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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052102/changes-in-cerebellar-functional-connectivity-and-autonomic-regulation-in-cancer-patients-treated-with-the-neuro-emotional-technique-for-traumatic-stress-symptoms
#1
Daniel A Monti, Anna Tobia, Marie Stoner, Nancy Wintering, Michael Matthews, Chris J Conklin, Feroze B Mohamed, Inna Chervoneva, Andrew B Newberg
PURPOSE: A growing number of research studies have implicated the cerebellum in emotional processing and regulation, especially with regard to negative emotional memories. However, there currently are no studies showing functional changes in the cerebellum as a result of treatment for traumatic stress symptoms. The Neuro Emotional Technique (NET) is an intervention designed to help improve symptoms related to traumatic stress using an integrative approach that combines emotional, cognitive, and motor processing, with a particular focus on autonomic nervous system regulation...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Cancer Survivorship: Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039414/-the-limbic-system-in-youth-depression-brain-structural-and-functional-alterations-in-adolescent-in-patients-with-severe-depression
#2
Ronny Redlich, Nils Opel, Christian Bürger, Katharina Dohm, Dominik Grotegerd, Katharina Förster, Dario Zaremba, Susanne Meinert, Jonathan Repple, Verena Enneking, Elisabeth Leehr, Joshua Böhnlein, Lena Winters, Neele Froböse, Sophia Thrun, Julia Emtmann, Walter Heindel, Harald Kugel, Volker Arolt, Georg Romer, Christian Postert, Udo Dannlowski
Adolescent-onset Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is associated with an increased risk of recurrent depressive episodes, suicidal behaviors, and psychiatric morbidity throughout the lifespan. The objective of the present study was to investigate brain structural and functional changes in adolescent patients with MDD. Furthermore, we aimed to clarify the influence of early-life stress on brain function and structure. The study investigated adolescent patients with severe MDD (n=20, mean age=16.0, range=15-18 years) and a control sample of matched healthy adolescents (n=21, mean age= 16...
October 17, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038494/a-study-of-the-brain-abnormalities-of-post-stroke-depression-in-frontal-lobe-lesion
#3
Yu Shi, Yanyan Zeng, Lei Wu, Wei Liu, Ziping Liu, Shanshan Zhang, Jianming Yang, Wen Wu
Post stroke depression (PSD) is a serious complication of stroke. Brain imaging is an important method of studying the mechanism of PSD. However, few studies have focused on the single lesion location. The aim of this study was to investigate the brain mechanism of frontal lobe PSD using combined voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In total, 30 first-time ischemic frontal lobe stroke patients underwent T1 weighted MRI and resting-state fMRI scans. Clinical assessments included the 24-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, and the Mini-Mental State Examination...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038061/structural-and-functional-brain-changes-at-early-and-late-stages-of-complex-regional-pain-syndrome
#4
Mahsa Shokouhi, Collin Clarke, Patricia Morley-Forster, Dwight E Moulin, Karen Davis, Keith St Lawrence
Brain plasticity is demonstrated in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), although it is unclear how it modulates at different stages of CRPS. The observation that symptoms can progress over time suggests that the pattern of brain changes might also evolve. We measured structural and functional changes as well as sensorimotor integration at early and late stages (ES and LS) of CRPS. Twelve ES patients, sixteen LS patients, and sixteen age- and sex-matched controls were recruited. Gray matter (GM) volume was estimated using voxel-based morphometry...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036718/glutamatergic-response-to-heat-pain-stress-in-schizophrenia
#5
Joshua Chiappelli, Qiaoyun Shi, Sarah Andrea Wijtenburg, Raimi Quiton, Krista Wisner, Frank Gaston, Priyadurga Kodi, Christopher Gaudiot, Peter Kochunov, Laura M Rowland, Liyi Elliot Hong
Regulation of stress response involves top-down mechanisms of the frontal-limbic glutamatergic system. As schizophrenia is associated with glutamatergic abnormalities, we hypothesized that schizophrenia patients may have abnormal glutamatergic reactivity within the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), a key region involved in perception of and reaction to stress. To test this, we developed a somatic stress paradigm involving pseudorandom application of safe but painfully hot stimuli to the forearm of participants while they were undergoing serial proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure changes in glutamate and glutamine levels in the dACC...
September 23, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034263/modeling-causal-relationships-among-brain-areas-in-the-mesocorticolimbic-system-during-resting-state-in-cocaine-users-utilizing-a-graph-theoretic-approach
#6
Suchismita Ray, Bharat B Biswal, Ashley Aya, Suril Gohel, Aradhana Srinagesh, Catherine Hanson, Stephen J Hanson
OBJECTIVE: While effective connectivity (EC, causal interaction) between brain areas has been investigated in chronic users of cocaine as they view cocaine pictures cues, no study has examined EC while they take part in a resting-state scan. This resting-state fMRI study aims to investigate the causal interaction among brain areas in the mesocorticolimbic system (MCLS), which is involved in reward and motivation, in cocaine users (vs. controls). METHOD: Twenty cocaine users and 17 healthy controls finished a structural and a resting-state scan...
August 2017: Journal of Alcoholism and Drug Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031764/combined-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study-in-patients-with-idiopathic-restless-legs-syndrome
#7
Yaoyao Zhuo, Yuncheng Wu, Yanhong Xu, Lunbo Lu, Ting Li, Xifu Wang, Kangan Li
OBJECTIVE: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological disorder characterized by an urge to move the legs along with paraesthesia deep within them. In this study, we aimed to use diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and regional homogeneity (ReHo) to investigate the changes in regional spontaneous brain activity change for RLS patients against age- and gender-matched normal control (NC) subjects. METHODS: A total of 35 RLS patients and 27 age- and gender-matched NC subjects were recruited for group comparison research that used DTI and ReHo techniques...
October 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031510/pain-and-consciousness
#8
REVIEW
Luis Garcia-Larrea, Hélène Bastuji
The aversive experience we call "pain" results from the coordinated activation of multiple brain areas, commonly described as a "pain matrix". This is not a fixed arrangement of structures but rather a fluid system composed of several interacting networks: A 'nociceptive matrix' includes regions receiving input from ascending nociceptive systems, and ensures the bodily characteristics of physical pain. A further set of structures receiving secondary input supports the 'salience' attributes of noxious stimuli, triggers top-down cognitive controls, and -most importantly- ensures the passage from pre-conscious nociception to conscious pain...
October 11, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017915/the-neurobiology-of-body-dysmorphic-disorder-a-systematic-review-and-theoretical-model
#9
REVIEW
Sally A Grace, Izelle Labuschagne, Ryan A Kaplan, Susan L Rossell
There has been an increase in neuroimaging research in body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), yet little is known about the underlying neurobiological basis of the disorder. We aimed to provide a systematic overview of the literature on the neurobiology of BDD. Two reviewers undertook a search of three electronic research databases: PubMed, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar. The search consisted of synonyms commonly associated with BDD and methods to evaluate brain structure, function, and network organisation. Out of an initial yield of 175 articles, 19 fulfilled inclusion criteria and were reviewed...
October 7, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990866/neuroanatomical-correlates-of-emotion-processing-in-children-with-unilateral-brain-lesion-a-preliminary-study-of-limbic-system-organization
#10
Rowena Ng, Philip Lai, Timothy T Brown, Anna Järvinen, Eric Halgren, Ursula Bellugi, Doris Trauner
In this study, MRI and DTI were employed to examine subcortical volume and microstructural properties (FA, MD) of the limbic network, and their relationships with affect discrimination in 13 FL (6 right FL, M = 10.17 years; 7 left FL; M = 10.09) and 13 typically-developing children (TD; M = 10.16). Subcortical volume of the amygdala, hippocampus and thalamus and FA and MD of the fornix and anterior thalamic radiation (ATR) were examined. Results revealed no group differences across emotion-perception tasks or amygdalar volume...
October 9, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987176/immune-mediated-disorders
#11
Romana Höftberger, Hans Lassmann
Paraneoplastic and autoimmune encephalitis comprise a group of immune-mediated disorders that are associated with different immune effector mechanisms. Classic paraneoplastic neurologic syndromes are triggered by an antitumor immune response. The disease is considered to result from a T-cell response; in addition, patients harbour high titers of autoantibodies against intracellular antigens that are considered as epiphenomenon but are useful diagnostic markers. Neuropathology consists of T-cell-dominated inflammation, marked neuronal loss, and microglial activation with upregulation of HLA-DR...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984777/anti-ma2-associated-limbic-encephalitis-with-coexisting-chronic-inflammatory-demyelinating-polyneuropathy-in-a-patient-with-non-hodgkin-lymphoma-a-case-report
#12
Weina Ju, Baochang Qi, Xu Wang, Yu Yang
RATIONALE: We report the rare case of a 74-year-old man with anti-Ma2-associated paraneoplastic neurologic syndrome (PNS), and review and analyze the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of the disease. PATIENT CONCERNS: The patient presented with a 5-month history of muscle weakness, progressive body aches, and weakness and numbness in both lower extremities. Before his hospitalization, he had experienced cognitive function decline; ptosis, inward gaze, and vertical gaze palsy in the right eye; and occasional visual hallucinations...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983608/alterations-in-cyclin%C3%A2-d1-and-cyclin%C3%A2-dependent-kinase-4-expression-in-the-amygdalae-of-post%C3%A2-traumatic-stress-disorder-rats
#13
Ming Cong, Lili Wen, Fang Han, Yanhao Xu, Yuxiu Shi
The amygdalae are an important component of the human limbic system and exhibit a key role in emotional and behavioral reactions. Previous studies have demonstrated abnormal function and morphology in the amygdalae of post‑traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)‑like animal models, however the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. The authors have previously demonstrated that PTSD induced increased apoptosis in the amygdala of PTSD‑like animals. Cyclin D1 and cyclin‑dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) are two important regulators of the cell cycle...
September 26, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981226/-balance-disorders
#14
C Van Nechel
Balance disorders may result from an impairment of one of the sensorial modalities involved in the perception of the self-location in space: vestibular, proprioception and vision, a deficit of the neuronal multisensorial integration, a less effective motor or loco-motor system, the medication side effects or psychological interferences. The basic examination of a dizzy patient implies the assessment of these different aspects. The balance is not restricted to à set of reflexes. It is a distinctive expression of the sixth sense : the sense of orientation...
2017: Revue Médicale de Bruxelles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979822/the-role-and-treatment-implications-of-peripheral-and-central-processing-of-pain-pruritus-and-nausea-in-heightened-somatic-awareness-a-review
#15
REVIEW
David R Spiegel, Alexander Pattison, Alexis Lyons, Umer Ansari, Aidan L Mccroskey, Eric Luehrs, Lauren Barr, Stephanie Le
Pain, pruritus, and nausea are complex sensory and emotional physiological symptoms that can vary widely between people and even within an individual, depending on the context and meaning of the symptom and the psychological state of the person. This article reviews the acute neural transmission of pain, pruritus, and nausea symptoms, which can begin in the periphery and/or viscera. The subsequent multiple pathways in the central nervous system that become involved in the processing of these symptoms are also discussed...
May 2017: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970785/multiple-transmitter-receptors-in-regions-and-layers-of-the-human-cerebral-cortex
#16
Karl Zilles, Nicola Palomero-Gallagher
We measured the densities (fmol/mg protein) of 15 different receptors of various transmitter systems in the supragranular, granular and infragranular strata of 44 areas of visual, somatosensory, auditory and multimodal association systems of the human cerebral cortex. Receptor densities were obtained after labeling of the receptors using quantitative in vitro receptor autoradiography in human postmortem brains. The mean density of each receptor type over all cortical layers and of each of the three major strata varies between cortical regions...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968767/neuronal-migration-and-axonal-pathways-linked-to-human-fetal-insular-development-revealed-by-diffusion-mr-tractography
#17
Avilash Das, Emi Takahashi
The insula is a multimodal sensory integration structure that, in addition to serving as a gateway between somatosensory areas and limbic structures, plays a crucial role in autonomic nervous system function. While anatomical studies following the development of the insula have been conducted, currently, no studies have been published in human fetuses tracking the development of neuronal migration or of white matter tracts in the cortex. In this study, we aimed to follow the neuronal migration and subsequent maturation of axons in and around the insula in human fetal ages...
August 31, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966090/area-prostriata-in-the-human-brain
#18
Kyriaki Mikellidou, Jan W Kurzawski, Francesca Frijia, Domenico Montanaro, Vincenzo Greco, David C Burr, Maria Concetta Morrone
Area prostriata is a cortical area at the fundus of the calcarine sulcus, described anatomically in humans [1-5] and other primates [6-9]. It is lightly myelinated and lacks the clearly defined six-layer structure evident throughout the cerebral cortex, with a thinner layer 4 and thicker layer 2 [10], characteristic of limbic cortex [11]. In the marmoset and rhesus monkey, area prostriata has cortical connections with MT+ [12], the cingulate motor cortex [8], the auditory cortex [13], the orbitofrontal cortex, and the frontal polar cortices [14]...
October 9, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966085/distinct-roles-of-ventromedial-versus-ventrolateral-striatal-medium-spiny-neurons-in-reward-oriented-behavior
#19
Iku Tsutsui-Kimura, Akiyo Natsubori, Marina Mori, Kenta Kobayashi, Michael R Drew, Alban de Kerchove d'Exaerde, Masaru Mimura, Kenji F Tanaka
The ventral striatum (VS) is a key brain center regulating reward-oriented behavior [1-4]. The VS can be anatomically divided into medial (VMS) and lateral (VLS) portions based on cortical input patterns. The VMS receives inputs from medial pallium-originated limbic structures (e.g., the medial prefrontal cortex [mPFC]), and the VLS receives inputs from the lateral pallium-originated areas (e.g., the insula) [5, 6]. This anatomical feature led us to hypothesize a functional segregation within the VS in terms of the regulation of reward-oriented behavior...
October 9, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963037/disruption-of-the-ascending-arousal-system-and-cortical-attention-networks-in-post-stroke-delirium-and-spatial-neglect
#20
REVIEW
Olga Boukrina, A M Barrett
Delirium is an acute attention and cognitive dysfunction, adversely affecting functional outcomes and mortality. As many as half of hospitalized right brain stroke survivors may develop delirium. Further, about 50% of right stroke patients experience spatial neglect, impairing safety and recovery. In this review we explore the brain mechanisms, which may explain the high incidence of delirium and spatial neglect after right-brain stroke. We suggest that brain networks for spatial attention and arousal, composed of ascending projections from the midbrain nuclei and integrating dorsal and ventral cortical and limbic components, may underlie impairments in delirium and spatial neglect...
September 27, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
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