, G Minshall
BACKGROUND: Chip fractures of the dorsoproximal articular margin of the proximal phalanx are common injuries in racehorses. Large fractures can extend distal to the joint capsule insertion and have been described as dorsal frontal fractures. OBJECTIVES: To report the location and morphology of short frontal plane fractures involving the dorsoproximal articular surface of the proximal phalanx and to describe a technique for repair under arthroscopic and radiographic guidance...
July 15, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701924/frontal-connectivity-in-eeg-gamma-30-45-hz-respond-to-spinal-cord-stimulation-in-minimally-conscious-state-patients
#3
Yang Bai, Xiaoyu Xia, Zhenhu Liang, Yong Wang, Yi Yang, Jianghong He, Xiaoli Li
Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has become a valuable brain-intervention technique used to rehabilitate patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC). To explore how the SCS affects the cerebral cortex and what possible electrophysiological mechanism of SCS effects on the cortex, the present study investigated the functional connectivity and network properties during SCS in minimally conscious state (MCS) patients. MCS patients received both SCS and sham sessions. Functional connectivity of the phase lock value (PLV) in the gamma band (30-45 Hz) was investigated at the pre-, on- and post-SCS stages...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691732/prereader-to-beginning-reader-changes-induced-by-reading-acquisition-in-print-and-speech-brain-networks
#4
Katarzyna Chyl, Bartosz Kossowski, Agnieszka Dębska, Magdalena Łuniewska, Anna Banaszkiewicz, Agata Żelechowska, Stephen J Frost, William Einar Mencl, Marek Wypych, Artur Marchewka, Kenneth R Pugh, Katarzyna Jednoróg
BACKGROUND: Literacy acquisition is a demanding process that induces significant changes in the brain, especially in the spoken and written language networks. Nevertheless, large-scale paediatric fMRI studies are still limited. METHODS: We analyzed fMRI data to show how individual differences in reading performance correlate with brain activation for speech and print in 111 children attending kindergarten or first grade and examined group differences between a matched subset of emergent-readers and prereaders...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687520/high-channel-count-single-unit-recordings-from-nonhuman-primate-frontal-cortex
#5
Andrew R Mitz, Ramon Bartolo, Richard C Saunders, Philip G Browning, Thomas Talbot, Bruno B Averbeck
BACKGROUND: Single unit recording in behaving nonhuman primates is widely used to study the primate central nervous system. However, certain questions cannot be addressed without recording large numbers of neurons simultaneously. Multiple 96-electrode probes can be implanted at one time, but certain problems must be overcome to make this approach practical. NEW METHOD: We describe a series of innovations and practical guidance for implanting and recording from 8 arrays of 96 electrodes (768 electrodes) in the frontal cortex of Macaca mulatta...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685457/physiological-effects-of-continuous-colored-light-exposure-on-mayer-wave-activity-in-cerebral-hemodynamics-a-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-fnirs-study
#6
A J Metz, S D Klein, F Scholkmann, U Wolf
We are increasingly exposed to colored light, but its impact on human physiology is not yet extensively investigated. In the present study we aimed to determine the effects of colored light on human cerebral Mayer wave activity (MWA). We measured oxy- ([O2Hb]), deoxy- ([HHb]), total hemoglobin ([tHb]) concentrations and tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) in the left and right pre-frontal cortex (L-PFC, R-PFC) of 17 subjects (median age: 29 years, 6 women). In a randomized crossover design subjects were exposed to blue, red, green, and yellow LED light for 10 min...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680408/a-potential-role-for-mu-opioids-in-mediating-the-positive-effects-of-gratitude
#7
REVIEW
Max Henning, Glenn R Fox, Jonas Kaplan, Hanna Damasio, Antonio Damasio
Gratitude is a complex emotional feeling associated with universally desirable positive effects in personal, social, and physiological domains. Why or how gratitude achieves these functional outcomes is not clear. Toward the goal of identifying its' underlying physiological processes, we recently investigated the neural correlates of gratitude. In our study, participants were exposed to gratitude-inducing stimuli, and rated each according to how much gratitude it provoked. As expected, self-reported gratitude intensity correlated with brain activity in distinct regions of the medial pre-frontal cortex associated with social reward and moral cognition...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679843/restricted-vision-increases-sensorimotor-cortex-involvement-in-human-walking
#8
Anderson S Oliveira, Bryan R Schlink, William David Hairston, Peter Konig, Daniel Perry Ferris
This study aimed to determine if there are electrocortical evidence of augmented participation of sensory brain areas on walking modulation during walking with eyes closed. Healthy subjects (n=10) walked on a treadmill at 1 m/s while alternating 5 minutes walking with the eyes open or closed while we recorded ground reaction forces (GRF) and high-density scalp electroencephalography (EEG). We applied independent component analysis to parse EEG signals into maximally independent component (IC) processes and then computed equivalent current dipoles for each IC...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677154/brain-changes-following-four-weeks-of-unimanual-motor-training-evidence-from-fmri-guided-diffusion-mri-tractography
#9
Lee B Reid, Martin V Sale, Ross Cunnington, Jason B Mattingley, Stephen E Rose
We have reported reliable changes in behavior, brain structure, and function in 24 healthy right-handed adults who practiced a finger-thumb opposition sequence task with their left hand for 10 min daily, over 4 weeks. Here, we extend these findings by using diffusion MRI to investigate white-matter changes in the corticospinal tract, basal-ganglia, and connections of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Twenty-three participant datasets were available with pre-training and post-training scans. Task performance improved in all participants (mean: 52...
July 5, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675956/executive-functioning-in-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-patients-without-cognitive-impairment-a-task-switching-protocol
#10
Simone Migliore, Giuseppe Curcio, Alessandro Couyoumdjian, Anna Ghazaryan, Doriana Landi, Filomena Moffa, Livia Quintiliani, Ferdinando Squitieri, Maria Giuseppina Palmieri, Maria Maddalena Filippi, Fabrizio Vernieri
BACKGROUND: Cognitive dysfunction affects 40%-65% of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, most often affecting information processing speed and working memory, mediated by the pre-frontal cortex (PFC). OBJECTIVE: Our study aimed to investigate PFC functioning through a task-switching protocol in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients without cognitive impairment. METHODS: A total of 24 RRMS patients and 25 controls were enrolled...
July 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671558/brain-functional-connectivity-is-modified-by-a-hypocaloric-mediterranean-diet-and-physical-activity-in-obese-women
#11
Natalia García-Casares, María R Bernal-López, Nuria Roé-Vellvé, Mario Gutiérrez-Bedmar, Jose C Fernández-García, Juan A García-Arnés, José R Ramos-Rodriguez, Francisco Alfaro, Sonia Santamaria-Fernández, Trevor Steward, Susana Jiménez-Murcia, Isabel Garcia-Garcia, Pedro Valdivielso, Fernando Fernández-Aranda, Francisco J Tinahones, Ricardo Gómez-Huelgas
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the resting state has shown altered brain connectivity networks in obese individuals. However, the impact of a Mediterranean diet on cerebral connectivity in obese patients when losing weight has not been previously explored. The aim of this study was to examine the connectivity between brain structures before and six months after following a hypocaloric Mediterranean diet and physical activity program in a group of sixteen obese women aged 46.31 ± 4.07 years...
July 1, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670270/using-meg-to-understand-the-progression-of-light-sleep-and-the-emergence-and-functional-roles-of-spindles-and-k-complexes
#12
Andreas A Ioannides, Lichan Liu, Vahe Poghosyan, George K Kostopoulos
We used tomographic analysis of MEG signals to characterize regional spectral changes in the brain at sleep onset and during light sleep. We identified two key processes that may causally link to loss of consciousness during the quiet or "core" periods of NREM1. First, active inhibition in the frontal lobe leads to delta and theta spectral power increases. Second, activation suppression leads to sharp drop of spectral power in alpha and higher frequencies in posterior parietal cortex. During NREM2 core periods, the changes identified in NREM1 become more widespread, but focal increases also emerge in alpha and low sigma band power in frontal midline cortical structures, suggesting reemergence of some monitoring of internal and external environment...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669754/the-impact-of-gut-hormones-on-the-neural-circuit-of-appetite-and-satiety-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Davide Zanchi, Antoinette Depoorter, Laura Egloff, Sven Haller, Laura Mählmann, Undine E Lang, Jürgen Drewe, Christoph Beglinger, André Schmidt, Stefan Borgwardt
The brain-gut-axis is an interdependent system affecting neural functions and controlling our eating behaviour. In recent decades, neuroimaging techniques have facilitated its investigation. We systematically looked into functional and neurochemical brain imaging studies investigating how key molecules such as ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY), cholecystokinin (CCK), leptin, glucose and insulin influence the function of brain regions regulating appetite and satiety. Of the 349 studies published before July 2016 identified in the database search, 40 were included (27 on healthy and 13 on obese subjects)...
June 29, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667892/normal-aging-and-parkinson-s-disease-are-associated-with-the-functional-decline-of-distinct-frontal-striatal-circuits
#14
Aleksandra Gruszka, Adam Hampshire, Roger A Barker, Adrian M Owen
Impaired ability to shift attention between stimuli (i.e. shifting attentional 'set') is a well-established part of the dysexecutive syndrome in Parkinson's Disease (PD), nevertheless cognitive and neural bases of this deficit remain unclear. In this study, an fMRI-optimised variant of a classic paradigm for assessing attentional control (Hampshire and Owen 2006) was used to contrast activity in dissociable executive circuits in early-stage PD patients and controls. The results demonstrated that the neural basis of the executive performance impairments in PD is accompanied by hypoactivation within the striatum, anterior cingulate cortex (vACC), and inferior frontal sulcus (IFS) regions...
June 3, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657141/neural-correlates-of-atomoxetine-improving-inhibitory-control-and-visual-processing-in-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-adults-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#15
Li-Ying Fan, Tai-Li Chou, Susan Shur-Fen Gau
Atomoxetine improves inhibitory control and visual processing in healthy volunteers and adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, little is known about the neural correlates of these two functions after chronic treatment with atomoxetine. This study aimed to use the counting Stroop task with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) to investigate the changes related to inhibitory control and visual processing in adults with ADHD...
June 28, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650517/adaptive-change-in-chewing-related-brain-activity-while-wearing-a-palatal-plate-an-fmri-study
#16
Yuka Inamochi, Kenji Fueki, Nobuo Usui, Masato Taira, Noriyuki Wakabayashi
Prosthodontic treatment success depends on patients' ability to adapt to an altered oral environment containing removable prostheses. We investigated adaptive chewing-related brain activity changes in response to a new oral environment. Twenty-eight fully dentate subjects (mean age: 28.6 years) wore experimental denture-base palatal plates (3-mm thick), for 7 days. We measured food mixing ability and cycle time, and assessed brain activity by functional magnetic resonance imaging during chewing at pre-insertion (Day 0), and immediately (Day 1), 3 days (Day 3), and 7 days (Day 7) after insertion...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647868/effects-of-high-altitude-exposure-on-supraspinal-fatigue-and-corticospinal-excitability-and-inhibition
#17
Mathieu Marillier, Pierrick J Arnal, Thibault Le Roux Mallouf, Thomas Rupp, Guillaume Y Millet, Samuel Verges
PURPOSE: While acute hypoxic exposure enhances exercise-induced central fatigue and can alter corticospinal excitability and inhibition, the effect of prolonged hypoxic exposure on these parameters remains to be clarified. We hypothesized that 5 days of altitude exposure would (i) normalize exercise-induced supraspinal fatigue during isolated muscle exercise to sea level (SL) values and (ii) increase corticospinal excitability and inhibition. METHODS: Eleven male subjects performed intermittent isometric elbow flexions at 50% of maximal voluntary contraction to task failure at SL and after 1 (D1) and 5 (D5) days at 4350 m...
August 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626785/blunted-amygdala-functional-connectivity-during-a-stress-task-in-alcohol-dependent-individuals-a-pilot-study
#18
Natasha E Wade, Claudia B Padula, Robert M Anthenelli, Erik Nelson, James Eliassen, Krista M Lisdahl
BACKGROUND: Scant research has been conducted on neural mechanisms underlying stress processing in individuals with alcohol dependence (AD). We examined neural substrates of stress in AD individuals compared with controls using an fMRI task previously shown to induce stress, assessing amygdala functional connectivity to medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: For this novel pilot study, 10 abstinent AD individuals and 11 controls completed a modified Trier stress task while undergoing fMRI acquisition...
December 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626411/dissociated-crossed-speech-areas-in-a-tumour-patient
#19
Jörg Mauler, Irene Neuner, Georg Neuloh, Bruno Fimm, Frank Boers, Martin Wiesmann, Hans Clusmann, Karl-Josef Langen, N Jon Shah
In the past, the eloquent areas could be deliberately localised by the invasive Wada test. The very rare cases of dissociated crossed speech areas were accidentally found based on the clinical symptomatology. Today functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-based imaging can be employed to non-invasively localise the eloquent areas in brain tumour patients for therapy planning. A 41-year-old, left-handed man with a low-grade glioma in the left frontal operculum extending to the insular cortex, tension headaches, and anomic aphasia over 5 months underwent a pre-operative speech area localisation fMRI measurement, which revealed the evidence of the transhemispheric disposition, where the dominant Wernicke speech area is located on the left and the Broca's area is strongly lateralised to the right hemisphere...
May 2017: Case Reports in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619652/frontal-temporal-and-parietal-systems-synchronize-within-and-across-brains-during-live-eye-to-eye-contact
#20
Joy Hirsch, Xian Zhang, J Adam Noah, Yumie Ono
Human eye-to-eye contact is a primary source of social cues and communication. In spite of the biological significance of this interpersonal interaction, the underlying neural processes are not well-understood. This knowledge gap, in part, reflects limitations of conventional neuroimaging methods, including solitary confinement in the bore of a scanner and minimal tolerance of head movement that constrain investigations of natural, two-person interactions. However, these limitations are substantially resolved by recent technical developments in functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), a non-invasive spectral absorbance technique that detects changes in blood oxygen levels in the brain by using surface-mounted optical sensors...
June 12, 2017: NeuroImage
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