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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243370/neurological-nutritional-and-alcohol-consumption-factors-underlie-cognitive-and-motor-deficits-in-chronic-alcoholism
#1
Rosemary Fama, Anne-Pascale Le Berre, Cheshire Hardcastle, Stephanie A Sassoon, Adolf Pfefferbaum, Edith V Sullivan, Natalie M Zahr
Variations in pattern and extent of cognitive and motor impairment occur in alcoholism (ALC). Causes of such heterogeneity are elusive and inconsistently accounted for by demographic or alcohol consumption differences. We examined neurological and nutritional factors as possible contributors to heterogeneity in impairment. Participants with ALC (n = 96) and a normal comparison group (n = 41) were examined on six cognitive and motor domains. Signs of historically determined subclinical Wernicke's encephalopathy were detected using the Caine et al...
December 15, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240833/vagal-nerve-stimulation-triggers-widespread-responses-and-alters-large-scale-functional-connectivity-in-the-rat-brain
#2
Jiayue Cao, Kun-Han Lu, Terry L Powley, Zhongming Liu
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a therapy for epilepsy and depression. However, its efficacy varies and its mechanism remains unclear. Prior studies have used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to map brain activations with VNS in human brains, but have reported inconsistent findings. The source of inconsistency is likely attributable to the complex temporal characteristics of VNS-evoked fMRI responses that cannot be fully explained by simplified response models in the conventional model-based analysis for activation mapping...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238983/brain-volume-changes-in-hyposmic-patients-before-and-after-olfactory-training
#3
Janine Gellrich, Pengfei Han, Cedric Manesse, Amelie Betz, Anne Junghanns, Claudia Raue, Valentin A Schriever, Thomas Hummel
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Olfactory dysfunction is thought to be associated with reduced gray matter (GM) volume in olfactory-related brain areas. The aim of this study was to determine GM structural changes within olfactory-related regions of the brain in patients with smell loss due to upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) before and after olfactory rehabilitation. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective intervention case-control study. METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging structural brain images were collected from 30 patients with smell loss due to URTI and 31 controls...
December 14, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238972/the-functional-anatomy-of-the-cerebrocerebellar-circuit-a-review-and-new-concepts
#4
REVIEW
Vincenzo Benagiano, Anna Rizzi, Loredana Lorusso, Paolo Flace, Matteo Saccia, Raffaele Cagiano, Domenico Ribatti, Luisa Roncali, Glauco Ambrosi
The cerebrocerebellar circuit is a feedback circuit that bidirectionally connects the neocortex and the cerebellum. According to the classic view, the cerebrocerebellar circuit is specifically involved in the functional regulation of the motor areas of the neocortex. In recent years, studies carried out in experimental animals by morphological and physiological methods, and in humans by magnetic resonance imaging, have indicated that the cerebrocerebellar circuit is also involved in the functional regulation of the non-motor areas of the neocortex, including the prefrontal, associative, sensory and limbic areas...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223539/losartan-suppresses-the-kainate-induced-changes-of-angiotensin-at1-receptor-expression-in-a-model-of-comorbid-hypertension-and-epilepsy
#5
Dimitrinka Atanasova, Jana Tchekalarova, Natasha Ivanova, Zlatina Nenchovska, Ekaterina Pavlova, Nina Atanassova, Nikolai Lazarov
AIMS: Experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated that components of renin-angiotensin system are elevated in the hippocampus in epileptogenic conditions. In the present work, we explored the changes in the expression of angiotensin II receptor, type 1 (AT1 receptor) in limbic structures, as well as the effect of the AT1 receptor antagonist losartan in a model of comorbid hypertension and epilepsy. MAIN METHODS: The expression of AT1 receptors was compared between spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and Wistar rats by using immunohistochemistry in the kainate (KA) model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE)...
December 6, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217258/predictive-brain-networks-for-major-depression-in-a-semi-multimodal-fusion-hierarchical-feature-reduction-framework
#6
Jie Yang, Yingying Yin, Zuping Zhang, Jun Long, Jian Dong, Yuqun Zhang, Zhi Xu, Lei Li, Jie Liu, Yonggui Yuan
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by dysregulation of distributed structural and functional networks. It is now recognized that structural and functional networks are related at multiple temporal scales. The recent emergence of multimodal fusion methods has made it possible to comprehensively and systematically investigate brain networks and thereby provide essential information for influencing disease diagnosis and prognosis. However, such investigations are hampered by the inconsistent dimensionality features between structural and functional networks...
December 5, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214654/role-of-the-innate-immune-system-in-the-neuropathological-consequences-induced-by-adolescent-binge-drinking
#7
REVIEW
María Pascual, Jorge Montesinos, Consuelo Guerri
Adolescence is a critical stage of brain maturation in which important plastic and dynamic processes take place in different brain regions, leading to development of the adult brain. Ethanol drinking in adolescence disrupts brain plasticity and causes structural and functional changes in immature brain areas (prefrontal cortex, limbic system) that result in cognitive and behavioral deficits. These changes, along with secretion of sexual and stress-related hormones in adolescence, may impact self-control, decision making, and risk-taking behaviors that contribute to anxiety and initiation of alcohol consumption...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209998/rodent-ultrasonic-vocalizations-as-biomarkers-of-future-alcohol-use-a-predictive-analytic-approach
#8
Nitish Mittal, W Todd Maddox, Timothy Schallert, Christine L Duvauchelle
Excessive alcohol consumption has a vast, negative impact on society. Rodent models have been successful in furthering our understanding of the biological underpinnings that drive alcohol consumption. Rodents emit ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) that are each composed of several acoustic characteristics (e.g., frequency, duration, bandwidth, power). USVs reflect neurotransmitter activity in the ascending limb of the mesolimbic dopaminergic and cholinergic neurotransmitter systems and serve as noninvasive, real-time biomarkers of dopaminergic and cholinergic neurotransmission in the limbic system...
December 5, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209734/effects-of-hypothyroidism-on-serotonin-1a-receptors-in-the-rat-brain
#9
Jae-Hoon Lee, Minkyung Lee, Ji-Ae Park, Young Hoon Ryu, Kyo Chul Lee, Kyeong Min Kim, Jae Yong Choi
PURPOSE: We investigated the effects of hypothyroidism on serotonin 1A receptors in the rat brain in vivo. METHODS: Five surgically thyroidectomized male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and five hypophysectomized SD rats were used as animal models of hypothyroidism; the same number of sham-operated SD rats served as age-matched controls. After hypothyroidism was confirmed by thyroid function tests, serotonin positron emission tomography (PET) was performed for 120 min...
December 5, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203852/the-dynamics-of-stress-a-longitudinal-mri-study-of-rat-brain-structure-and-connectome
#10
R Magalhães, D A Barrière, A Novais, F Marques, P Marques, J Cerqueira, J C Sousa, A Cachia, F Boumezbeur, M Bottlaender, T M Jay, S Mériaux, N Sousa
Stress is a well-established trigger for a number of neuropsychiatric disorders, as it alters both structure and function of several brain regions and its networks. Herein, we conduct a longitudinal neuroimaging study to assess how a chronic unpredictable stress protocol impacts the structure of the rat brain and its functional connectome in both high and low responders to stress. Our results reveal the changes that stress triggers in the brain, with structural atrophy affecting key regions such as the prelimbic, cingulate, insular and retrosplenial, somatosensory, motor, auditory and perirhinal/entorhinal cortices, the hippocampus, the dorsomedial striatum, nucleus accumbens, the septum, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the thalamus and several brain stem nuclei...
December 5, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201643/relationships-between-brain-metabolite-levels-functional-connectivity-and-negative-mood-in-urologic-chronic-pelvic-pain-syndrome-patients-compared-to-controls-a-mapp-research-network-study
#11
Daniel E Harper, Eric Ichesco, Andrew Schrepf, Megan Halvorson, Tudor Puiu, Daniel J Clauw, Richard E Harris, Steven E Harte
Until recently, the predominant pathology of chronic pelvic pain conditions was thought to reside in the peripheral tissues. However, mounting evidence from neuroimaging studies suggests an important role of the central nervous system in the pathogenesis of these conditions. In the present cross-sectional study, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) of the brain was conducted in female patients with urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome (UCPPS) to determine if they exhibit abnormal concentrations of brain metabolites (e...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201640/connectome-analysis-with-diffusion-mri-in-idiopathic-parkinson-s-disease-evaluation-using-multi-shell-multi-tissue-constrained-spherical-deconvolution
#12
Koji Kamagata, Andrew Zalesky, Taku Hatano, Maria Angelique Di Biase, Omar El Samad, Shinji Saiki, Keigo Shimoji, Kanako K Kumamaru, Kouhei Kamiya, Masaaki Hori, Nobutaka Hattori, Shigeki Aoki, Christos Pantelis
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects extensive regions of the central nervous system. In this work, we evaluated the structural connectome of patients with PD, as mapped by diffusion-weighted MRI tractography and a multi-shell, multi-tissue (MSMT) constrained spherical deconvolution (CSD) method to increase the precision of tractography at tissue interfaces. The connectome was mapped with probabilistic MSMT-CSD in 21 patients with PD and in 21 age- and gender-matched controls...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199095/analysis-of-white-matter-characteristics-with-tract-based-spatial-statistics-according-to-diffusion-tensor-imaging-in-early-parkinson-s-disease
#13
Xiang-Rong Li, Yan-De Ren, Bo Cao, Xuan-Li Huang
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the microstructure of brain white matter according to diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) based on tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) in early Parkinson's disease (PD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 31 age- and sex-matched early PD patients and 22 healthy volunteers were recruited in the present study. DTI was performed, and the data analyzed with fsl4.0 software. The fractional anisotropy (FA) was compared between both groups with an independent t test, and the differential area was analyzed...
November 30, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197740/gene-set-enrichment-analysis-and-expression-pattern-exploration-implicate-an-involvement-of-neurodevelopmental-processes-in-bipolar-disorder
#14
Thomas W Mühleisen, Céline S Reinbold, Andreas J Forstner, Lilia I Abramova, Martin Alda, Gulja Babadjanova, Michael Bauer, Paul Brennan, Alexander Chuchalin, Cristiana Cruceanu, Piotr M Czerski, Franziska Degenhardt, Sascha B Fischer, Janice M Fullerton, Scott D Gordon, Maria Grigoroiu-Serbanescu, Paul Grof, Joanna Hauser, Martin Hautzinger, Stefan Herms, Per Hoffmann, Jutta Kammerer-Ciernioch, Elza Khusnutdinova, Manolis Kogevinas, Valery Krasnov, André Lacour, Catherine Laprise, Markus Leber, Jolanta Lissowska, Susanne Lucae, Anna Maaser, Wolfgang Maier, Nicholas G Martin, Manuel Mattheisen, Fermin Mayoral, James D McKay, Sarah E Medland, Philip B Mitchell, Susanne Moebus, Grant W Montgomery, Bertram Müller-Myhsok, Lilijana Oruc, Galina Pantelejeva, Andrea Pfennig, Lejla Pojskic, Alexey Polonikov, Andreas Reif, Fabio Rivas, Guy A Rouleau, Lorena M Schenk, Peter R Schofield, Markus Schwarz, Fabian Streit, Jana Strohmaier, Neonila Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Alexander S Tiganov, Jens Treutlein, Gustavo Turecki, Helmut Vedder, Stephanie H Witt, Thomas G Schulze, Marcella Rietschel, Markus M Nöthen, Sven Cichon
BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BD) is a common and highly heritable disorder of mood. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several independent susceptibility loci. In order to extract more biological information from GWAS data, multi-locus approaches represent powerful tools since they utilize knowledge about biological processes to integrate functional sets of genes at strongly to moderately associated loci. METHODS: We conducted gene set enrichment analyses (GSEA) using 2...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196808/propagation-of-alpha-synuclein-pathology-from-the-olfactory-bulb-possible-role-in-the-pathogenesis-of-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#15
REVIEW
María Graciela Cersosimo
Olfactory limbic structures, like the amygdala, the entorhinal, and the piriform cortices, are closely involved in cognitive processes. Thus, besides olfactory dysfunctions, it is conceivable that the compromise of these structures can lead to cognitive impairment. The olfactory bulb is affected by alpha-synuclein pathology in almost all cases of both Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. The clinical distinction between these disorders relies on the timing in the appearance of dementia in relationship to motor symptoms...
December 1, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184535/sex-differences-in-the-regulation-of-offensive-aggression-and-dominance-by-arginine-vasopressin
#16
REVIEW
Joseph I Terranova, Craig F Ferris, H Elliott Albers
Arginine-vasopressin (AVP) plays a critical role in the regulation of offensive aggression and social status in mammals. AVP is found in an extensive neural network in the brain. Here, we discuss the role of AVP in the regulation of aggression in the limbic system with an emphasis on the critical role of hypothalamic AVP in the control of aggression. In males, activation of AVP V1a receptors (V1aRs) in the hypothalamus stimulates offensive aggression, while in females activation of V1aRs inhibits aggression...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183829/the-rodent-versus-wild-snake-paradigm-as-a-model-for-studying-anxiety-and-panic-like-behaviors-face-construct-and-predictive-validities
#17
Tatiana Paschoalin-Maurin, Tayllon Dos Anjos-Garcia, Luiz Luciano Falconi-Sobrinho, Renato Leonardo de Freitas, Jade Pissamiglio Cysne Coimbra, Carlos Júlio Laure, Norberto Cysne Coimbra
Using an innovative approach to study the neural bases of psychiatric disorders, this study investigated the behavioral, morphological and pharmacological bases of panic attack-induced responses in a prey-versus-coral snake paradigm. Mesocricetus auratus was chronically treated with intraperitoneal administration of the selective serotonin uptake inhibitor paroxetine or the gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)/benzodiazepine receptor agonist alprazolam at three different doses and were then confronted with a venomous coral snake (Micrurus frontalis, Reptilia, Colubridae)...
November 25, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176684/acupuncture-analgesia-involves-modulation-of-pain-induced-gamma-oscillations-and-cortical-network-connectivity
#18
Michael Hauck, Sven Schröder, Gesa Meyer-Hamme, Jürgen Lorenz, Sunja Friedrichs, Guido Nolte, Christian Gerloff, Andreas K Engel
Recent studies support the view that cortical sensory, limbic and executive networks and the autonomic nervous system might interact in distinct manners under the influence of acupuncture to modulate pain. We performed a double-blind crossover design study to investigate subjective ratings, EEG and ECG following experimental laser pain under the influence of sham and verum acupuncture in 26 healthy volunteers. We analyzed neuronal oscillations and inter-regional coherence in the gamma band of 128-channel-EEG recordings as well as heart rate variability (HRV) on two experimental days...
November 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175201/neuroanatomical-substrate-of-noise-sensitivity
#19
Marina Kliuchko, Tuomas Puoliväli, Marja Heinonen-Guzejev, Mari Tervaniemi, Petri Toiviainen, Mikko Sams, Elvira Brattico
Recent functional studies suggest that noise sensitivity, a trait describing attitudes towards noise and predicting noise annoyance, is associated with altered processing in the central auditory system. In the present work, we examined whether noise sensitivity could be related to the structural anatomy of auditory and limbic brain areas. Anatomical MR brain images of 80 subjects were parcellated with FreeSurfer to measure grey matter volume, cortical thickness, cortical area and folding index of anatomical structures in the temporal lobe and insular cortex...
November 21, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175078/limbic-brain-structures-and-burnout-a-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
YeeKong Chow, Jolanta Masiak, Emilia Mikołajewska, Dariusz Mikołajewski, Grzegorz Marcin Wójcik, Brian Wallace, Andy Eugene, Marcin Olajossy
More profound understanding of the relationship between the burnout and the limbic system function can provide better insight into brain structures associated with the burnout syndrome. The objective of this review is to explore all evidence of limbic brain structures associated with the burnout syndrome. In total, 13 studies were selected. Four of them applied the neuroimaging technology to investigate the sizes/volumes of the limbic brain structures of burnout patients. Six other studies were to investigate the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis of burnout patients...
November 22, 2017: Advances in Medical Sciences
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