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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088648/the-influence-of-5-httlpr-transporter-genotype-on-amygdala-subgenual-anterior-cingulate-cortex-connectivity-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#1
Francisco Velasquez, Jillian Lee Wiggins, Whitney I Mattson, Donna M Martin, Catherine Lord, Christopher S Monk
Social deficits in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are linked to amygdala functioning and functional connection between the amygdala and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sACC) is involved in the modulation of amygdala activity. Impairments in behavioral symptoms and amygdala activation and connectivity with the sACC seem to vary by serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) variant genotype in diverse populations. The current preliminary investigation examines whether amygdala-sACC connectivity differs by 5-HTTLPR genotype and relates to social functioning in ASD...
December 23, 2016: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075189/11-analytically-confirmed-cases-of-mexedrone-use-among-polydrug-users
#2
Liam Roberts, Loretta Ford, Neel Patel, J Allister Vale, Sally M Bradberry
INTRODUCTION: Mexedrone, 3-methoxy-2-(methylamino)-1-(4-methylphenyl)propan-1-one, is the alpha-methoxy-derivative of mephedrone (4-methyl-N-methyl cathinone). Mexedrone inhibits the re-uptake of serotonin and dopamine in a dose-dependent manner and has affinity for serotonin and dopamine membrane transporters and receptors (5-HT2 and D2 receptors), producing sympathomimetic effects similar to amfetamines. To date there are no published clinical reports on mexedrone use that are analytically confirmed...
January 11, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068779/norepinephrine-transporter-gene-variants-and-remission-from-depression-with-venlafaxine-treatment-in-older-adults
#3
Victoria S Marshe, Malgorzata Maciukiewicz, Soham Rej, Arun K Tiwari, Etienne Sibille, Daniel M Blumberger, Jordan F Karp, Eric J Lenze, Charles F Reynolds, James L Kennedy, Benoit H Mulsant, Daniel J Müller
OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study was to investigate five putatively functional variants of the norepinephrine transporter (SLC6A2, NET) and serotonin transporter (SLC6A4, SERT) genes and remission in depressed older adults treated with venlafaxine. A secondary objective was to analyze 17 other variants in serotonergic system genes (HTR1A, HTR2A, HTR1B, HTR2C, TPH1, TPH2) potentially involved in the mechanism of action of venlafaxine. METHOD: The sample included 350 adults age 60 or older with DSM-IV-defined major depressive disorder and a score of at least 15 on the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS)...
January 10, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064281/childhood-abuse-history-in-depression-predicts-better-response-to-antidepressants-with-higher-serotonin-transporter-affinity-a-pilot-investigation
#4
Lena C Quilty, Victoria Marshe, Daniela S S Lobo, Kate L Harkness, Daniel J Müller, R Michael Bagby
OBJECTIVES: Childhood abuse is a powerful prognostic indicator in adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) and is associated with numerous biological risk factors for depression. The purpose of this investigation was to explore if antidepressant medication affinity for the serotonin transporter moderates the association between childhood abuse and treatment response. METHODS: Our sample included 52 outpatients with MDD who had received up to 26 weeks of pharmacotherapy, stratifying antidepressant medications with a high versus a low affinity for the serotonin transporter...
January 7, 2017: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054193/personality-as-an-intermediate-phenotype-for-genetic-dissection-of-alcohol-use-disorder
#5
REVIEW
Lars Oreland, Gianvito Lagravinese, Simone Toffoletto, Kent W Nilsson, Jaanus Harro, C Robert Cloninger, Erika Comasco
Genetic and environmental interactive influences on predisposition to develop alcohol use disorder (AUD) account for the high heterogeneity among AUD patients and make research on the risk and resiliency factors complicated. Several attempts have been made to identify the genetic basis of AUD; however, only few genetic polymorphisms have consistently been associated with AUD. Intermediate phenotypes are expected to be in-between proxies of basic neuronal biological processes and nosological symptoms of AUD...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053035/a-high-resolution-in-vivo-atlas-of-the-human-brain-s-serotonin-system
#6
Vincent Beliveau, Melanie Ganz, Ling Feng, Brice Ozenne, Liselotte Højgaard, Patrick M Fisher, Claus Svarer, Douglas N Greve, Gitte M Knudsen
: The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) system modulates many important brain functions and is critically involved in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we present a high-resolution, multidimensional, in vivo atlas of four of the human brain's 5-HT receptors (5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2A, and 5-HT4) and the 5-HT transporter (5-HTT). The atlas is created from molecular and structural high-resolution neuroimaging data consisting of positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans acquired in a total of 210 healthy individuals...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043073/a-comparative-qsar-analysis-and-molecular-docking-studies-of-phenyl-piperidine-derivatives-as-potent-dual-nk1r-antagonists-serotonin-transporter-sert-inhibitors
#7
Somayeh Zare, Masood Fereidoonnezhad, Davoud Afshar, Zahra Ramezani
Depression is a critical mood disorder that affects millions of patients. Available therapeutic antidepressant agents are associated with several undesirable side effects. Recently, it has been shown that Neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) antagonists can potentiate the antidepressant effects of serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). In this study, a series of phenyl piperidine derivatives as potent dual NK1R antagonists/serotonin transporter (SERT) inhibitors were applied to quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis...
December 23, 2016: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035393/fluoxetine-protects-against-methamphetamine%C3%A2-induced-lung-inflammation-by-suppressing-oxidative-stress-through-the-sert-p38-mapk-nrf2-pathway-in-rats
#8
Yun Wang, Yu-Han Gu, Ming Liu, Yang Bai, Huai-Liang Wang
Methamphetamine (MA) abuse is a major public health and safety concern throughout the world and a growing burden on healthcare costs. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of fluoxetine against MA‑induced chronic pulmonary inflammation and to evaluate the potential role of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated antioxidative stress. Wistar rats were divided into control, MA and two fluoxetine‑treated groups. Rats in the MA and the two fluoxetine‑treated groups were treated daily with intraperitoneal injection of 10 mg/kg MA twice daily...
December 23, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029428/the-serotonin-transporter-gene-5-httlpr-polymorphism-is-associated-with-affective-psychoses-but-not-with-schizophrenia-a-large-scale-study-in-the-russian-population
#9
Vera Golimbet, Galina Korovaitseva, Tatyana Lezheiko, L I Abramova, V G Kaleda
BACKGROUND: Affective syndrome is thought to be a key feature that differentiates schizophrenia from schizoaffective disorder (SA) and bipolar disorder with psychotic features (BDP). However genetic underpinnings of these differences remain unresolved. OBJECTIVES: We compared clinical variables of affective psychoses (SA, BDP and schizophrenia with affective symptoms (AFF SCZ)) and schizophrenia without affective symptoms (non-AFF SCZ) and searched for a genetic variant that may differentiate affective psychosis from non-AFF SCZ...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025810/application-of-a-combined-approach-to-identify-new-psychoactive-street-drugs-and-decipher-their-mechanisms-at-monoamine-transporters
#10
Felix P Mayer, Anton Luf, Constanze Nagy, Marion Holy, Rainer Schmid, Michael Freissmuth, Harald H Sitte
Psychoactive compounds can cause acute and long-term health problems and lead to addiction. In addition to well-studied and legally controlled compounds like cocaine, new psychoactive substances (NPS) are appearing in street drug markets as replacement strategies and legal alternatives. NPS are effectively marketed as "designer drugs" or "research chemicals" without any knowledge of their underlying pharmacological mode of action and their potential toxicological effects and obviously devoid of any registration process...
December 27, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024274/heterogeneity-in-hpa-axis-dysregulation-and-serotonergic-vulnerability-to-depression
#11
Marie-Laure Ancelin, Jacqueline Scali, Joanna Norton, Karen Ritchie, Anne-Marie Dupuy, Isabelle Chaudieu, Joanne Ryan
Variability in the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) gene can influence the risk of depression associated with adversity, as well as cortisol stress reactivity, although not consistently. No study has examined the impact of both a stressful environment and corticotropic-axis dysfunction on depression, as a function of 5-HTTLPR. This population-based study included 334 subjects aged 65 and older. Depression was measured at both diagnostic (major depression according to DSM-IV) and symptomatic (subthreshold depression) levels of caseness, in addition to 5-HTTLPR and rs25531 genotyping and diurnal cortisol measures...
December 5, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019672/serotonin-transporter-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-meta-analysis-of-pet-studies
#12
REVIEW
Gennaro Pagano, Flavia Niccolini, Paolo Fusar-Poli, Marios Politis
Positron emission tomography (PET) is a powerful analytical tool for the in vivo molecular imaging of the human brain. Over the past years, a number of PET studies imaging the serotonin transporter (SERT) have been employed, and provided evidence for the key role of serotonergic pathology in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, we review the role of SERT in the development of motor and non-motor complications in patients with PD, and we performed a meta-analysis to identify the patterns of SERT pathology and the relevance to symptoms...
December 26, 2016: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018697/self-limited-kleptomania-symptoms-as-a-side-effect-of-duloxetine
#13
Christopher W T Miller, Keith E Gallagher
Introduction. Impulse control disorders (ICDs) have been described as a side effect of dopamine agonists, frequently used in neurodegenerative conditions affecting the nigrostriatal pathway. Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (e.g., duloxetine) have dose-dependent differential affinity for monoaminergic transporters, inhibiting the dopamine transporter at higher doses, thus increasing availability of synaptic dopamine, with the potential for similar impulse control side effects. Case Presentation...
2016: Case Reports in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018168/what-mechanisms-are-responsible-for-the-reuptake-of-levodopa-derived-dopamine-in-parkinsonian-striatum
#14
REVIEW
Haruo Nishijima, Masahiko Tomiyama
Levodopa is the most effective medication for motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease. However, various motor and non-motor complications are associated with levodopa treatment, resulting from altered levodopa-dopamine metabolism with disease progression and long-term use of the drug. The present review emphasizes the role of monoamine transporters other than the dopamine transporter in uptake of extracellular dopamine in the dopamine-denervated striatum. When dopaminergic neurons are lost and dopamine transporters decreased, serotonin and norepinephrine transporters compensate by increasing uptake of excessive extracellular dopamine in the striatum...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012610/secondary-to-excessive-melatonin-synthesis-the-consumption-of-tryptophan-from-outside-the-blood-brain-barrier-and-melatonin-over-signaling-in-the-pars-tuberalis-may-be-central-to-the-pathophysiology-of-winter-depression
#15
José Carlos Pereira, Márcia Pradella Hallinan, Rosana Cardoso Alves
Seasonal affective disorder is defined as recurrent episodes of major depression, mania, or hypomania with seasonal onset and remission. In this class of mood disturbances, a unipolar major depressive disorder known as winter depression is common in populations living in northern latitudes far from the equator. Winter depression repeatedly occurs in the autumn or winter and remits in the spring or summer, and its etiopathogenesis is currently unknown. However, one can surmise that excessive melatonin production during the reduced duration of daily sunlight in the autumn and winter plays a role in its pathophysiology...
January 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999288/melatonin-a-mitochondrial-targeting-molecule-involving-mitochondrial-protection-and-dynamics
#16
REVIEW
Dun-Xian Tan, Lucien C Manchester, Lilan Qin, Russel J Reiter
Melatonin has been speculated to be mainly synthesized by mitochondria. This speculation is supported by the recent discovery that aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase/serotonin N-acetyltransferase (AANAT/SNAT) is localized in mitochondria of oocytes and the isolated mitochondria generate melatonin. We have also speculated that melatonin is a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant. It accumulates in mitochondria with high concentration against a concentration gradient. This is probably achieved by an active transportation via mitochondrial melatonin transporter(s)...
December 16, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998510/stress-burnout-and-depression-a-systematic-review-on-dna-methylation-mechanisms
#17
REVIEW
Jelena Bakusic, Wilmar Schaufeli, Stephan Claes, Lode Godderis
Despite that burnout presents a serious burden for modern society, there are no diagnostic criteria. Additional difficulty is the differential diagnosis with depression. Consequently, there is a need to dispose of a burnout biomarker. Epigenetic studies suggest that DNA methylation is a possible mediator linking individual response to stress and psychopathology and could be considered as a potential biomarker of stress-related mental disorders. Thus, the aim of this review is to provide an overview of DNA methylation mechanisms in stress, burnout and depression...
January 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996982/-vortioxetine-in-the-treatment-of-major-depression
#18
Andrea de Bartolomeis, Andrea Fagiolini, Giuseppe Maina
Notwithstanding the high prevalence, functional burden, negative consequences and risk of chronicity of major depressive disorder, few innovative medications have been developed in recent years for the treatment of this heterogeneous disease. Vortioxetine is a multi-modal antidepressant that functions both as serotonin transporter (SERT) inhibitor and as 5-HT3, 5-HT7 and 5-HT1D receptors antagonist, 5-HT1A receptor agonist and 5-HT1B receptor partial agonist. A recent meta-analysis of 11 randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, acute (6-8 weeks) treatment studies has demonstrated the efficacy of vortioxetine 5-20 mg/day in the treatment of depression, with an increasing effect associated with increasing dose...
November 2016: Rivista di Psichiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993209/enhanced-serotonin-signaling-stimulates-ordered-intestinal-mucosal-growth
#19
John J Tackett, Neeru Gandotra, Michaela C Bamdad, Eleanor D Muise, Robert A Cowles
BACKGROUND: Significant quantities of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) are found in the intestine, and studies have demonstrated that 5-HT can stimulate enterocyte cell division, suggesting regulatory roles in mucosal homeostasis and intestinal adaptation. We hypothesized that excess enteric 5-HT signaling enhances mucosal growth without changing intestinal villous cellular makeup. METHODS: Mice lacking the serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) and wild-type littermates (WTLM) were euthanized and their ileum analyzed...
February 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992891/negative-experiences-in-childhood-and-the-development-and-course-of-bipolar-disorder
#20
REVIEW
Paulina Jaworska-Andryszewska, Janusz Rybakowski
The aim of this paper is to review the effects of negative childhood experiences on the development and course of bipolar disorder (BD) and to discuss the involved mechanisms. The negative childhood experiences that may play a role in BD are critical or traumatic events including all kinds of abuse, loss of a parent or parents resulting from death, suicide, separation, divorce or prolonged separation. Previous studies indicate that in BD patients negative childhood events are more frequent than in control group...
October 31, 2016: Psychiatria Polska
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