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Jinyu Wang, Haitao Zhang, Mohammed Al Shibar, Belinda Willard, Alo Ray, Kurt W Runge
Telomeres, the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes, consist of repetitive DNA sequences and their bound proteins that protect the end from the DNA damage response. Short telomeres with fewer repeats are preferentially elongated by telomerase. Tel1, the yeast homolog of human ATM kinase, is preferentially recruited to short telomeres and Tel1 kinase activity is required for telomere elongation. Rif1, a telomere-binding protein, negatively regulates telomere length by forming a complex with two other telomere binding proteins, Rap1 and Rif2, to block telomerase recruitment...
March 7, 2018: DNA Repair
Ekaterina M Savelieva, Vladimir E Oslovsky, Dmitry S Karlov, Nikolay N Kurochkin, Irina A Getman, Sergey N Lomin, Georgy V Sidorov, Sergey N Mikhailov, Dmitry I Osolodkin, Georgy A Romanov
Biological effects of hormones in both plants and animals are based on high-affinity interaction with cognate receptors resulting in their activation. The signal of cytokinins, classical plant hormones, is perceived in Arabidopsis by three homologous membrane receptors: AHK2, AHK3, and CRE1/AHK4. To study the cytokinin-receptor interaction, we used 25 derivatives of potent cytokinin N6 -benzyladenine (BA) with substituents in the purine heterocycle and/or in the side chain. The study was focused primarily on individual cytokinin receptors from Arabidopsis...
March 12, 2018: Phytochemistry
Jarrod S Johnson, Sasha Y Lucas, Lynn M Amon, Stephanie Skelton, Rodolfo Nazitto, Sara Carbonetti, D Noah Sather, Dan R Littman, Alan Aderem
Myeloid dendritic cells (DCs) have the innate capacity to sense pathogens and orchestrate immune responses. However, DCs do not mount efficient immune responses to HIV-1, primarily due to restriction of virus reverse transcription, which prevents accumulation of viral cDNA and limits its detection through the cGAS-STING pathway. By allowing reverse transcription to proceed, we find that DCs detect HIV-1 in distinct phases, before and after virus integration. Blocking integration suppresses, but does not abolish, activation of the transcription factor IRF3, downstream interferon (IFN) responses, and DC maturation...
March 14, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
Yeon Jung Kim, Rafael Rafael de Molon, Fausto Rioiti Horiguti, Guilherme Piragine Contador, Marco Antonio Coelho, Vinicius Ibiapina Mascarenhas, Ana Paula de Souza Faloni, Joni Augusto Cirelli, Wilson Roberto Sendyk
PURPOSE: The objective of this investigation was to assess vertical bone augmentation using deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM) infused or not with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP-2) in rabbit tibiae. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 18 female rabbits (New Zealand) received two blocks of DBBM in each tibia. The DBBM blocks were randomly assigned into four experimental groups: DBBM (only the bone graft); DBBM associated with absorbable collagen sponge (ACS); DBBM plus rhBMP-2 (1...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
Djalma A Alves da Silva, Marcos V da Silva, Cleyson C Oliveira Barros, Patrícia B Dias Alexandre, Rodolfo P Timóteo, Jonatas S Catarino, Helioswilton Sales-Campos, Juliana R Machado, Denise B R Rodrigues, Carlo J Oliveira, Virmondes Rodrigues
Tuberculosis (TB) is a granulomatous disease that has affected humanity for thousands of years. The production of cytokines, such as IFN-γ and TNF-α, is fundamental in the formation and maintenance of granulomas and in the control of the disease. Recently, the introduction of TNF-α-blocking monoclonal antibodies, such as Infliximab, has brought improvements in the treatment of patients with chronic inflammatory diseases, but this treatment also increases the risk of reactivation of latent tuberculosis. Our objective was to analyze, in an in vitro model, the influence of Infliximab on the granulomatous reactions and on the production of antigen-specific cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-12p40, IL-10 and IL-17) from beads sensitized with soluble Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) antigens cultured in the presence of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from TB patients...
2018: PloS One
Javier Vicente-Tejedor, Miguel Marchena, Laura Ramírez, Diego García-Ayuso, Violeta Gómez-Vicente, Celia Sánchez-Ramos, Pedro de la Villa, Francisco Germain
Light causes damage to the retina (phototoxicity) and decreases photoreceptor responses to light. The most harmful component of visible light is the blue wavelength (400-500 nm). Different filters have been tested, but so far all of them allow passing a lot of this wavelength (70%). The aim of this work has been to prove that a filter that removes 94% of the blue component may protect the function and morphology of the retina significantly. Three experimental groups were designed. The first group was unexposed to light, the second one was exposed and the third one was exposed and protected by a blue-blocking filter...
2018: PloS One
Jin Ah Cha, Hyo-Sook Song, Beomku Kang, Moon Nyeo Park, Kyoung Sun Park, Sung-Hoon Kim, Bum-Sang Shim, Bonglee Kim
Though Cnidium officinale Makino (COM) was known to have anti-angiogenic, anti-oxidant, neuroprotective, and anti-cancer effects, the underlying anticancer mechanism of COM using endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and miRNA remained unclear until now. Thus, in the current study, the inhibitory mechanism of COM in lymphoma and multiple myeloma (MM) cells was elucidated. COM exerted cytotoxicity in U937 and U266 but not Raw264.7 cells. COM treatment increased the expression of ER stress-related proteins such as p-protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (p-PERK), p-eukaryotic initiation factor (p-eIF2α), and activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP)...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Carmen J Zamora-Sánchez, Aylin Del Moral-Morales, Ana M Hernández-Vega, Valeria Hansberg-Pastor, Ivan Salido-Guadarrama, Mauricio Rodríguez-Dorantes, Ignacio Camacho-Arroyo
Glioblastomas (GBM) are the most frequent and aggressive brain tumors. In these malignancies, progesterone (P4) promotes proliferation, migration, and invasion. The P4 metabolite allopregnanolone (3α-THP) similarly promotes cell proliferation in the U87 human GBM cell line. Here, we evaluated global changes in gene expression of U87 cells treated with 3α-THP, P4, and the 5α-reductase inhibitor, finasteride (F). 3α-THP modified the expression of 137 genes, while F changed 90. Besides, both steroids regulated the expression of 69 genes...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Nobuyuki Higashi, Sho Matsubara, Shin-Nosuke Nishimura, Tomoyuki Koga
Novel thermo-responsive ABA-type triblock copolymers (poly(NAAMe n - b -NAGMe 240 - b -NAAMe n ), n = 18-72) composed of naturally occurring amino acid-based vinyl polymer blocks such as poly( N -acryloyl-l-alanine methyl ester (poly(NAAMe)) as the A segment and poly( N -acryloyl-glycine methylester)(poly(NAGMe)) as the B segment have been synthesized by the atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). Their thermal behaviors were analyzed in dilute aqueous solutions by turbidimetry. The turbidity curves provided two-step LCST transitions, and a flower-like micelle formation was confirmed at the temperature region between the first and second LCST transitions by dynamic light scattering, AFM and TEM...
March 15, 2018: Materials
Matthew G K Benesch, Iain T K MacIntyre, Todd P W McMullen, David N Brindley
A quarter-century after the discovery of autotaxin in cell culture, the autotaxin-lysophosphatidate (LPA)-lipid phosphate phosphatase axis is now a promising clinical target for treating chronic inflammatory conditions, mitigating fibrosis progression, and improving the efficacy of existing cancer chemotherapies and radiotherapy. Nearly half of the literature on this axis has been published during the last five years. In cancer biology, LPA signaling is increasingly being recognized as a central mediator of the progression of chronic inflammation in the establishment of a tumor microenvironment which promotes cancer growth, immune evasion, metastasis, and treatment resistance...
March 15, 2018: Cancers
Rajani Singh, Rajnish Arora, Raj Kumar
Chiari malformations (CMs) are variant structural setup of cerebellum and brain stem at the craniovertebral junction. Normally the cerebellum and parts of the brain stem lie above the foramen magnum. When the part of the cerebellum and/or brainstem protrudes into the upper spinal canal through foramen magnum, it is defined as CM. Chiari malformations may develop when part of the skull is smaller than normal or misshapen, due to which the cerebellum herniates into spinal canal through foramen magnum. This compresses the cerebellum and brainstem affecting functions controlled by these parts and blocks the flow of cerebrospinal fluid that surrounds and cushions the brain and spinal cord...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Jeevan K Pant, Sridhar Krishnan
OBJECTIVE: To present a new compressive sensing (CS)-based method for the acquisition of ECG signals and for robust estimation of heart-rate variability (HRV) parameters from compressively sensed measurements with high compression ratio. APPROACH: CS is used in the biosensor to compress the ECG signal. Estimation of the locations of QRS segments is carried out by applying two algorithms on the compressed measurements. The first algorithm reconstructs the ECG signal by enforcing a block-sparse structure on the first-order difference of the signal, so the transient QRS segments are significantly emphasized on the first-order difference of the signal...
March 15, 2018: Physiological Measurement
Corinna Schmitz, Heidi Noels, Omar El Bounkari, Eva Straussfeld, Remco T A Megens, Marieke Sternkopf, Setareh Alampour-Rajabi, Christine Krammer, Pathricia V Tilstam, Norbert Gerdes, Christina Bürger, Aphrodite Kapurniotu, Richard Bucala, Joachim Jankowski, Christian Weber, Jürgen Bernhagen
The inflammatory cytokine macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MIF) promotes atherosclerosis via lesional monocyte and T-cell recruitment. B cells have emerged as important components in atherogenesis, but the interaction between MIF and B cells in atherogenesis is unknown. Here, we investigated the atherosclerotic phenotype of Mif-gene deletion in Apoe-/- mice. Apoe-/- Mif-/- mice on a Western-diet exhibited strongly reduced atherosclerotic lesions in brachiocephalic artery (BC) and abdominal aorta compared with controls...
March 15, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Xiumei Che, Ki Cheong Park, Soo Jung Park, You Hyun Kang, Hyun A Jin, Joo Wan Kim, Dong Hyuk Seo, Dae Kyu Kim, Tae Il Kim, Won Ho Kim, Seung Won Kim, Jae Hee Cheon
Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 (TREM-1)-expressing intestinal macrophages are significantly increased in the colons of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We focused here on the effects of guggulsterone on macrophage modulation in colitis as a potential therapeutic molecule in human IBD and explore the underlying mechanisms. Gene expression in macrophages was examined and wound healing assay using HT-29 cells was performed. Colitis in wild type and IL-10-, TLR4-, and MyD88-deficient mice was induced via the administration of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) into the colon...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Charles E Norton, Steven S Segal
The sensory neurotransmitter calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is associated with vasodilation of systemic arteries through activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channels (KATP) in smooth muscle cells (SMCs), however its effects on endothelial cell (EC) membrane potential (Vm) are unresolved. In pulmonary arteries (PAs) of C57BL/6J mice, we questioned whether CGRP would hyperpolarize ECs as well as SMCs. Intact PAs were isolated and immunostained for CGRP to confirm sensory innervation; vessel segments (length, 1-2 mm; diameter ∼150 µm) with intact or denuded endothelium were cannulated and pressurized to 16 cm H2O at 37{degree sign}C...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Yogesh Patil, Panayiotis Bilalis, Georgios Polymeropoulos, Sarah R Almahdali, Nikos Hadjichristidis, Valentin O Rodionov
A well-defined amphiphilic miktoarm polymer incorporating poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), polystyrene (PS), and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) blocks was synthesized via a combination of atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), iodine transfer radical polymerization (ITP), and copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC). Morphology and self-assembly of this star polymer were examined in organic solvents and in water. The aggregates formed in water were found to possess unusual frustrated topology due to immiscibility of PS and PVDF...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Lu Han, Shunai Che
Triply periodic minimal surface structures and related geometries are widely identified in many natural systems, such as biological membranes and biophotonic structures in butterfly-wing scales. Inspired by their marvelous and highly symmetrical structures and optimized physical properties, these structures have sparked immense interest for creating novel materials by extracting the design from nature. Significant progress has been made to understand these biological structures and fabricate artificial materials by top-down and bottom-up approaches for numerous applications in chemistry and materials science...
March 15, 2018: Advanced Materials
Caitlin A Wotton, Elizabeth F Quon, Ashley C Palmer, Lane K Bekar
Both serotonin (5HT) and stress exert changes in cortical inhibitory tone to shape activity of cortical networks. As astrocytes are also known to affect inhibition through established purinergic pathways, we assessed the role of GABA and purinergic pathways in rapid corticosterone (CORT) and 5HT effects on cortical inhibition. We used a paired-pulse paradigm (P1 & P2) in acutely isolated mouse brain slices to evaluate changes in cortical evoked inhibition. Normally, 5HT decreases amplitude of the first pulse P1, while increasing the amplitude of P2 (increase frequency transmission)...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Maria Murcia-Lopez, Anthony Steed
As we explore the use of consumer virtual reality technology for training applications, there is a need to evaluate its validity compared to more traditional training formats. In this paper, we present a study that compares the effectiveness of virtual training and physical training for teaching a bimanual assembly task. In a between-subjects experiment, 60 participants were trained to solve three 3D burr puzzles in one of six conditions comprised of virtual and physical training elements. In the four physical conditions, training was delivered via paper- and video-based instructions, with or without the physical puzzles to practice with...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Cristina Remondi, Francesco Sesti, Giuseppe Sorrenti, Giovannella Venezia, Roberto Sorge, Adalgisa Pietropolli, Beatrice Silvi, Emilio Piccione
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare 22 Fr unipolar resectoscope with the traditional 26 Fr unipolar resectoscope in endometrial polypectomy performed under paracervical block anesthesia. METHODS: The trial took place in Gynecologic Unit, Department of Surgery, Tor Vergata University Hospital, Rome. Inclusion criteria were: diagnosis of endometrial polyps <3 cm at office hysteroscopy; agreement of patients to perform surgery under paracervical block anesthesia but not in office setting...
March 15, 2018: Minimally Invasive Therapy & Allied Technologies: MITAT
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