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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545782/autoimmune-encephalopathy-for-psychiatrists-when-to-suspect-autoimmunity-and-what-to-do-next
#1
REVIEW
Mark Oldham
OBJECTIVE: To provide a critical review of autoimmune encephalopathy-broadly defined as neuropsychiatric features directly related to an autoimmune process-relevant for psychiatric practice. METHODS: We consulted rheumatology textbooks to define the scope of autoimmune conditions and identified recent reviews of rheumatic conditions, autoimmune vasculitis, and autoimmune encephalitis. We integrated these with primary reports to provide a clinically relevant overview of autoimmune encephalopathy...
May 2017: Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545157/the-aminoestrogen-prolame-increases-recognition-memory-and-hippocampal-neuronal-spine-density-in-aged-mice
#2
Alfonso Diaz, Samuel Treviño, Rubén Vázquez-Roque, Berenice Venegas, Blanca Espinosa, Gonzalo Flores, Juan Manuel Fernández-G, Luis F Montaño, Jorge Guevara
The aging brain shows biochemical and morphological changes in the dendrites of pyramidal neurons from the limbic system associated with memory loss. Prolame (N-(3-hydroxy-1,3,5 (10) -estratrien-17β-yl) -3-hydroxypropylamine) is a non-feminizing aminoestrogen with antithrombotic activity that prevents neuronal deterioration, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of prolame on motor and cognitive processes, as well as its influence on the dendritic morphology of neurons at the CA1, CA3 and granule cells of the dentate gyrus (DG) regions of hippocampus (HP), and medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) of aged mice...
May 25, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540750/neurobiology-of-emotions-an-update
#3
Vanderson Esperidião-Antonio, Marilia Majeski-Colombo, Diana Toledo-Monteverde, Glaciele Moraes-Martins, Juliana José Fernandes, Marjorie Bauchiglioni de Assis, Stefânia Montenegro, Rodrigo Siqueira-Batista
The 'nature' of emotions is one of the archaic themes of Western thought, thematized in different cultural manifestations - such as art, science, philosophy, myths and religion -, since Ancient times. In the last decades, the advances in neurosciences have permitted the construction of hypotheses that explain emotions, especially through the studies involving the limbic system. To present an updated discussion about the neurobiology of processes relating to emotions - focusing (1) on the main neural structures that relate to emotions, (2) the paths and circuits of greater relevance, (3) the implicated neurotransmitters, (4) the connections that possess neurovegetative control and (5) the discussion about the main emotions - is the objective of this present article...
May 25, 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527694/voluntary-wheel-running-ameliorates-depression-like-behaviors-and-brain-blood-oxygen-level-dependent-signals-in-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress-mice
#4
Peng Huang, Zhaoyang Dong, Weiliang Huang, Chuying Zhou, Weichao Zhong, Peiqian Hu, Ge Wen, Xuegang Sun, Heyu Hua, Huihui Cao, Lei Gao, Zhiping Lv
BACKGROUND: Physical exercise has been long recognized for its therapeutic effects on depressive disorders, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. In the study, we investigated whether the physical exercise by voluntary wheel running (VWR) alters depression-like behaviors and its impact on brain blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals in mice. METHODS: Adult male C57BL/6 mice were assigned to one of the following groups; (1) no exercise control (noEx), housed in a standard cage; (2) exercise (Ex), 2hours/day in a running wheel apparatus; (3) chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), which was imitating adult stress; and (4) CUMS+Ex...
May 17, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527681/decreased-food-anticipatory-activity-of-obese-mice-relates-to-hypothalamic-c-fos-expression
#5
C Luna-Illades, T Morales, M Miranda-Anaya
During daily Food Restriction (FR), obese Neotomodon alstoni mice present decreased Food Anticipatory Activity (FAA) compared to lean mice. Here, we investigated whether FOS expression in hypothalamic nuclei involved in food synchronization and anticipation parallels decreased FAA during daily FR of obese N. alstoni. Locomotor activity of lean and obese mice in ad libitum feeding conditions was monitored for at least two weeks. Then, a gradual restriction of food access was followed to establish a 5h period of daily food access...
May 17, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526294/central-amygdala-activation-of-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-1-and-age-dependent-changes-in-inflammatory-pain-sensitivity-in-mice
#6
Katelyn E Sadler, Nathan M Gartland, Jane E Cavanaugh, Benedict J Kolber
Aging populations are more sensitive to noxious stimuli as a result of altered somatosensory systems. In these experiments, we examined pain-like behaviors in young, middle-aged, and old mice during peripheral inflammation to determine if the same sensitivity exists in preclinical animal models. Immediately following injury, middle-aged and old mice exhibited more spontaneous pain-like behaviors than young mice, matching pain prevalence in clinical populations. Middle-aged and old mice also developed persistent mechanical hypersensitivity in the injured paw...
April 26, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521007/computing-the-social-brain-connectome-across-systems-and-states
#7
Daniel Alcalá-López, Jonathan Smallwood, Elizabeth Jefferies, Frank Van Overwalle, Kai Vogeley, Rogier B Mars, Bruce I Turetsky, Angela R Laird, Peter T Fox, Simon B Eickhoff, Danilo Bzdok
Social skills probably emerge from the interaction between different neural processing levels. However, social neuroscience is fragmented into highly specialized, rarely cross-referenced topics. The present study attempts a systematic reconciliation by deriving a social brain definition from neural activity meta-analyses on social-cognitive capacities. The social brain was characterized by meta-analytic connectivity modeling evaluating coactivation in task-focused brain states and physiological fluctuations evaluating correlations in task-free brain states...
May 18, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511918/molecular-imaging-of-serotonin-degeneration-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#8
Gwenn S Smith, Frederick S Barrett, Jin Hui Joo, Najlla Nassery, Alena Savonenko, Devin J Sodums, Christopher M Marano, Cynthia A Munro, Jason Brandt, Michael A Kraut, Yun Zhou, Dean F Wong, Clifford I Workman
Neuropathological and neuroimaging studies have consistently demonstrated degeneration of monoamine systems, especially the serotonin system, in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease. The evidence for degeneration of the serotonin system in mild cognitive impairment is limited. Thus, the goal of the present study was to measure the serotonin transporter in vivo in mild cognitive impairment and healthy controls. The serotonin transporter is a selective marker of serotonin terminals and of the integrity of serotonin projections to cortical, subcortical and limbic regions, as well as the cell bodies of origin (raphe nuclei)...
May 13, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502529/mechanisms-underlying-the-early-risk-to-develop-anxiety-and-depression-a-translational-approach
#9
REVIEW
Ned H Kalin
Anxious temperament (AT) is an early life disposition that markedly increases the risk to develop stress related psychopathology such as anxiety and depressive disorders. Since anxiety and depression are common, and frequently have their onset early in life, a better understanding of the factors related to their childhood onset will facilitate the development of new more effective neurally informed interventions. A nonhuman primate (NHP) developmental model of childhood AT has been established, which has provided an understanding of the neural systems and molecular mechanisms mediating the development of AT...
May 11, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498725/evaluation-of-abbott-s-burstdr-stimulation-device-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-pain
#10
Timothy R Deer, Lucas W Campos, Jason E Pope
Burst stimulation, as described by DeRidder, is a novel waveform made up of closely spaced, high-frequency electrical impulses delivered in packets, which are followed by a quiescent period or interburst interval. Electrically generated burst waveforms were initially designed to treat neural pathology in the auditory cortex and were later applied to the spinal cord through spinal cord stimulation (SCS) devices to treat chronic pain states. When Burst stimulation is applied to the spinal cord, the impulses travel to the thalamus and then diverge, targeting both the somatosensory cortex and the limbic system where they treat both the sensory, affective and attentional components of neuropathic pain...
May 12, 2017: Expert Review of Medical Devices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497109/hippocampal-tnf%C3%AE-signaling-contributes-to-seizure-generation-in-an-infection-induced-mouse-model-of-limbic-epilepsy
#11
Dipan C Patel, Glenna Wallis, E Jill Dahle, Pallavi B McElroy, Kyle E Thomson, Raymond J Tesi, David E Szymkowski, Peter J West, Roy M Smeal, Manisha Patel, Robert S Fujinami, H Steve White, Karen S Wilcox
Central nervous system infection can induce epilepsy that is often refractory to established antiseizure drugs. Previous studies in the Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV)-induced mouse model of limbic epilepsy have demonstrated the importance of inflammation, especially that mediated by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), in the development of acute seizures. TNFα modulates glutamate receptor trafficking via TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) to cause increased excitatory synaptic transmission. Therefore, we hypothesized that an increase in TNFα signaling after TMEV infection might contribute to acute seizures...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492457/the-role-of-amantadine-withdrawal-in-3-cases-of-treatment-refractory-altered-mental-status
#12
Leah D Fryml, Kristen R Williams, Christopher G Pelic, James Fox, Gregory Sahlem, Sophie Robert, Gonzalo J Revuelta, Edward Baron Short
Amantadine, which was originally developed as an antiviral medication, functions as a dopamine agonist in the central nervous system and consequently is utilized in the treatment of Parkinson disease, drug-induced extrapyramidal reactions, and neuroleptic malignant syndrome. For reasons that are not entirely understood, abrupt changes in amantadine dosage can produce a severe withdrawal syndrome. Existing medical literature describes case reports of amantadine withdrawal leading to delirium, which at times has progressed to neuroleptic malignant syndrome...
May 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488261/use-of-tramadol-in-psychiatric-care-a-comprehensive-review-and-report-of-two-cases
#13
Ansgar Rougemont-Bücking, Franziska Gamma, Jaak Panksepp
Tramadol is widely prescribed for treating acute and chronic forms of pain. It is a weak mu-receptor opioid agonist and also increases concentrations of serotonin and noradrenaline within the limbic system of the brain. The therapeutic range of tramadol is relatively wide. Compared with other opioid agonists, there is little risk for developing tolerance and for abuse. Recent models of depression emphasise the subjective experience of a depressive mood as being, in part, a psychologically painful state. It is well established that psychological stress due to social separation/loss, disruption or be-trayal of pre-existent significant interpersonal bonds is mediated by the activation of the mammalian PANIC (separation-distress) system...
May 10, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483714/purposeless-oral-activity-induced-by-meta-chlorophenylpiperazine-m-cpp-undefined-tic-like-behaviors
#14
Deborah S Kreiss, Philippe De Deurwaerdère
BACKGROUND: The pathophysiological hypothesis underlying tic disorders in Tourette syndrome (TS) is that basal ganglia are not capable of properly filtering cortical information, leading patients with difficulties in inhibiting unwanted behaviors or impulses. One of the main challenges for furthering such a hypothesis is to find appropriate animal models summarizing some aspects of the disease. METHODS: It has been established for more than 25 years in rodents that the prototypical serotonin (5-HT) agonist meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP) elicits purposeless oral movements including chewing behavior...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482636/intrahippocampal-pathways-involved-in-learning-memory-mechanisms-are-affected-by-intracerebral-infusions-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-25-35-peptide-and-hydrated-fullerene-c60-in-rats
#15
Rita Gordon, Igor Podolski, Ekaterina Makarova, Alexander Deev, Ekaterina Mugantseva, Sergey Khutsyan, Frank Sengpiel, Arkady Murashev, Vasily Vorobyov
Primary memory impairments associated with increased level of amyloid-β (Aβ) in the brain have been shown to be linked, partially, with early pathological changes in the entorhinal cortex (EC) which spread on the whole limbic system. While the hippocampus is known to play a key role in learning and memory mechanisms, it is as yet unclear how its structures are involved in the EC pathology. In this study, changes in memory and neuronal morphology in male Wistar rats intrahippocampally injected with Aβ25-35 were correlated on days 14 and 45 after the injection to reveal specific cognitive-structural associations...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479476/high-resolution-magnetic-resonance-imaging-reveals-nuclei-of-the-human-amygdala-manual-segmentation-to-automatic-atlas
#16
Z M Saygin, D Kliemann, J E Iglesias, A J W van der Kouwe, E Boyd, M Reuter, A Stevens, K Van Leemput, A McKee, M P Frosch, B Fischl, J C Augustinack
The amygdala is composed of multiple nuclei with unique functions and connections in the limbic system and to the rest of the brain. However, standard in vivo neuroimaging tools to automatically delineate the amygdala into its multiple nuclei are still rare. By scanning postmortem specimens at high resolution (100-150µm) at 7T field strength (n = 10), we were able to visualize and label nine amygdala nuclei (anterior amygdaloid, cortico-amygdaloid transition area; basal, lateral, accessory basal, central, cortical medial, paralaminar nuclei)...
May 4, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479265/the-amphetamine-associated-context-exerts-a-stronger-motivational-effect-in-low-anxiety-rats-than-in-high-anxiety-rats
#17
Małgorzata Lehner, Marek Gryz, Aleksandra Wisłowska-Stanek, Danuta Turzyńska, Alicja Sobolewska, Anna Skórzewska, Adam Płaźnik
This study used the conditioned place preference test to explore the effects of subchronic amphetamine administration on drug-associated cues in rats with different emotional reactivity. We also examined the changes in markers of dopaminergic activity in brain regions in response to the amphetamine-paired context, after a withdrawal period preceded by subchronic amphetamine treatment. We used low-anxiety (LR) and high-anxiety (HR) rats, which are known to exhibit distinct levels of susceptibility to amphetamine...
May 4, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470168/anxiety-disorders
#18
REVIEW
Michelle G Craske, Murray B Stein, Thalia C Eley, Mohammed R Milad, Andrew Holmes, Ronald M Rapee, Hans-Ulrich Wittchen
Anxiety disorders constitute the largest group of mental disorders in most western societies and are a leading cause of disability. The essential features of anxiety disorders are excessive and enduring fear, anxiety or avoidance of perceived threats, and can also include panic attacks. Although the neurobiology of individual anxiety disorders is largely unknown, some generalizations have been identified for most disorders, such as alterations in the limbic system, dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and genetic factors...
May 4, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464508/limbic-grey-matter-changes-in-early-parkinson-s-disease
#19
Xingfeng Li, Yue Xing, Stefan T Schwarz, Dorothee P Auer
The purpose of this study was to investigate local and network-related changes of limbic grey matter in early Parkinson's disease (PD) and their inter-relation with non-motor symptom severity. We applied voxel-based morphometric methods in 538 T1 MRI images retrieved from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative website. Grey matter densities and cross-sectional estimates of age-related grey matter change were compared between subjects with early PD (n = 366) and age-matched healthy controls (n = 172) within a regression model, and associations of grey matter density with symptoms were investigated...
May 2, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458648/pitch-syntax-violations-are-linked-to-greater-skin-conductance-changes-relative-to-timbral-violations-the-predictive-role-of-the-reward-system-in-perspective-of-cortico-subcortical-loops
#20
Edward J Gorzelańczyk, Piotr Podlipniak, Piotr Walecki, Maciej Karpiński, Emilia Tarnowska
According to contemporary opinion emotional reactions to syntactic violations are due to surprise as a result of the general mechanism of prediction. The classic view is that, the processing of musical syntax can be explained by activity of the cerebral cortex. However, some recent studies have indicated that subcortical brain structures, including those related to the processing of emotions, are also important during the processing of syntax. In order to check whether emotional reactions play a role in the processing of pitch syntax or are only the result of the general mechanism of prediction, the comparison of skin conductance levels reacting to three types of melodies were recorded...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
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