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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714607/new-insights-into-how-serotonin-selective-reuptake-inhibitors-shape-the-developing-brain
#1
REVIEW
Jay A Gingrich, Heli Malm, Mark S Ansorge, Alan Brown, Andre Sourander, Deepika Suri, Cátia M Teixeira, Martha K Caffrey Cagliostro, Darshini Mahadevia, Myrna M Weissman
Development passes through sensitive periods, during which plasticity allows for genetic and environmental factors to exert indelible influence on the maturation of the organism. In the context of central nervous system (CNS) development, such sensitive periods shape the formation of neuro-circuits that mediate, regulate, and control behavior. This general mechanism allows for development to be guided by both the genetic blueprint, as well as the environmental context. While allowing for adaptation, such sensitive periods are also windows of vulnerability during which external and internal factors can confer risk to brain disorders by derailing adaptive developmental programs...
July 17, 2017: Birth defects research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714085/neural-control-of-sweat-secretion-a-review
#2
REVIEW
Y Hu, C Converse, M C Lyons, W H Hsu
Humans have 4 million exocrine sweat glands, which can be classified into two types: eccrine and apocrine glands. Sweat secretion is a constitutive feature, which is directly involved in thermoregulation and metabolism. Sweat secretion is regulated by both the central nervous system(1) and autonomic nervous system.(2) In peripheral areas, the ANS, especially the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), mediates the transmission of neurotransmitters to sweat glands. Two principal chemical mediators, acetylcholine and noradrenaline (NA)/adrenaline (ADR), are released by the SNS, which stimulate sweat secretion...
July 17, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709746/the-most-promising-advances-in-our-understanding-and-treatment-of-functional-psychogenic-movement-disorders
#3
Mark Hallett
The name functional rather than psychogenic is getting to be more widely used for terminology of this condition. It is better accepted by patients and keeps an open mind in searching for greater understanding of the pathophysiology. Advances in the pathophysiology show an overactive limbic system with connections to the motor system. Moreover, there is a disruption of the self-agency network, possibly due to a failure of feedforward signaling. There has recently been more success in treating patients. The strongest evidence is for intensive physical therapy coupled with at least some psychological support...
July 8, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707157/parcellation-of-macaque-cortex-with-anatomical-connectivity-profiles
#4
Jiaojian Wang, Zhentao Zuo, Sangma Xie, Yifan Miao, Yuanye Ma, Xudong Zhao, Tianzi Jiang
The macaque model has been widely used to investigate the brain mechanisms of specific cognitive functions and psychiatric disorders. However, a detailed functional architecture map of the macaque cortex in vivo is still lacking. Here, we aimed to construct a new macaque cortex atlas based on its anatomical connectivity profiles using in vivo diffusion MRI. First, we defined the macaque cortical seed areas using the NeuroMaps atlas. Then, we applied the anatomical connectivity patterns-based parcellation approach to parcellate the macaque cortex into 80 subareas in each hemisphere, which were approximately symmetric between the two hemispheres...
July 13, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706740/action-video-game-experience-related-to-altered-large-scale-white-matter-networks
#5
Diankun Gong, Weiyi Ma, Jinnan Gong, Hui He, Li Dong, Dan Zhang, Jianfu Li, Cheng Luo, Dezhong Yao
With action video games (AVGs) becoming increasingly popular worldwide, the cognitive benefits of AVG experience have attracted continuous research attention over the past two decades. Research has repeatedly shown that AVG experience can causally enhance cognitive ability and is related to neural plasticity in gray matter and functional networks in the brain. However, the relation between AVG experience and the plasticity of white matter (WM) network still remains unclear. WM network modulates the distribution of action potentials, coordinating the communication between brain regions and acting as the framework of neural networks...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705440/inhibition-of-trkb-at-the-nucleus-accumbens-using-ana-12-regulates-basal-and-stress-induced-orexin-a-expression-within-the-mesolimbic-system-and-affects-anxiety-sociability-and-motivation
#6
Idu Azogu, Helene Plamondon
Repeated stress exposure can lead to the development of anxiety and mood disorders. An emerging biological substrate of depression and associated pathology is the nucleus accumbens (NAc), which through interactions with limbic, cognitive and motor circuits can regulate a variety of stress responses. Within these circuits, orexin neurons are involved in arousal and stress adaptability, effects proposed mediated via brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling. This study tested the hypotheses that 1) repeated exposure to heterotypic stress alters social ability and preference and passive avoidant behaviors, 2) TrkB receptors at the NAc shell regulates stress-induced behavioral responses and orexin expression within the mesocorticolimbic system...
July 10, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704562/cerebral-18f-fdg-pet-in-macrophagic-myofasciitis-an-individual-svm-based-approach
#7
Paul Blanc-Durand, Axel Van Der Gucht, Eric Guedj, Mukedaisi Abulizi, Mehdi Aoun-Sebaiti, Lionel Lerman, Antoine Verger, François-Jérôme Authier, Emmanuel Itti
INTRODUCTION: Macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) is an emerging condition with highly specific myopathological alterations. A peculiar spatial pattern of a cerebral glucose hypometabolism involving occipito-temporal cortex and cerebellum have been reported in patients with MMF; however, the full pattern is not systematically present in routine interpretation of scans, and with varying degrees of severity depending on the cognitive profile of patients. Aim was to generate and evaluate a support vector machine (SVM) procedure to classify patients between healthy or MMF 18F-FDG brain profiles...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699305/enhancement-of-the-lh-surge-by-male-olfactory-signals-is-associated-with-avpv-kiss1-cell-activation-in-female-rats
#8
Youki Watanabe, Kana Ikegami, Ren Ishigaki, Nahoko Ieda, Yoshihisa Uenoyama, Kei-Ichiro Maeda, Hiroko Tsukamura, Naoko Inoue
Olfactory stimuli play an important role in regulating reproductive functions in mammals. The present study investigated the effect of olfactory signals derived from male rats on kisspeptin neuronal activity and luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion in female rats. Wistar-Imamichi strain female rats were ovariectomised (OVX) and implanted with preovulatory levels of oestradiol-17β (E2). OVX+E2 rats were sacrificed 1 hour after exposure to either: clean bedding, female-soiled bedding or male-soiled bedding. Dual staining for Kiss1 mRNA in situ hybridization and c-Fos immunohistochemistry revealed that the numbers of Kiss1-expressing cells and c-Fos-immunopositive Kiss1-expressing cells in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) were significantly higher in OVX+E2 rats exposed to male-soiled bedding than those of the other groups...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689261/investigation-of-cognitive-circuits-using-steady-state-cerebral-blood-volume-and-diffusion-tensor-imaging-in-patients-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-following-electrical-injury
#9
Chang-Hyun Park, Cheong Hoon Seo, Myung Hun Jung, So Young Joo, Soyeon Jang, Ho Young Lee, Suk Hoon Ohn
PURPOSE: We utilized cerebral blood volume (CBV) magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate changes in cognitive networks in patients experiencing cognitive dysfunction following electrical injury. METHODS: Cognitive function was assessed across various domains, including attention, verbal memory, executive function, and language. Depressive symptoms were also evaluated. CBV maps and DTI measures were obtained from 24 patients (age, 41...
July 8, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688343/evidence-for-the-triadic-model-of-adolescent-brain-development-cognitive-load-and-task-relevance-of-emotion-differentially-affect-adolescents-and-adults
#10
Sven C Mueller, Sofie Cromheeke, Roma Siugzdaite, C Nicolas Boehler
In adults, cognitive control is supported by several brain regions including the limbic system and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) when processing emotional information. However, in adolescents, some theories hypothesize a neurobiological imbalance proposing heightened sensitivity to affective material in the amygdala and striatum within a cognitive control context. Yet, direct neurobiological evidence is scarce. Twenty-four adolescents (12-16) and 28 adults (25-35) completed an emotional n-back working memory task in response to happy, angry, and neutral faces during fMRI...
June 28, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676526/dexamethasone-increases-production-of-c-type-natriuretic-peptide-in-the-sheep-brain
#11
Michele O Wilson, Bryony A McNeill, Graham K Barrell, Timothy C R Prickett, Eric A Espiner
Although C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) has high abundance in brain tissues and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), the source and possible factors regulating its secretion within the central nervous system (CNS) are unknown. Here we report the dynamic effects of a single IV bolus of dexamethasone or saline solution on plasma, CSF, CNS and pituitary tissue content of CNP products in adult sheep, along with changes in CNP gene expression in selected tissues. Both CNP and NTproCNP (the amino-terminal product of proCNP) in plasma and CSF showed dose responsive increases lasting 12-16 h after dexamethasone whereas other natriuretic peptides were unaffected...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675562/innate-and-adaptive-immunity-in-human-epilepsies
#12
Jan Bauer, Albert J Becker, Wassim Elyaman, Jukka Peltola, Stephan Rüegg, Maarten J Titulaer, James A Varley, Ettore Beghi
Inflammatory mechanisms have been increasingly implicated in the origin of seizures and epilepsy. These mechanisms are involved in the genesis of encephalitides in which seizures are a common complaint. Experimental and clinical evidence suggests different inflammatory responses in the brains of patients with epilepsy depending on the etiology. In general, activation of both innate and adaptive immunity plays a role in refractory forms of epilepsy. Epilepsies in which seizures develop after infiltration of cells of the adaptive immune system in the central nervous system (CNS) include a broad range of epileptic disorders with different (known or unknown) etiologies...
July 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675389/topologically-convergent-and-divergent-functional-connectivity-patterns-in-unmedicated-unipolar-depression-and-bipolar-disorder
#13
Y Wang, J Wang, Y Jia, S Zhong, M Zhong, Y Sun, M Niu, L Zhao, L Zhao, J Pan, L Huang, R Huang
Bipolar disorder (BD), particularly BD II, is frequently misdiagnosed as unipolar depression (UD), leading to inappropriate treatment and poor clinical outcomes. Although depressive symptoms may be expressed similarly in UD and BD, the similarities and differences in the architecture of brain functional networks between the two disorders are still unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that UD and BD II patients would show convergent and divergent patterns of disrupted topological organization of the functional connectome, especially in the default mode network (DMN) and the limbic network...
July 4, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668591/alteration-of-cortico-limbic-striatal-neural-system-in-major-depressive-disorder-and-bipolar-disorder
#14
Xiaowei Jiang, Xu Dai, Elliot Kale Edmiston, Qian Zhou, Ke Xu, Yifang Zhou, Feng Wu, Lingtao Kong, Shengnan Wei, Yuning Zhou, Miao Chang, Haiyang Geng, Dahai Wang, Ye Wang, Wenhui Cui, Fei Wang, Yanqing Tang
BACKGROUND: It is often difficult to differentiate major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) merely according to clinical symptoms. Similarities and differences in neural activity between the two disorders remain unclear. In current study, we use amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) to compare neural activation changes between MDD and BD patients. METHODS: One hundred and eighty-three adolescents and young adults (57 MDD, 46 BD and 80 healthy controls, HC) were scanned during resting state...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658047/a-magnetoencephalography-investigation-of-coherence-source-imaging-in-panic-disorder
#15
Nash N Boutros, Seung-Suk Kang, Kathleen M Gustafson, Zach Thomas, Kemal Sagduyu, Jocelyn Pearson, Susan M Bowyer
Limbic and frontal structures are largely implicated in panic disorder (PD). Decreased coherence imaging values, as determined by magnetoencephalography (MEG), are suggestive of decreased or inefficient communication among these structures. We have previously demonstrated that coherence source imaging (CSI) values could be similar or higher in some PD patients. The purpose of the current investigation was to replicate these finding in a larger sample. Nine strictly diagnosed PD patients and nine age-matched and sex-matched healthy controls were examined...
June 27, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655564/enhanced-limbic-impaired-cortical-loop-connection-onto-the-hippocampus-of-nhe-rats-application-of-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-a-preclinical-adhd-model
#16
F Zoratto, G M Palombelli, L A Ruocco, E Carboni, G Laviola, A G Sadile, W Adriani, R Canese
Due to a hyperfunctioning mesocorticolimbic system, Naples-High-Excitability (NHE) rats have been proposed to model for the meso-cortical variant of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Compared to Naples Random-Bred (NRB) controls, NHE rats show hyperactivity, impaired non-selective attention (Aspide et al., 1998), and impaired selective spatial attention (Ruocco et al., 2009a, 2014). Alteration in limbic functions has been proposed; however, resulting unbalance among forebrain areas has not been assessed yet...
June 26, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652806/characterization-of-cortical-source-generators-based-on-electroencephalography-during-tonic-pain
#17
Tine Maria Hansen, Esben Bolvig Mark, Søren Schou Olesen, Mikkel Gram, Jens Brøndum Frøkjær, Asbjørn Mohr Drewes
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to characterize the cortical source generators evoked by experimental tonic pain. METHODS: Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded on two separate days during rest and with immersion of the hand in ice water for 2 minutes (cold pressor test). Exact low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography source localization was performed in 31 healthy volunteers to characterize the cortical source generators. RESULTS: Reliability was high in all eight frequency bands during rest and cold pressor conditions (intraclass coefficients =0...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638927/-involvement-of-aquaporin-4-in-synaptic-plasticity-learning-and-memory
#18
Xin Wu, Jian-Feng Gao
Aquaporin-4 (AQP-4) is the predominant water channel in the central nervous system (CNS) and primarily expressed in astrocytes. Astrocytes have been generally believed to play important roles in regulating synaptic plasticity and information processing. However, the role of AQP-4 in regulating synaptic plasticity, learning and memory, cognitive function is only beginning to be investigated. It is well known that synaptic plasticity is the prime candidate for mediating of learning and memory. Long term potentiation (LTP) and long term depression (LTD) are two forms of synaptic plasticity, and they share some but not all the properties and mechanisms...
June 25, 2017: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630376/functional-connectivity-disturbances-of-the-ascending-reticular-activating-system-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#19
Dario J Englot, Pierre-Francois D'Haese, Peter E Konrad, Monica L Jacobs, John C Gore, Bassel W Abou-Khalil, Victoria L Morgan
OBJECTIVE: Seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) disturb brain networks and lead to connectivity disturbances. We previously hypothesised that recurrent seizures in TLE may lead to abnormal connections involving subcortical activating structures including the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS), contributing to neocortical dysfunction and neurocognitive impairments. However, no studies of ARAS connectivity have been previously reported in patients with epilepsy. METHODS: We used resting-state functional MRI recordings in 27 patients with TLE (67% right sided) and 27 matched controls to examine functional connectivity (partial correlation) between eight brainstem ARAS structures and 105 cortical/subcortical regions...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623450/the-relationship-between-excitement-symptom-severity-and-extrastriatal-dopamine-d2-3-receptor-availability-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-high-resolution-pet-study-with-18-f-fallypride
#20
Yo-Han Joo, Jeong-Hee Kim, Young-Don Son, Hang-Keun Kim, Yeon-Jeong Shin, Sang-Yoon Lee, Jong-Hoon Kim
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between specific symptom severity and D2/3 receptor availability in extrastriatal regions in outpatients with schizophrenia to shed light on the role of extrastriatal dopaminergic neurotransmission in the pathophysiology of symptoms of schizophrenia. Sixteen schizophrenia patients receiving relatively low-dose maintenance atypical antipsychotics and seventeen healthy controls underwent 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging and high-resolution positron emission tomography with [(18)F]fallypride...
June 16, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
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