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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674271/trait-attentional-control-modulates-neurofunctional-response-to-threat-distractors-in-anxiety-and-depression
#1
Heide Klumpp, Kerry L Kinney, Amy E Kennedy, Stewart A Shankman, Scott A Langenecker, Anand Kumar, K Luan Phan
Accumulating data suggest attentional control capability varies across psychiatric diagnostic boundaries. The Attentional Control Scale (ACS) assesses self-reported trait attentional control (TAC) and tracks the anterior attention system. Greater TAC is associated with less negative affect, however, its mechanisms in anxiety and depression are poorly understood. Therefore, we examined whether individual differences in TAC modulated top-down mechanisms in a clinical sample. During fMRI, 104 patients with social anxiety, generalized anxiety, and/or major depression and 34 healthy participants completed a validated attentional control paradigm comprising strings of letters superimposed on threatening and neutral face distractors...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673951/revealing-the-cerebello-ponto-hypothalamic-pathway-in-the-human-brain
#2
Arash Kamali, Niloofar Karbasian, Pejman Rabiei, Andres Cano, Roy F Riascos, Nitin Tandon, Octavio Arevalo, Laura Ocasio, Kyan Younes, Mahsa Khayat-Khoei, Saeedeh Mirbagheri, Khader M Hasan
The cerebellum is shown to be involved in some limbic functions of the human brain such as emotion and affect. The major connection of the cerebellum with the limbic system is known to be through the cerebello-hypothalamic pathways. The consensus is that the projections from the cerebellar nuclei to the limbic system, and particularly the hypothalamus, or from the hypothalamus to the cerebellar nuclei, are through multisynaptic pathways in the bulbar reticular formation. The detailed anatomy of the pathways responsible for mediating these responses, however, is yet to be determined...
April 16, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673780/evaluation-of-selective-attention-in-patients-with-misophonia
#3
Fúlvia Eduarda da Silva, Tanit Ganz Sanchez
INTRODUCTION: Misophonia is characterized by the aversion to very selective sounds, which evoke a strong emotional reaction. It has been inferred that misophonia, as well as tinnitus, is associated with hyperconnectivity between auditory and limbic systems. Individuals with bothersome tinnitus may have selective attention impairment, but it has not been demonstrated in case of misophonia yet. OBJECTIVE: To characterize a sample of misophonic subjects and compare it with two control groups, one with tinnitus individuals (without misophonia) and the other with asymptomatic individuals (without misophonia and without tinnitus), regarding the selective attention...
March 21, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666573/psychosocial-stress-and-immunity-what-can-we-learn-from-pig-studies
#4
Ulrike Gimsa, Margret Tuchscherer, Ellen Kanitz
Psychosocial stress may impair immune functions and provoke the development of pathologies. The underlying communication between the brain and the immune system is being studied predominantly in rodents. However, pigs offer several advantages as preclinical models for humans because pigs are more similar to humans than rodents in many anatomical and physiological characteristics. Unlike in rodents, the main stress-induced glucocorticoid in humans and pigs is cortisol with a similar circadian rhythm. In this study, we summarize data on short-term and long-term effects of social stress in pigs for their immunity and neuroendocrine regulation with consequences for their health and well-being...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665128/a-role-for-astrocyte-derived-amyloid-%C3%AE-peptides-in-the-degeneration-of-neurons-in-an-animal-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#5
A Kodam, D Ourdev, M Maulik, J Hariharakrishnan, M Banerjee, Y Wang, S Kar
Kainic acid, an analogue of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, can trigger seizures and neurotoxicity in the hippocampus and other limbic structures in a manner that mirrors the neuropathology of human temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). However, the underlying mechanisms associated with the neurotoxicity remain unclear. Since amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides, which are critical in the development of Alzheimer's disease, can mediate toxicity by activating glutamatergic NMDA receptors, it is likely that the enhanced glutamatergic transmission that renders hippocampal neurons vulnerable to kainic acid treatment may involve Aβ peptides...
April 17, 2018: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662445/dysregulation-of-pain-and-emotion-related-networks-in-trigeminal-neuralgia
#6
Yanyang Zhang, Zhiqi Mao, Longsheng Pan, Zhipei Ling, Xinyun Liu, Jun Zhang, Xinguang Yu
Classical trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a severe neuropathic facial pain disorder associated with increased risks of anxiety and depression. Converging evidence suggests that chronic pain pathophysiology involves dysfunctional pain-related and emotion-related networks. However, whether these systems are also among the culprit networks for TN remains unclear. Here, we aimed to assess TN-related anatomical and functional brain anomalies in pain-related and emotion-related networks. We investigated differences in gray matter (GM) volume and the related resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) between 29 classical TN patients and 34 matched healthy controls...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660735/the-anorexigenic-neural-pathways-of-oxytocin-and-its-clinical-implication
#7
Yuko Maejima, Shoko Yokota, Katsuhiko Nishimori, Kenju Shimomura
<br>Oxytocin was discovered in 1906 as a peptide that promotes delivery and milk ejection; however, its additional physiological functions were determined 100 years later. Many recent articles have reported newly discovered effects of oxytocin on social communication, bonding, reward-related behavior, adipose tissue, and muscle and food intake regulation. Because oxytocin neurons project to various regions in the brain that contribute to both feeding reward (hedonic feeding) and the regulation of energy balance (homeostatic feeding), the mechanisms of oxytocin on food intake regulation are complicated and largely unknown...
April 16, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660440/the-long-term-effect-of-maternal-dietary-protein-restriction-on-5-ht-1a-receptor-function-and-behavioral-responses-to-stress-in-adulthood
#8
Wenrui Ye, Michael Duffy Pitlock, Martin A Javors, Brent Thompson, James D Lechleiter, Julie G Hensler
Maternal nutrition impacts fetal development, and may play a role in determining resilience to stress and vulnerability to stress-precipitated psychiatric disorders, such as anxiety and depression. In this study, we examined the effect of a reduction in maternal dietary protein during pregnancy on the brain neurochemistry and behavior of offspring. We focused specifically on the serotonin system, the 5-HT1A receptor and the responsivity of offspring as adults to stress. Dams were fed either a low protein diet (10% protein by weight) or isocaloric control diet (20% protein by weight)...
April 13, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618742/early-life-stress-induces-long-term-changes-in-limbic-areas-of-a-teleost-fish-the-role-of-catecholamine-systems-in-stress-coping
#9
Marco A Vindas, Stefanos Fokos, Michail Pavlidis, Erik Höglund, Sylvia Dionysopoulou, Lars O E Ebbesson, Nikolaos Papandroulakis, Catherine R Dermon
Early life stress (ELS) shapes the way individuals cope with future situations. Animals use cognitive flexibility to cope with their ever-changing environment and this is mainly processed in forebrain areas. We investigated the performance of juvenile gilthead seabream, previously subjected to an ELS regime. ELS fish showed overall higher brain catecholaminergic (CA) signalling and lower brain derived neurotrophic factor (bdnf) and higher cfos expression in region-specific areas. All fish showed a normal cortisol and serotonergic response to acute stress...
April 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617708/a-systematic-review-of-the-neuropsychological-sequelae-of-people-diagnosed-with-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis-in-the-acute-and-chronic-phases
#10
Della C M Nicolle, Jennifer L Moses
Objective: A systematic review was conducted to investigate the emerging cognitive profile for people diagnosed with anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis. Method: Ten papers met the review criteria including five neuropsychological case studies and five case series; three of the 10 studies used matched controls. The cognitive functioning of 54 participants (46 female: eight male) was studied. Paper quality assessment was undertaken and outcomes summarized...
March 31, 2018: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607915/-a-case-of-limbic-encephalitis-associated-with-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome-mimicking-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis
#11
Kenji Yoshimura, Rie Kanki, Satoshi Nakano
A 25-year-old woman in her 37 weeks and 5 days pregnant presented with abnormal behavior and memory impairment following a high fever. Her manifestations were diagnosed as limbic encephalitis, and she delivered a baby by Cesarean section. In the operation, bilateral ovarian tumors were found and resected, though they were revealed as non-teratoma afterward. After operation, she became agitated, and started to present oral dyskinesia, intractable systemic myoclonus, central hypoventilation, and autonomic manifestations such as labile blood pressure, but her symptoms responded well to immunotherapy...
March 31, 2018: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607550/mapping-the-trajectory-of-the-amygdalothalamic-tract-in-the-human-brain
#12
Arash Kamali, Roy F Riascos, Jay J Pillai, Haris I Sair, Rajan Patel, Flavia M Nelson, John A Lincoln, Nitin Tandon, Saeedeh Mirbagheri, Pejman Rabiei, Zafer Keser, Khader M Hasan
Although the thalamus is not considered primarily as a limbic structure, abundant evidence indicates the essential role of the thalamus as a modulator of limbic functions indirectly through the amygdala. The amygdala is a central component of the limbic system and serves an essential role in modulating the core processes including the memory, decision-making, and emotional reactions. The amygdalothalamic pathway is the largest direct amygdalo-diencephalic connection in the primates including the human brain...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605488/the-combined-impact-of-iglon-family-proteins-lsamp-and-neurotrimin-on-developing-neurons-and-behavioral-profiles-in-mouse
#13
Katyayani Singh, Kersti Lilleväli, Scott F Gilbert, Aleksandr Bregin, Jane Narvik, Mohan Jayaram, Märt Rahi, Jürgen Innos, Allen Kaasik, Eero Vasar, Mari-Anne Philips
Cell surface neural adhesion proteins are critical components in the complex orchestration of cell proliferation, apoptosis, and neuritogenesis essential for proper brain construction and behavior. We focused on the impact of two plasticity-associated IgLON family neural adhesion molecules, Neurotrimin (Ntm) and Limbic system associated membrane protein (Lsamp), on mouse behavior and its underlying neural development. Phenotyping neurons derived from the hippocampi of Lsamp-/- , Ntm-/- and Lsamp-/- Ntm-/- mice was performed in parallel with behavioral testing...
March 29, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601300/cannabinoids-in-health-and-disease-pharmacological-potential-in-metabolic-syndrome-and-neuroinflammation
#14
REVIEW
Andrea Mastinu, Marika Premoli, Giulia Ferrari-Toninelli, Simone Tambaro, Giuseppina Maccarinelli, Maurizio Memo, Sara Anna Bonini
The use of different natural and/or synthetic preparations of Cannabis sativa is associated with therapeutic strategies for many diseases. Indeed, thanks to the widespread diffusion of the cannabinoidergic system in the brain and in the peripheral districts, its stimulation, or inhibition, regulates many pathophysiological phenomena. In particular, central activation of the cannabinoidergic system modulates the limbic and mesolimbic response which leads to food craving. Moreover, cannabinoid agonists are able to reduce inflammatory response...
March 30, 2018: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593633/quantitative-limbic-system-mapping-of-main-cognitive-domains-in-multiple-sclerosis
#15
Zafer Keser, Khader M Hasan, Benson Mwangi, Kyan Younes, Mahsa Khayat-Khoei, Arash Kamali, John A Lincoln, Flavia M Nelson
Background and objective: Cognitive impairment (CI) is common in multiple sclerosis (MS), but underlying mechanisms and their imaging correlates are not completely understood. The gray and white matter structures of the limbic system (LS) play crucial roles in different aspects of cognition. To investigate their role in MS related CI, and since a detailed evaluations are lacking in the literature, we used a comprehensive neuroimaging approach to evaluate CI's correlations with the main components of the LS...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588461/diffusion-tensor-tractography-of-the-mammillothalamic-tract-in-the-human-brain-using-a-high-spatial-resolution-dti-technique
#16
Arash Kamali, Caroline C Zhang, Roy F Riascos, Nitin Tandon, Eliana E Bonafante-Mejia, Rajan Patel, John A Lincoln, Pejman Rabiei, Laura Ocasio, Kyan Younes, Khader M Hasan
The mammillary bodies as part of the hypothalamic nuclei are in the central limbic circuitry of the human brain. The mammillary bodies are shown to be directly or indirectly connected to the amygdala, hippocampus, and thalami as the major gray matter structures of the human limbic system. Although it is not primarily considered as part of the human limbic system, the thalamus is shown to be involved in many limbic functions of the human brain. The major direct connection of the thalami with the hypothalamic nuclei is known to be through the mammillothalamic tract...
March 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584599/alterations-of-white-matter-connectivity-in-preschool-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#17
Shi-Jun Li, Yi Wang, Long Qian, Gang Liu, Shuang-Feng Liu, Li-Ping Zou, Ji-Shui Zhang, Nan Hu, Xiao-Qiao Chen, Sheng-Yuan Yu, Sheng-Li Guo, Ke Li, Mian-Wang He, Hai-Tao Wu, Jiang-Xia Qiu, Lei Zhang, Yu-Lin Wang, Xin Lou, Lin Ma
Purpose To investigate the topologic architecture of white matter connectivity networks in preschool-aged children with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) versus typical development (TD). Materials and Methods Forty-two participants were enrolled, including 21 preschool children with ASD (14 male children and seven female children; mean age, 4.56 years ± 0.97 [standard deviation]) and 21 children with TD (11 males and 10 females; mean age, 5.13 years ± 0.82). The diagnosis of ASD was determined according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Global Assessment of Functioning scores (mean score, 8...
March 27, 2018: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576116/persistent-alteration-in-behavioural-reactivity-to-a-mild-social-stressor-in-rhesus-monkeys-repeatedly-exposed-to-sevoflurane-in-infancy
#18
J Raper, J C De Biasio, K L Murphy, M C Alvarado, M G Baxter
BACKGROUND: Socio-emotional development is the expression and management of emotions, which in non-human primates can be examined using responses toward increasing levels of threat. Damage to the limbic system alters socio-emotional development in primates. Thus, neuronal and glial cell loss caused by exposure to general anaesthesia early in infancy might also impact socio-emotional development. We recently reported that repeated sevoflurane exposure in the first month of life alters emotional behaviours at 6 months of age and impairs visual recognition memory after the first year of life in rhesus monkeys...
April 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575277/association-study-of-functional-polymorphisms-of-dopaminergic-pathway-in-epilepsy-related-factors-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-in-brazilian-population
#19
Juliana A Alcantara, Silvia Vincentiisa, Daniel S Kerr, Bernardo Dos Santos, Ruda Alessi, Helio van der Linden, Tiffany Chaim, Maurício H Serpa, Geraldo Busatto, Wagner F Gattaz, Renata Demarque, Kette Dr Valente
BACKGROUND: There is scarce data about the role of neurotransmission modulated by dopamine (DA) in epilepsy, especially temporal lobe epilepsy. This is the first study that aimed to analyze the dopaminergic polymorphisms in an etiologically homogeneous group of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy determined by hippocampal sclerosis (TLE-HS). Selected polymorphisms were: (i) the most expressed receptors in the limbic system D2-like (DRD2/ANKK1 TAQ-1A, D4_VNTR, and D4_rs1800955); (ii) the dopamine transporter DAT - 3 'untranslated region (3'UTR) and Intron 8; (iii) two degrading enzymes regulating the synaptic activity - the main metabolizer of dopamine Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and monoamine oxidase A (MAOA)...
March 25, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574253/probing-the-role-of-the-vestibular-system-in-motivation-and-reward-based-attention
#20
Elvio Blini, Caroline Tilikete, Alessandro Farnè, Fadila Hadj-Bouziane
The vestibular system has widespread connections in the central nervous system. Several activation loci following vestibular stimulations have been notably reported in deep, limbic areas that are otherwise difficult to reach and modulate in healthy subjects. Following preliminary evidence, suggesting that such stimulations might affect mood and affective processing, we wondered whether the vestibular system is also involved in motivation. Evolutionary accounts suggest that visuo-vestibular mismatches might have a role in preventing the search for and exploitation of goods that previously resulted in aversive reactions, as they would be a fine warning signal which follows the contact with or ingestion of noxious neurotoxins...
February 27, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
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