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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638927/-involvement-of-aquaporin-4-in-synaptic-plasticity-learning-and-memory
#1
Xin Wu, Jian-Feng Gao
Aquaporin-4 (AQP-4) is the predominant water channel in the central nervous system (CNS) and primarily expressed in astrocytes. Astrocytes have been generally believed to play important roles in regulating synaptic plasticity and information processing. However, the role of AQP-4 in regulating synaptic plasticity, learning and memory, cognitive function is only beginning to be investigated. It is well known that synaptic plasticity is the prime candidate for mediating of learning and memory. Long term potentiation (LTP) and long term depression (LTD) are two forms of synaptic plasticity, and they share some but not all the properties and mechanisms...
June 25, 2017: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630376/functional-connectivity-disturbances-of-the-ascending-reticular-activating-system-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#2
Dario J Englot, Pierre-Francois D'Haese, Peter E Konrad, Monica L Jacobs, John C Gore, Bassel W Abou-Khalil, Victoria L Morgan
OBJECTIVE: Seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) disturb brain networks and lead to connectivity disturbances. We previously hypothesised that recurrent seizures in TLE may lead to abnormal connections involving subcortical activating structures including the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS), contributing to neocortical dysfunction and neurocognitive impairments. However, no studies of ARAS connectivity have been previously reported in patients with epilepsy. METHODS: We used resting-state functional MRI recordings in 27 patients with TLE (67% right sided) and 27 matched controls to examine functional connectivity (partial correlation) between eight brainstem ARAS structures and 105 cortical/subcortical regions...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623450/the-relationship-between-excitement-symptom-severity-and-extrastriatal-dopamine-d2-3-receptor-availability-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-high-resolution-pet-study-with-18-f-fallypride
#3
Yo-Han Joo, Jeong-Hee Kim, Young-Don Son, Hang-Keun Kim, Yeon-Jeong Shin, Sang-Yoon Lee, Jong-Hoon Kim
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between specific symptom severity and D2/3 receptor availability in extrastriatal regions in outpatients with schizophrenia to shed light on the role of extrastriatal dopaminergic neurotransmission in the pathophysiology of symptoms of schizophrenia. Sixteen schizophrenia patients receiving relatively low-dose maintenance atypical antipsychotics and seventeen healthy controls underwent 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging and high-resolution positron emission tomography with [(18)F]fallypride...
June 16, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622552/fornix-microalterations-associated-with-early-trauma-in-panic-disorder
#4
Seung-Taek Yu, Kang-Soo Lee, Sang-Hyuk Lee
BACKGROUND: It is well accepted that panic disorder (PD) is associated with early trauma, and that the limbic systems are one of the main structures involved in PD pathophysiology. However, previous studies have not addressed the relationship between early trauma and major limbic white-matter (WM) structures in PD. METHODS: Participants enrolled in the study consisted of 53 right-handed patients with PD and 21 healthy controls (HC). The Early Trauma Inventory Self Report-Short Form (ETISR-SF), Anxiety Sensitivity Inventory-Revised (ASI-R), and the Albany Panic and Phobia Questionnaire (APPQ) were applied in the study...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620292/dynamic-responses-in-brain-networks-to-social-feedback-a-dual-eeg-acquisition-study-in-adolescent-couples
#5
Ching-Chang Kuo, Thao Ha, Ashley M Ebbert, Don M Tucker, Thomas J Dishion
Adolescence is a sensitive period for the development of romantic relationships. During this period the maturation of frontolimbic networks is particularly important for the capacity to regulate emotional experiences. In previous research, both functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and dense array electroencephalography (dEEG) measures have suggested that responses in limbic regions are enhanced in adolescents experiencing social rejection. In the present research, we examined social acceptance and rejection from romantic partners as they engaged in a Chatroom Interact Task...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607170/oxytocin-and-serotonin-brain-mechanisms-in-the-non-human-primate
#6
Lefevre Arthur, Richard Nathalie, Jazayeri Mina, Beuriat Pierre-Aurélien, Fieux Sylvain, Zimmer Luc, Duhamel Jean-René, Sirigu Angela
Oxytocin is increasingly studied for its therapeutic potential in psychiatric disorders which are associated with the deregulation of several neurotransmission systems. Studies in rodents demonstrated that the interaction between oxytocin (OT) and serotonin (5-HT) is critical for several aspects of social behavior. Using PET-scan in humans we have recently found that 5-HT 1A receptor (5-HT1AR) function is modified after intra-nasal oxytocin intake. However, the underlying mechanism between OT and 5-HT remains unclear...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595893/altered-morphology-of-the-nucleus-accumbens-in-persistent-developmental-stuttering
#7
Nicole E Neef, Christoph Bütfering, Tibor Auer, F Luise Metzger, Harald A Euler, Jens Frahm, Walter Paulus, Martin Sommer
PURPOSE: Neuroimaging studies in persistent developmental stuttering repeatedly report altered basal ganglia functions. Together with thalamus and cerebellum, these structures mediate sensorimotor functions and thus represent a plausible link between stuttering and neuroanatomy. However, stuttering is a complex, multifactorial disorder. Besides sensorimotor functions, emotional and social-motivational factors constitute major aspects of the disorder. Here, we investigated cortical and subcortical gray matter regions to study whether persistent developmental stuttering is also linked to alterations of limbic structures...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Fluency Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589968/the-5-httlpr-polymorphism-affects-network-based-functional-connectivity-in-the-visual-limbic-system-in-healthy-adults
#8
Hengyi Cao, Anais Harneit, Henrik Walter, Susanne Erk, Urs Braun, Carolin Moessnang, Lena S Geiger, Zhenxiang Zang, Sebastian Mohnke, Andreas Heinz, Nina Romanczuk-Seiferth, Thomas Mühleisen, Manuel Mattheisen, Stephanie H Witt, Sven Cichon, Markus M Nöthen, Marcella Rietschel, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Heike Tost
The serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region 5-HTTLPR is a key genetic regulator of 5-HTT expression in the human brain where the short allele S has been implicated in emotion dysregulation. However, the neural mechanism underlying the association between this variant and emotion processing is still unclear. Earlier studies suggested an effect of 5-HTTLPR on amygdala activation during emotional face processing. However, this association has been questioned in recent studies employing larger sample sizes and meta-analyses...
June 7, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588455/circuits-regulating-pleasure-and-happiness-in-bipolar-disorder
#9
Anton J M Loonen, Ralph W Kupka, Svetlana A Ivanova
According to our model, the motivation for appetitive-searching vs. distress-avoiding behaviors is regulated by two parallel cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) re-entry circuits that include the core and the shell parts of the nucleus accumbens, respectively. An entire series of basal ganglia, running from the caudate nucleus on one side to the centromedial amygdala on the other side, control the intensity of these reward-seeking and misery-fleeing behaviors by stimulating the activity of the (pre)frontal and limbic cortices...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588453/refining-the-role-of-5-ht-in-postnatal-development-of-brain-circuits
#10
REVIEW
Anne Teissier, Mariano Soiza-Reilly, Patricia Gaspar
Changing serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) brain levels during critical periods in development has long-lasting effects on brain function, particularly on later anxiety/depression-related behaviors in adulthood. A large part of the known developmental effects of 5-HT occur during critical periods of postnatal life, when activity-dependent mechanisms remodel neural circuits. This was first demonstrated for the maturation of sensory brain maps in the barrel cortex and the visual system. More recently this has been extended to the 5-HT raphe circuits themselves and to limbic circuits...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584000/ischemic-amnesia-causes-and-outcome
#11
Patrik Michel, Valérie Beaud, Ashraf Eskandari, Philippe Maeder, Jean-François Demonet, Elissavet Eskioglou
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We aimed to describe the frequency and characteristics of acute ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attacks presenting predominantly with amnesia (ischemic amnesia) and to identify clinical clues for differentiating them from transient global amnesia (TGA). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed and described all patients presenting with diffusion-weighted imaging magnetic resonance imaging-confirmed acute ischemic stroke/transient ischemic attacks with antero- and retrograde amnesia as the main symptom over a 13...
June 5, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580018/the-burden-of-obesity-in-the-current-world-and-the-new-treatments-available-focus-on-liraglutide-3-0%C3%A2-mg
#12
REVIEW
Marcio C Mancini, Maria Edna de Melo
The prevalence of obesity increases worldwide. Treating obesity and its associated health problems has a significant economic impact on health care systems. The unsatisfactory long-term outcomes observed in the obesity treatment are due to its complex pathophysiology and the inherent difficulties associated with maintenance of lifestyle modifications. Determined by genetic and environmental factors, obesity has been officially recognized as a chronic disease, an action that allowed the recognition of anti-obesity drugs as legitimate therapeutic options to address the growing obesity endemic...
2017: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570324/neurologic-complications-of-lymphoma-leukemia-and-paraproteinemias
#13
Michelle L Mauermann
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the spectrum of neurologic complications associated with lymphoma, leukemia, and paraproteinemic disorders. While leptomeningeal metastasis is the most common complication of lymphoma and leukemia and peripheral neuropathy is the most common complication of paraproteinemic disorders, clinicians need to be familiar with the diverse neurologic complications of these disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Lymphomatous nervous system involvement can be difficult to diagnose, especially when it is the presenting symptom...
June 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567288/gad-antibody-associated-limbic-encephalitis-in-a-young-woman-with-apeced
#14
Anna Kopczak, Adrian-Minh Schumacher, Sandra Nischwitz, Tania Kümpfel, Günter K Stalla, Matthias K Auer
The autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by a mutation in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene. Immune deficiency, hypoparathyroidism and Addison's disease due to autoimmune dysfunction are the major clinical signs of APECED. We report on a 21-year-old female APECED patient with two inactivating mutations in the AIRE gene. She presented with sudden onset of periodic nausea. Adrenal insufficiency was diagnosed by means of the ACTH stimulation test...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562172/applying-fmri-complexity-analyses-to-the-single-subject-a-case-study-for-proposed-neurodiagnostics
#15
Anca R Rădulescu, Emily R Hannon
Nonlinear dynamic tools have been statistically validated at the group level to identify subtle differences in system wide regulation of brain meso-circuits, often increasing clinical sensitivity over conventional analyses alone. We explored the feasibility of extracting information at the single-subject level, illustrating two pairs of healthy individuals with psychological differences in stress reactivity. We applied statistical and nonlinear dynamic tools to capture key characteristics of the prefrontal-limbic loop...
May 31, 2017: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558365/reward-anticipation-revisited-evidence-from-an-fmri-study-in-euthymic-bipolar-i-patients-and-healthy-first-degree-relatives
#16
Bianca Kollmann, Vanessa Scholz, Julia Linke, Peter Kirsch, Michèle Wessa
BACKGROUND: Symptomatic phases in bipolar disorder (BD) are hypothesized to result from a hypersensitive behavioral activation system (BAS) being sensitive to potential rewards. However, studies on the neuronal underpinnings of reward anticipation in BD are scarce with contradictory findings and possibly confounded by effects of dopaminergic medication, necessitating further research on dysfunctional motivation in BD. Moreover, its role as vulnerability marker for BD is unclear. METHODS: Functional imaging was conducted in 16 euthymic BD-I patients free from dopaminergic medication and 19 healthy first-degree relatives using a monetary incentive delay task and compared to parallelized control groups...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552870/adult-onset-neuronal-intranuclear-inclusion-disease-presented-transient-global-amnesia-a-case-report
#17
Jun Takeshita, Hiromitsu Kobayashi, Yutaka Shimoe, Jun Sone, Gen Sobue, Masaru Kuriyama
A 65-year-old man had a transient amnesia for about 3 hours. Similar symptoms appeared three years ago. He did not manifest dementia, cerebellar ataxia and involuntary movements. Peripheral neuropathy was observed by the neurophysiological examinations. Diffusion weighted image showed high intensity signal in the area of the corticomedullary junction of the frontal to parietal lobes and immunohistochemical studies of biopsied skin revealed many intranuclear inclusion bodies. Adult-onset neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease was diagnosed...
May 26, 2017: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545782/autoimmune-encephalopathy-for-psychiatrists-when-to-suspect-autoimmunity-and-what-to-do-next
#18
REVIEW
Mark Oldham
OBJECTIVE: To provide a critical review of autoimmune encephalopathy-broadly defined as neuropsychiatric features directly related to an autoimmune process-relevant for psychiatric practice. METHODS: We consulted rheumatology textbooks to define the scope of autoimmune conditions and identified recent reviews of rheumatic conditions, autoimmune vasculitis, and autoimmune encephalitis. We integrated these with primary reports to provide a clinically relevant overview of autoimmune encephalopathy...
May 2017: Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545157/the-aminoestrogen-prolame-increases-recognition-memory-and-hippocampal-neuronal-spine-density-in-aged-mice
#19
Alfonso Diaz, Samuel Treviño, Rubén Vázquez-Roque, Berenice Venegas, Blanca Espinosa, Gonzalo Flores, Juan Manuel Fernández-G, Luis F Montaño, Jorge Guevara
The aging brain shows biochemical and morphological changes in the dendrites of pyramidal neurons from the limbic system associated with memory loss. Prolame (N-(3-hydroxy-1,3,5 (10) -estratrien-17β-yl) -3-hydroxypropylamine) is a non-feminizing aminoestrogen with antithrombotic activity that prevents neuronal deterioration, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of prolame on motor and cognitive processes, as well as its influence on the dendritic morphology of neurons at the CA1, CA3 and granule cells of the dentate gyrus (DG) regions of hippocampus (HP), and medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) of aged mice...
May 25, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540750/neurobiology-of-emotions-an-update
#20
Vanderson Esperidião-Antonio, Marilia Majeski-Colombo, Diana Toledo-Monteverde, Glaciele Moraes-Martins, Juliana José Fernandes, Marjorie Bauchiglioni de Assis, Stefânia Montenegro, Rodrigo Siqueira-Batista
The 'nature' of emotions is one of the archaic themes of Western thought, thematized in different cultural manifestations - such as art, science, philosophy, myths and religion -, since Ancient times. In the last decades, the advances in neurosciences have permitted the construction of hypotheses that explain emotions, especially through the studies involving the limbic system. To present an updated discussion about the neurobiology of processes relating to emotions - focusing (1) on the main neural structures that relate to emotions, (2) the paths and circuits of greater relevance, (3) the implicated neurotransmitters, (4) the connections that possess neurovegetative control and (5) the discussion about the main emotions - is the objective of this present article...
June 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
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