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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786813/prediction-of-mortality-in-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury-implementations-from-a-tertiary-pediatric-intensive-care-facility
#1
Ebru Atike Ongun, Oğuz Dursun
BACKGROUND: To explore the mortality risk factors of traumatic brain injury in pediatric intensive care unit admissions. METHODS: Eighty-eight children (categorized using the Glasgow Coma Scale) between September 2014 and December 2016 were analyzed. Emergency department and intensive care course, treatment strategies, axonal injury, intubation and tracheostomy rates, length of intensive care and hospitalization, Rotterdam-CT scores, injury severity scores, and PRISM-III scores were recorded...
May 2018: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786697/imaging-glutathione-depletion-in-the-rat-brain-using-ascorbate-derived-hyperpolarized-mr-and-pet-probes
#2
Hecong Qin, Valerie N Carroll, Renuka Sriram, Javier E Villanueva-Meyer, Cornelius von Morze, Zhen Jane Wang, Christopher A Mutch, Kayvan R Keshari, Robert R Flavell, John Kurhanewicz, David M Wilson
Oxidative stress is a critical feature of several common neurologic disorders. The brain is well adapted to neutralize oxidative injury by maintaining a high steady-state concentration of small-molecule intracellular antioxidants including glutathione in astrocytes and ascorbic acid in neurons. Ascorbate-derived imaging probes for hyperpolarized 13 C magnetic resonance spectroscopy and positron emission tomography have been used to study redox changes (antioxidant depletion and reactive oxygen species accumulation) in vivo...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786658/melatonin-as-a-therapy-for-traumatic-brain-injury-a-review-of-published-evidence
#3
REVIEW
Nicole Osier, Emily McGreevy, Lan Pham, Ava Puccio, Dianxu Ren, Yvette P Conley, Sheila Alexander, C Edward Dixon
Melatonin (MEL) is a hormone that is produced in the brain and is known to bind to MEL-specific receptors on neuronal membranes in several brain regions. MEL's documented neuroprotective properties, low toxicity, and ability to cross the blood-brain-barrier have led to its evaluation for patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI), a condition for which there are currently no Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved therapies. The purpose of this manuscript is to summarize the evidence surrounding the use of melatonin after TBI, as well as identify existing gaps and future directions...
May 22, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786476/orthopedic-injured-versus-uninjured-comparison-groups-for-neuroimaging-research-in-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#4
Elisabeth A Wilde, Ashley L Ware, Xiaoqi Li, Trevor C Wu, Stephen R McCauley, Amanda Barnes, Mary Newsome, Brian Biekman, Jill V Hunter, Zili Chu, Harvey Levin
To address controversy surrounding the most appropriate comparison group for mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) research, mTBI patients aged 12-30 years were compared to an extracranial orthopedic injury (OI) patient group and an uninjured, typically-developing (TD) participant group with comparable demographic backgrounds. Injured participants underwent subacute (within 96 hours) and late (3 months) diffusion tensor imaging (DTI); TD controls underwent DTI once. Group differences in fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) of commonly studied white matter tracts were assessed...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786464/what-can-we-learn-from-diffusion-tensor-imaging-from-a-large-traumatic-brain-injury-cohort-white-matter-integrity-and-its-relationship-with-outcome
#5
Ana M Castaño-Leon, Marta Cicuendez, Blanca Navarro, Pablo M Munarriz, Santiago Cepeda, Igor Paredes, Amaya Hilario, Ana Ramos, Pedro Antonio Gomez, Alfonso Lagares
Traumatic axonal injury (TAI) contributes significantly to mortality and morbidity after traumatic brain injury (TBI) but its identification is still a diagnostic challenge because of the limitations of conventional imaging techniques to characterized it. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can indirectly identify areas of damaged white matter (WM) integrity by detecting water molecules diffusion alterations. Therefore, DTI may improve detection and description of TAI lesions after TBI. We have obtained DTI data from 217 patients with moderate to severe TBI acquired at median 19 days after TBI were and patient DTI metrics were compared with data obtained from 58 age-matched healthy controls...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786463/hybrid-diffusion-imaging-in-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#6
Yu-Chien Wu, Sourajit Mitra Mustafi, Jaroslaw Harezlak, Chandana Kodiweera, Laura A Flashman, Thomas McAllister
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is an important public health problem. Although conventional medical imaging techniques can detect moderate-to-severe injuries, they are relatively insensitive to mTBI. In this study, we used hybrid diffusion imaging (HYDI) to detect white-matter alterations in nineteen patients with mTBI and 23 other trauma-control patients. Within 15 days (SD=10) of brain injury, all subjects underwent magnetic-resonance HYDI and were assessed with battery of neuropsychological tests of sustained attention, memory, and executive function...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786461/gender-and-diagnostic-impact-on-everyday-technology-use-a-differential-item-functioning-dif-analysis-of-the-everyday-technology-use-questionnaire-etuq
#7
Anders Kottorp, Camilla Malinowsky, Maria Larsson-Lund, Louise Nygård
BACKGROUND: As the use of everyday technology is increasingly important for participation in daily activities, more in-depth knowledge of everyday technology use in relation to diagnosis and gender is needed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the stability of the perceived challenge of a variety of everyday technologies across different samples of varying diagnoses including both males and females. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used 643 data records from clinical and research samples, including persons with dementia or related disorders, acquired brain injury, intellectual disability, various mental or medical disorders, and adults without known diagnoses...
May 22, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786451/annexin-a2-is-a-robo4-ligand-that-modulates-arf6-activation-associated-cerebral-trans-endothelial-permeability
#8
Wenlu Li, Zhigang Chen, Jing Yuan, Zhanyang Yu, Chongjie Cheng, Qiuchen Zhao, Lena Huang, Katherine A Hajjar, Zhong Chen, Eng H Lo, Haibin Dai, Xiaoying Wang
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption in neurological disorders remains an intractable problem with limited therapeutic options. Here, we investigate whether the endothelial cell membrane protein annexin A2 (ANXA2) may play a role in reducing trans-endothelial permeability and maintaining cerebrovascular integrity after injury. Compared with wild-type mice, the expression of cerebral endothelial junctional proteins was reduced in E15.5 and adult ANXA2 knockout mice, along with increased leakage of small molecule tracers...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786167/neuroplasticity-in-stroke-recovery-the-role-of-microglia-in-engaging-and-modifying-synapses-and-networks
#9
REVIEW
Ioanna Sandvig, Ingrid Lovise Augestad, Asta Kristine Håberg, Axel Sandvig
Neuroplasticity after ischemic injury involves both spontaneous rewiring of neural networks and circuits as well as functional responses in neurogenic niches. These events involve complex interactions with activated microglia, which evolve in a dynamic manner over time. Although the exact mechanisms underlying these interactions remain poorly understood, increasing experimental evidence suggests a determining role of pro- and anti-inflammatory microglial activation profiles in shaping both synaptogenesis and neurogenesis...
May 22, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786114/endothelium-dependent-vasodilation-in-the-cerebral-arterioles-of-rats-deteriorates-during-acute-hyperglycemia-and-then-is-restored-by-reducing-the-glucose-level
#10
Kazuhiro Kito, Kumiko Tanabe, Koji Sakata, Naokazu Fukuoka, Kiyoshi Nagase, Mami Iida, Hiroki Iida
PURPOSE: Acute hyperglycemia in patients with traumatic brain injury correlates with a poor neurological outcome. We investigated the endothelium function of rat cerebral arterioles during acute hyperglycemia and after reducing the glucose levels using insulin. We also examined whether or not oxidative stress was involved in the cerebral arteriole response to acute hyperglycemia. METHODS: In isoflurane-anesthetized, mechanically ventilated rats, we used closed cranial window preparation to measure the changes in the pial arteriolar diameter following the topical application of acetylcholine (ACh) or adenosine...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785582/altered-cerebro-cerebellum-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-hiv-infected-male-patients
#11
Huijuan Wang, Ruili Li, Yawen Zhou, Yanming Wang, Jin Cui, Benedictor Alexander Nguchu, Bensheng Qiu, Xiaoxiao Wang, Hongjun Li
In addition to the role of planning and executing movement, the cerebellum greatly contributes to cognitive process. Numerous studies have reported structural and functional abnormalities in the cerebellum for HIV-infected patients, but little is known about the altered functional connectivity of particular cerebellar subregions and the cerebrum. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) changes of the cerebellum and further analyze the relationship between the rsFC changes and the neuropsychological evaluation...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785359/white-matter-microstructure-white-matter-lesions-and-hypertension-an-examination-of-early-surrogate-markers-of-vascular-related-brain-change-in-midlife
#12
Thaddeus Haight, R Nick Bryan, Guray Erus, Meng-Kang Hsieh, Christos Davatzikos, Ilya Nasrallah, Mark D'Esposito, David R Jacobs, Cora Lewis, Pamela Schreiner, Stephen Sidney, Osorio Meirelles, Lenore J Launer
Objective: We examined imaging surrogates of white matter microstructural abnormalities which may precede white matter lesions (WML) and represent a relevant marker of cerebrovascular injury in adults in midlife. Methods: In 698 community-dwelling adults (mean age 50 years ±3.5 SD) from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Brain MRI sub-study, WML were identified on structural MR and fractional anisotropy (FA), representing WM microstructural integrity, was derived using Diffusion Tensor Imaging...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785226/progressive-assessment-of-ischemic-injury-to-white-matter-using-diffusion-tensor-imaging-a-preliminary-study-of-a-macaque-model-of-stroke
#13
Xiaodong Zhang, Yumei Yan, Frank Tong, Chun-Xia Li, Benjamin Jones, Silun Wang, Yuguang Meng, E Chris Muly, Doty Kempf, Leonard Howell
Background: Previous Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) studies have demonstrated the temporal evolution of stroke injury in grey matter and white matter can be characterized by DTI indices. However, it still remains not fully understood how the DTI indices of white matter are altered progressively during the hyperacute (first 6 hours) and acute stage of stroke (≤ 1 week). In the present study, DTI was employed to characterize the temporal evolution of infarction and white matter injury after stroke insult using a macaque model with permanent ischemic occlusion...
2018: Open Neuroimaging Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784923/author-correction-long-term-effects-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injuries-to-oculomotor-tracking-performances-and-reaction-times-to-simple-environmental-stimuli
#14
Alessander Danna-Dos-Santos, Sambit Mohapatra, Maria Santos, Adriana M Degani
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has not been fixed in the paper.
May 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784284/routine-surveillance-imaging-following-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-with-intracranial-hemorrhage-may-not-be-necessary
#15
Smruti K Patel, Yair M Gozal, Bryan M Krueger, James C Bayley, Suzanne Moody, Norberto Andaluz, Richard A Falcone, Karin S Bierbrauer
BACKGROUND: Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) comprises the majority of pediatric traumatic brain injury. Children with mTBI even with traumatic intracranial hemorrhage (tICH) rarely experience a clinically significant neurologic decline (CSND). The utility of routine surveillance imaging in the pediatric population also remains controversial, especially owing to concerns about the risks of radiation exposure at a young age. This study aims to identify demographic or injury-related characteristics that may facilitate recognition of children at risk of progression with mTBI...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784215/emotional-labour-of-caregivers-confronted-with-aggressive-brain-injured-patients
#16
Magali Huet, Lionel Dany, Thémistoklis Apostolidis
BACKGROUND: Aggressive behaviours are common with people who have suffered brain injuries and induce difficult emotions among certified nursing assistants and medical-psychological assistants who take care of them. These caregivers carry out emotional labour whose content and strategies are little known. AIM: The study explores the emotional labour of certified nursing assistants and medical-psychological assistants faced with the aggressive behaviours of brain-injured patients...
June 2018: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783851/the-death-debate-penumbra-conundrum
#17
Robert F Johnson
Determination and declaration of death by neurologic criteria, brain death, is an established and legally accepted clinical practice with profound implications. Concerns regarding the accuracy of this diagnosis raise important clinical, ethical, and legal issues. A recent magazine article highlights these concerns by describing a poignant example of a patient meeting accepted clinical and ancillary testing criteria for brain death in the setting of post cardiac arrest hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (CA-HIE)...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783119/in-vivo-imaging-of-neuronal-calcium-during-electrode-implantation-spatial-and-temporal-mapping-of-damage-and-recovery
#18
James R Eles, Alberto L Vazquez, Takashi D Y Kozai, X Tracy Cui
Implantable electrode devices enable long-term electrophysiological recordings for brain-machine interfaces and basic neuroscience research. Implantation of these devices, however, leads to neuronal damage and progressive neural degeneration that can lead to device failure. The present study uses in vivo two-photon microscopy to study the calcium activity and morphology of neurons before, during, and one month after electrode implantation to determine how implantation trauma injures neurons. We show that implantation leads to prolonged, elevated calcium levels in neurons within 150 μm of the electrode interface...
May 7, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782989/nadph-oxidase-2-deletion-enhances-neurogenesis-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#19
Jing Wang, Merry W Ma, Krishnan M Dhandapani, Darrell W Brann
The NADPH oxidase (NOX) enzyme family is a major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and contributor to the secondary pathology underlying traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, little is known about how NOX-derived ROS influences the proliferation and cell-fate determination of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs/NPCs) following TBI. In the current study, we found that deletion of NOX2 (NOX2-KO) significantly decreases the population of radial glia-like NSCs and neuroblasts but maintains the population of non-radial Sox2 expressing stem cells under physiological (non-injury) conditions...
May 18, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782907/analgesic-effect-of-intrathecal-baclofen-bolus-on-neuropathic-pain-in-spinal-cord-injury-patients
#20
Hatice Kumru, Jesus Benito-Penalva, Markus Kofler, Joan Vidal
BACKGROUND: GABA-ergic neurons are widely distributed throughout the central nervous system, including the spinal cord which is important for the transmission of pain impulses to the brain. Here we hypothesized that intrathecal baclofen (ITB) which is a GABA analogue might exert analgesic effects on neuropathic pain, which could be related to subtypes of pain in spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS: SCI patients with a cervical or thoracic lesion and neuropathic pain were randomized to receive either a single ITB bolus or placebo...
May 18, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
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