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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653127/evaluation-of-early-chronic-functional-outcomes-and-their-relationship-to-pre-frontal-cortex-and-hippocampal-pathology-following-moderate-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#1
Alina Arulsamy, Jason Teng, Holly Colton, Frances Corrigan, Lyndsey Collins-Praino
TBI is a significant risk factor for the development of dementia, with the interaction between structural damage from TBI and neuroinflammation potentially driving this relationship. This study investigated the early chronic post-TBI neuroinflammatory response and its relationship to both neurodegenerative pathology and functional impairment up to 3 months post-injury. Sprague-Dawley rats underwent either sham surgery or the Marmarou model of diffuse moderate-severe TBI. At 1-month and 3-months post-injury, a functional battery encompassing motor function, depressive-like behaviour, anxiety and cognition was performed...
April 10, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642425/lutein-and-zeaxanthin-are-positively-associated-with-visual-spatial-functioning-in-older-adults-an-fmri-study
#2
Catherine M Mewborn, Cutter A Lindbergh, Talia L Robinson, Marissa A Gogniat, Douglas P Terry, Kharine R Jean, Billy Randy Hammond, Lisa M Renzi-Hammond, Lloyd Stephen Miller
Lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) are two xanthophyll carotenoids that have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Previous work has demonstrated their importance for eye health and preventing diseases such as age-related macular degeneration. An emerging literature base has also demonstrated the importance of L and Z in cognition, neural structure, and neural efficiency. The present study aimed to better understand the mechanisms by which L and Z relate to cognition, in particular, visual-spatial processing and decision-making in older adults...
April 7, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628218/effects-of-sex-hormones-and-age-on-brain-volume-in-post-menopausal-women
#3
Gwang-Won Kim, Kwangsung Park, Gwang-Woo Jeong
BACKGROUND: Investigation of the effect of sex hormones on the brain volume in women provides a unique opportunity to examine menopause-related morphometric alterations. AIM: To evaluate brain morphological alterations in post-menopausal women using voxel-based morphometry and its correlations with sex hormone levels. METHODS: 20 Pre-menopausal women and 20 post-menopausal women underwent structural MRI. OUTCOMES: T1-weighted magnetic resonance data were acquired and serum sex hormones including total estrogen, estriol, estradiol (E2), follicle-stimulating hormone, free testosterone, SHBG, and luteinizing hormone were measured...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605594/-neural-overlap-of-l1-and-l2-semantic-representations-across-visual-and-auditory-modalities-a-decoding-approach
#4
Eowyn Van de Putte, Wouter De Baene, Cathy J Price, Wouter Duyck
This study investigated whether brain activity in Dutch-French bilinguals during semantic access to concepts from one language could be used to predict neural activation during access to the same concepts from another language, in different language modalities/tasks. This was tested using multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA), within and across language comprehension (word listening and word reading) and production (picture naming). It was possible to identify the picture or word named, read or heard in one language (e...
March 29, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605426/translation-relevant-eeg-phenotypes-in-a-mouse-model-of-fragile-x-syndrome
#5
Jonathan W Lovelace, Iryna M Ethell, Devin K Binder, Khaleel A Razak
Identification of comparable biomarkers in humans and validated animal models will facilitate pre-clinical to clinical therapeutic pipelines to treat neurodevelopmental disorders. Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is a leading known genetic cause of intellectual disability with symptoms that include increased anxiety, social and sensory processing deficits. Recent EEG studies in humans with FXS have identified neural oscillation deficits that include enhanced resting state gamma power and reduced inter-trial coherence of sound evoked gamma oscillations...
March 29, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572062/better-imagined-neural-correlates-of-the-episodic-simulation-boost-to-prospective-memory-performance
#6
R Nathan Spreng, Kevin P Madore, Daniel L Schacter
Episodic simulation is an adaptive process that can support goal-directed activity and planning success. We investigated the neural architecture associated with the episodic simulation improvement to the likelihood of carrying out future actions by isolating the brain regions associated with this facilitation in a prospective memory paradigm. Participants performed a lexical decision task by making word/non-word judgments, with rarely occurring prospective memory target words requiring a pre-specified manual response...
March 20, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571716/mapping-working-memory-retrieval-in-space-and-in-time-a-combined-electroencephalography-and-electrocorticography-approach
#7
Qiong Zhang, Marieke van Vugt, Jelmer P Borst, John R Anderson
In this study, we investigated the time course and neural correlates of the retrieval process underlying visual working memory. We made use of a rare dataset in which the same task was recorded using both scalp electroencephalography (EEG) and Electrocorticography (ECoG), respectively. This allowed us to examine with great spatial and temporal detail how the retrieval process works, and in particular how the medial temporal lobe (MTL) is involved. In each trial, participants judged whether a probe face had been among a set of recently studied faces...
March 20, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567809/the-threshold-for-conscious-report-signal-loss-and-response-bias-in-visual-and-frontal-cortex
#8
Bram van Vugt, Bruno Dagnino, Devavrat Vartak, Houman Safaai, Stefano Panzeri, Stanislas Dehaene, Pieter R Roelfsema
Why are some visual stimuli consciously detected, while others remain subliminal? We investigated the fate of weak visual stimuli in the visual and frontal cortex of awake monkeys trained to report stimulus presence. Reported stimuli were associated with strong sustained activity in frontal cortex and frontal activity was weaker and quickly decayed for unreported stimuli. Information about weak stimuli could be lost at successive stages en route from visual to frontal cortex and these propagation failures were confirmed by microstimulation of area V1...
March 22, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565281/sensory-trick-in-a-patient-with-cervical-dystonia-insights-from-magnetoencephalography
#9
Abhimanyu Mahajan, Andrew Zillgitt, Susan M Bowyer, Christos Sidiropoulos
BACKGROUND: The proposed mechanisms for the sensory trick include peripheral sensory feedback to aid in correcting abnormal posture or movement. CASE REPORT: A 53-year-old woman with cervical dystonia underwent magnetoencephalography pre- and post-botulinum toxin injection and sensory trick, which was described as yawning. Study revealed connectivity between the left frontal and inferior frontal gyrus before yawning, which changed to the visual cortex and right middle frontal gyrus with yawning...
March 22, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559939/internet-search-alters-intra-and-inter-regional-synchronization-in-the-temporal-gyrus
#10
Xiaoyue Liu, Xiao Lin, Ming Zheng, Yanbo Hu, Yifan Wang, Lingxiao Wang, Xiaoxia Du, Guangheng Dong
Internet search changed the way we store and recall information and possibly altered our brain functions. Previous studies suggested that Internet search facilitates the information-acquisition process. However, this process may cause individuals to lose the ability to store and recollect specific contents. Despite the numerous behavioral studies conducted in this field, little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying Internet searches. The present study explores potential brain activity changes induced by Internet search...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554643/changes-in-neural-activation-underlying-attention-processing-of-emotional-stimuli-following-treatment-with-positive-search-training-in-anxious-children
#11
Allison M Waters, Yuan Cao, Rachel Kershaw, Georg M Kerbler, David H K Shum, Melanie J Zimmer-Gembeck, Michelle G Craske, Brendan P Bradley, Karin Mogg, Daniel S Pine, Ross Cunnington
Prior research indicates that positive search training (PST) may be a promising home-based computerised treatment for childhood anxiety disorders. It explicitly trains anxious individuals in adaptive, goal-directed attention-search strategies to search for positive and calm information and ignore goal-irrelevant negative cues. Although PST reduces anxiety symptoms, its neural effects are unknown. The main aim of this study was to examine changes in neural activation associated with changes in attention processing of positive and negative stimuli from pre- to post-treatment with PST in children with anxiety disorders...
March 11, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549885/epigenetic-impacts-of-stress-priming-of-the-neuroinflammatory-response-to-sarin-surrogate-in-mice-a-model-of-gulf-war-illness
#12
David G Ashbrook, Benjamin Hing, Lindsay T Michalovicz, Kimberly A Kelly, Julie V Miller, Wilfred C de Vega, Diane B Miller, Gordon Broderick, James P O'Callaghan, Patrick O McGowan
BACKGROUND: Gulf War illness (GWI) is an archetypal, medically unexplained, chronic condition characterised by persistent sickness behaviour and neuroimmune and neuroinflammatory components. An estimated 25-32% of the over 900,000 veterans of the 1991 Gulf War fulfil the requirements of a GWI diagnosis. It has been hypothesised that the high physical and psychological stress of combat may have increased vulnerability to irreversible acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors leading to a priming of the neuroimmune system...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545099/the-interaction-of-matrix-reasoning-and-social-motivation-as-predictors-of-separation-anxiety-in-boys-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#13
Vicki Bitsika, Christopher F Sharpley
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that higher cognitive functioning based in the pre-frontal cortex is implicated in the ability of people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) to understand and communicate in social situations. Low motivation to engage in social interaction may also be influential in this process. Although both of these factors have been argued to influence the levels of comorbid anxiety in young people with ASD, no detailed examination of those relationships has been reported to date...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523627/evaluation-of-11-c-bu99008-a-positron-emission-tomography-ligand-for-the-imidazoline-2-binding-site-in-human-brain
#14
Robin J Tyacke, Jim F M Myers, Ashwin Venkataraman, Inge Mick, Samuel Turton, Jan Passchier, Stephen M Husbands, Eugenii Ilan A Rabiner, Roger N Gunn, Philip S Murphy, Christine A Parker, David J Nutt
The imidazoline2 binding site (I2 BS), are thought to be expressed in glia, and implicated in the regulation of glial fibrillary acidic protein. A PET ligand for this target would be important for the investigation of neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory diseases.11 C-BU99008 has previously been identified as a putative PET radioligand. Here we present the first in vivo characterisation of this PET radioligand in humans and assess its test-retest reproducibility. Methods 14 healthy male volunteers underwent dynamic PET imaging with11 C-BU99008 and arterial sampling...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29519479/microarchitecture-and-connectivity-of-the-parietal-lobe
#15
Svenja Caspers, Karl Zilles
This chapter summarizes current knowledge on the structural segregation of the parietal lobe based on cyto-, myelo-, and receptorarchitectonic studies, as well as the connectivity of this brain region with other cortical and subcortical structures. The anterior part of the human parietal cortex comprises the somatosensory areas 3a, 3b, 1, and 2, whereas the posterior part contains seven multimodal areas in both the superior and inferior parietal lobules. Available cytoarchitectonic maps of the human intraparietal sulcus do not provide a complete picture yet...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518674/mapping-lexical-semantic-networks-and-determining-hemispheric-language-dominance-do-task-design-sex-age-and-language-performance-make-a-difference
#16
Yu-Hsuan A Chang, Sogol S Javadi, Naeim Bahrami, Vedang S Uttarwar, Anny Reyes, Carrie R McDonald
Blocked and event-related fMRI designs are both commonly used to localize language networks and determine hemispheric dominance in research and clinical settings. We compared activation profiles on a semantic monitoring task using one of the two designs in a total of 43 healthy individual to determine whether task design or subject-specific factors (i.e., age, sex, or language performance) influence activation patterns. We found high concordance between the two designs within core language regions, including the inferior frontal, posterior temporal, and basal temporal region...
March 5, 2018: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515852/evidence-for-parallel-activation-of-the-pre-supplementary-motor-area-and-inferior-frontal-cortex-during-response-inhibition-a-combined-meg-and-tms-study
#17
Christopher Allen, Krish D Singh, Frederick Verbruggen, Christopher D Chambers
This pre-registered experiment sought to uncover the temporal relationship between the inferior frontal cortex (IFC) and the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) during stopping of an ongoing action. Both regions have previously been highlighted as being central to cognitive control of actions, particularly response inhibition. Here we tested which area is activated first during the stopping process using magnetoencephalography, before assessing the relative chronometry of each region using functionally localized transcranial magnetic stimulation...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511299/synaptic-loss-in-schizophrenia-a-meta-analysis-and-systematic-review-of-synaptic-protein-and-mrna-measures
#18
REVIEW
Emanuele Felice Osimo, Katherine Beck, Tiago Reis Marques, Oliver D Howes
Although synaptic loss is thought to be core to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, the nature, consistency and magnitude of synaptic protein and mRNA changes has not been systematically appraised. Our objective was thus to systematically review and meta-analyse findings. The entire PubMed database was searched for studies from inception date to the 1st of July 2017. We selected case-control postmortem studies in schizophrenia quantifying synaptic protein or mRNA levels in brain tissue. The difference in protein and mRNA levels between cases and controls was extracted and meta-analysis conducted...
March 6, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509258/the-role-of-ampk-mtor-signal-pathway-in-brain-injury-following-chronic-intermittent-hypoxia-in-growing-rats
#19
Z-W Wen, D-S Liang, X-H Cai, J Chen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of AMPK-mTOR signal pathway in brain injury induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) in young rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats (3-4 weeks old, weighing 80-100 g) were randomly assigned to four groups: 2-week-CIH group (2IH), 4-week-CIH group (4IH), 2-week-simulated air control group (2AC) and 4-week-simulated air control group (4AC). TUNEL staining was used to detect the cell apoptosis in the hippocampus and pre-frontal cortexes, respectively...
February 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501800/magnesium-administration-after-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury-improves-decision-making-skills
#20
Jennica M Young, Michael R Hoane
After sustaining a traumatic brain injury (TBI), a person's ability to make daily decisions can be affected. Simple tasks such as, deciding what to wear are no longer effortless choices, but are instead difficult decisions. This study explored the use of a discrimination task with a magnesium treatment in order to examine how decision-making skills are affected after TBI and if the treatment helped to attenuate cognitive and motor impairments. Thirty-one male rats were separated into MAG/TBI, VEH/TBI, or VEH/Sham groups...
March 1, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
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