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Pre frontal cortex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203455/quantitative-mri-provides-markers-of-intra-inter-regional-and-age-related-differences-in-young-adult-cortical-microstructure
#1
Daniel Carey, Francesco Caprini, Micah Allen, Antoine Lutti, Nikolaus Weiskopf, Geraint Rees, Martina F Callaghan, Frederic Dick
Measuring the structural composition of the cortex is critical to understanding typical development, yet few investigations in humans have charted markers in vivo that are sensitive to tissue microstructural attributes. Here, we used a well-validated quantitative MR protocol to measure four parameters (R1, MT, R2*, PD*) that differ in their sensitivity to facets of the tissue microstructural environment (R1, MT: myelin, macromolecular content; R2*: myelin, paramagnetic ions, i.e., iron; PD*: free water content)...
December 1, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197227/involvement-of-the-middle-frontal-gyrus-in-language-switching-as-revealed-by-electrical-stimulation-mapping-and-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-bilingual-brain-tumor-patients
#2
Joanna Sierpowska, Alejandro Fernandez-Coello, Alba Gomez-Andres, Àngels Camins, Sara Castañer, Montserrat Juncadella, Andreu Gabarrós, Antoni Rodríguez-Fornells
Neural basis of language switching and the cognitive models of bilingualism remain controversial. We explored the functional neuroanatomy of language switching implementing a new multimodal protocol assessing neuropsychological, functional magnetic resonance and intraoperative electrical stimulation mapping results. A prospective series of 9 Spanish-Catalan bilingual candidates for awake brain surgery underwent a specific language switching paradigm implemented both before and after surgery, throughout the electrical stimulation procedure and during functional magnetic resonance both pre- and postoperatively...
November 14, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186679/functional-specialization-of-the-primate-frontal-lobe-during-cognitive-control-of-vocalizations
#3
Natalja Gavrilov, Steffen R Hage, Andreas Nieder
Cognitive vocal control is indispensable for human language. Frontal lobe areas are involved in initiating purposeful vocalizations, but their functions remain elusive. We explored the respective roles of frontal lobe areas in initiating volitional vocalizations. Macaques were trained to vocalize in response to visual cues. Recordings from the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC), the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and the pre-supplementary motor area (preSMA) revealed single-neuron and population activity differences...
November 28, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180006/modulation-of-electric-brain-responses-evoked-by-pitch-deviants-through-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation
#4
Isabelle Royal, Benjamin Rich Zendel, Marie-Ève Desjardins, Nicolas Robitaille, Isabelle Peretz
Congenital amusia is a neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by a difficulty detecting pitch deviation that is related to abnormal electrical brain responses. Abnormalities found along the right fronto-temporal pathway between the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and the auditory cortex (AC) are the likely neural mechanism responsible for amusia. To investigate the causal role of these regions during the detection of pitch deviants, we applied cathodal (inhibitory) transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over right frontal and right temporal regions during separate testing sessions...
November 24, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167833/disorder-specific-and-shared-brain-abnormalities-during-vigilance-in-autism-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#5
Christina O Carlisi, Luke Norman, Clodagh M Murphy, Anastasia Christakou, Kaylita Chantiluke, Vincent Giampietro, Andrew Simmons, Michael Brammer, Declan G Murphy, David Mataix-Cols, Katya Rubia
Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are often comorbid and share similarities across some cognitive phenotypes, including certain aspects of attention. However, no functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have compared the underlying neural mechanisms contributing to these shared phenotypes. Methods: Age- and IQ-matched boys (11-17 years old) with ASD (n = 20), boys with OCD (n = 20), and healthy control boys (n = 20) performed a parametrically modulated psychomotor vigilance functional magnetic resonance imaging task...
November 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157904/anti-fatigue-activity-of-an-arabinan-rich-pectin-from-acerola-malpighia-emarginata
#6
Rafael Roberto Klosterhoff, Luiz K S Kanazawa, Ana L D M Furlanetto, Joao V C Peixoto, Claudia R Corso, Eliana R Adami, Marcello Iacomini, Rosalvo T H Fogaça, Alexandra Acco, Silvia M S C Cadena, Roberto Andreatini, Lucimara M C Cordeiro
A fraction composed of an arabinan-rich pectin was extracted from acerola fruit (Malpighia emarginata) and named ACWS. This fraction presented 93% of total carbohydrate, relative molecular weight of 7.5×10(4)g/mol, galacturonic acid, arabinose, galactose, xylose and rhamnose in 52.1:32.4:7.2:4.8:3.5 molar ratio and had its structure confirmed by NMR analysis. The anti-fatigue activity of ACWS was evaluated using the weight load swim test on trained mice. ACWS was orally administered at doses of 50mg/kg, 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg for 28 days...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135225/regional-variations-of-spontaneous-transient-adenosine-release-in-brain-slices
#7
Scott T Lee, B Jill Venton
Transient adenosine signaling has been recently discovered in vivo, where the concentration is on average 180 nM and the duration only 3-4 seconds. Characterizing transient adenosine release in brain slices would facilitate pharmacological experiments testing formation and function of adenosine. Here, the goal was to compare the frequency, concentration, and duration of transient events in rat brain slices from the pre-frontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus (CA1), and thalamus using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry...
November 14, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117709/detecting-perfusion-pattern-based-on-the-background-low-frequency-fluctuation-in-resting-state-functional-mri-data-and-its-influence-on-resting-state-networks-an-iterative-post-processing-approach
#8
Tianyi Qian, Davide Zanchi, Cristelle Rodriguez, Marine Ackermann, Panteleimon Giannakopoulos, Sven Haller
INTRODUCTION: RS-fMRI is based on the assumption that the vascular response and the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) response are homogenous across the entire brain. However, this a priori hypothesis is not consistent with the well-known variability of cerebral vascular territories. In order to explore whether the RS networks are influenced by varied vascular speed in different vascular territories, we assessed the time-shift maps that give an estimate of the local timing of the vascular response and check whether local differences in this timing have an impact on the estimates of RS networks...
November 8, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060585/eeg-based-approach-withdrawal-index-for-the-pleasantness-evaluation-during-taste-experience-in-realistic-settings
#9
Gianluca Di Flumeri, Pietro Arico, Gianluca Borghini, Nicolina Sciaraffa, Anton Giulio Maglione, Dario Rossi, Enrica Modica, Arianna Trettel, Fabio Babiloni, Alfredo Colosimo, Maria Trinidad Herrero
The taste is a vital sense in humans, because of its active role in regulating nutrition or avoiding harmful substances. Several studies showed the important role of the brain Pre-Frontal Cortex in decoding information coming from the gustatory system. It is also widely known, in neuroscientific literature, that the asymmetry of Pre-Frontal Cortex Activity is closely linked to the feeling of pleasantness experienced by the subject during sensorial stimulation. In this regard, from the electroencephalographic (EEG) signal it is possible to estimate the Approach/Withdrawal (AW) index, which has been largely investigated and validated in scientific literature, regarding visual, acoustic and olfactory stimuli...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055394/is-damage-to-the-pre-frontal-cortex-dormant-until-adolescence-or-difficult-to-detect-looking-for-keys-that-unlock-executive-functions-in-children-in-the-wrong-place
#10
James Tonks, W Huw Williams, Alan Slater, Ian Frampton
A range of functions can be negatively affected by pre-frontal cortex (PFC) injury, but observed behavioural and social changes are commonly linked to post-injury changes in executive function. Executive functioning is a complex neuropsychological construct which is further complicated by neuro-developmental processes when applied to children. There is a substantial and continuing evidence base that supports the view that early childhood pre-frontal cortex (PFC) injury results in hidden, dormant, or sleeping effects...
October 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042073/functional-network-dysconnectivity-as-a-biomarker-of-treatment-resistance-in-schizophrenia
#11
Carolyn B McNabb, Roger J Tait, Meghan E McIlwain, Valerie M Anderson, John Suckling, Robert R Kydd, Bruce R Russell
Schizophrenia may develop from disruptions in functional connectivity regulated by neurotransmitters such as dopamine and acetylcholine. The modulatory effects of these neurotransmitters might explain how antipsychotics attenuate symptoms of schizophrenia and account for the variable response to antipsychotics observed in clinical practice. Based on the putative mechanisms of antipsychotics and evidence of disrupted connectivity in schizophrenia, we hypothesised that functional network connectivity, as assessed using network-based statistics, would exhibit differences between treatment response subtypes of schizophrenia and healthy controls...
October 14, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036632/mapping-compulsivity-in-the-dsm-5-obsessive-compulsive-and-related-disorders-cognitive-domains-neural-circuitry-and-treatment
#12
Naomi A Fineberg, Annemieke M Apergis-Schoute, M Matilde Vaghi, Paula Banca, Claire M Gillan, Valerie Voon, Samuel R Chamberlain, Cinosi Eduardo, Reid Jemma, Sonia Shahper, Edward T Bullmore, Barbara J Sahakian, Trevor W Robbins
Compulsions are repetitive, stereotyped thoughts and behaviors designed to reduce harm. Growing evidence suggests that the neurocognitive mechanisms mediating behavioural inhibition (motor inhibition, cognitive inflexibility) reversal learning and habit formation (shift from goal-directed to habitual responding) contribute toward compulsive activity in a broad range of disorders. In obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), distributed network perturbation appears focussed around the pre-frontal cortex, caudate, putamen and associated neuro-circuitry...
September 23, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986718/frontal-lobe-connectivity-and-network-community-characteristics-are%C3%A2-associated-with-the-outcome-of-subthalamic-nucleus-deep-brain-stimulation-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#13
Nabin Koirala, Vinzenz Fleischer, Martin Glaser, Kirsten E Zeuner, Günther Deuschl, Jens Volkmann, Muthuraman Muthuraman, Sergiu Groppa
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is nowadays an evidence-based state of the art therapy option for motor and non-motor symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the exact anatomical regions of the cerebral network that are targeted by STN-DBS have not been precisely described and no definitive pre-intervention predictors of the clinical response exist. In this study, we test the hypothesis that the clinical effectiveness of STN-DBS depends on the connectivity profile of the targeted brain networks...
October 6, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959200/open-and-closed-skill-exercise-interventions-produce-different-neurocognitive-effects-on-executive-functions-in-the-elderly-a-6-month-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Chia-Liang Tsai, Chien-Yu Pan, Fu-Chen Chen, Yu-Ting Tseng
This study aimed to explore the effects of open- and closed-skill exercise interventions on the neurocognitive performance of executive functions in the elderly. Sixty-four healthy elderly males were randomly assigned to either a closed-skill (bike riding or brisk walking/jogging, n = 22), open-skill (table tennis, n = 21), or control (n = 21) group. Various neuropsychological [e.g., accuracy rates (AR) and reaction time (RT)] and electrophysiological [e.g., event-related potential (ERP) P3 component] measures were assessed during a variant of the task-switching paradigm, as well as an N-back task at baseline and after either a 6-month exercise intervention or control period...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951450/top-down-modulation-of-auditory-motor-integration-during-speech-production-the-role-of-working-memory
#15
Zhiqiang Guo, Xiuqin Wu, Weifeng Li, Jeffery A Jones, Nan Yan, Stanley Sheft, Peng Liu, Hanjun Liu
Although working memory (WM) is considered as an emergent property of the speech perception and production systems, the role of WM in sensorimotor integration during speech processing is largely unknown. We conducted two event-related potential experiments with female and male young adults to investigate the contribution of WM to the neurobehavioural processing of altered auditory feedback during vocal production. A delayed match-to-sample task that required participants to indicate whether the pitch feedback perturbations they heard during vocalizations in test and sample sequences matched, elicited significantly larger vocal compensations, larger N1 responses in the left middle and superior temporal gyrus, and smaller P2 responses in the left middle and superior temporal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, somatosensory cortex, right inferior frontal gyrus, and insula compared with a control task that did not require memory retention of the sequence of pitch perturbations...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941812/enhanced-error-related-negativity-amplitude-in-medication-na%C3%A3-ve-comorbidity-free-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#16
Hema Nawani, Janardhanan C Narayanaswamy, Shrinivasa Basavaraju, Anushree Bose, Sri Mahavir Agarwal, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian, Y C Janardhan Reddy
Error monitoring and response inhibition is a key cognitive deficit in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Frontal midline regions such as the cingulate cortex and pre-supplementary motor area are considered critical brain substrates of this deficit. Electrophysiological equivalent of the above dysfunction is a fronto-central event related potential (ERP) which occurs after an error called the error related negativity (ERN). In this study, we sought to compare the ERN parameters between medication-naïve, comorbidity-free subjects with OCD and healthy controls (HC)...
September 12, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939939/cognitive-performance-change-of-pediatric-patients-after-conducting-frontal-transcortical-approach-to-treat-lateral-ventricular-tumor
#17
Wanchun Zhu, Jintao He, Xiang Li, Lei Wang, Zheng Lu, Chunde Li, Jian Gong
OBJECTIVE: Applying frontal transcortical approach to treat lateral ventricular tumor is one of the most common neurosurgical manipulations. The frontal transcortical approach generally passes through the middle frontal gyrus in which there is no major function involved in the traditional sense. However, current researches have suggested that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a central role in the whole network of the brain cognitive frame. In addition, cognitive function is crucial in growing and developmental stages and essential for the educational achievement, especially for children...
December 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937272/effects-of-movement-music-therapy-with-a-percussion-instrument-on-physical-and-frontal-lobe-function-in-older-adults-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Nobuko Shimizu, Tomohiro Umemura, Masahiro Matsunaga, Takayoshi Hirai
OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypothesis that performing a rhythmic physical task accompanied by a cognitive task, such as multitask movement music therapy (MMT) involving repetitive rhythmic movement with a musical instrument (the Naruko clapper), may improve pre-frontal cortex (PFC) function and cognitive performance. METHOD: Forty-five older adult participants with MCI (74.62 ± 5.05 years) participated in this randomized, controlled, single-blind intervention trial...
September 22, 2017: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929571/repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-over-inferior-frontal-cortex-impairs-the-suppression-but-not-expression-of-action-impulses-during-action-conflict
#19
A Dilene van Campen, Richard Kunert, Wery P M van den Wildenberg, K Richard Ridderinkhof
In the recent literature, the effects of noninvasive neurostimulation on cognitive functioning appear to lack consistency and replicability. We propose that such effects may be concealed unless dedicated, sensitive, and process-specific dependent measures are used. The expression and subsequent suppression of response capture are often studied using conflict tasks. Response-time distribution analyses have been argued to provide specific measures of the susceptibility to make fast impulsive response errors, as well as the proficiency of the selective suppression of these impulses...
September 20, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928072/orbitofrontal-epilepsy-case-series-and-review-of-literature
#20
Imane Samah Chibane, Olivier Boucher, François Dubeau, Thi Phuoc Yen Tran, Ismail Mohamed, Richard McLachlan, R Mark Sadler, Richard Desbiens, Lionel Carmant, Dang Khoa Nguyen
BACKGROUND: Orbitofrontal epilepsy (OFE) is less known and is poorly characterized in comparison with temporal lobe epilepsy, partly because it is rare and possibly because it is unrecognized and therefore underestimated. OBJECTIVE: This paper aimed to better characterize seizure semiology, presurgical findings, and surgical outcomes in patients with OFE. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all confidently established OFE cases from six Canadian epilepsy monitoring units between 1988 and 2014, and in the literature between 1972 and 2017...
November 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
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