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Serotonin transporter

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935840/test-retest-reliability-of-the-sert-imaging-agent-11-c-homadam-in-healthy-humans
#1
Vikram Adhikarla, Boadie W Dunlop, Nachwa Jarkas, Mark Goodman, Helen Mayberg, Michael J Owens, Jonathon A Nye
The aim of this study was to measure the test-retest reliability of (11)C-N,N-dimethyl-2-(2'-amino-4'-hydroxymethylphenylthio)benzylamine ([(11)C]HOMADAM) imaging of serotonin transporter (SERT) density in healthy control subjects. Methods: Two female and two male volunteers participated in the study and underwent three [(11)C]HOMADAM Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans each of 90 min in duration. Time-activity curves were derived from SERT rich structures and fit to two models: 1) a simplified reference tissue model (SRTM) and 2) a multi-linear graphical model (MRTM)...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935838/decreased-pretreatment-amygdalae-serotonin-transporter-binding-in-unipolar-depression-remitters-a-prospective-pet-study
#2
Mala Ananth, Christine DeLorenzo, Jie Yang, J John Mann, Ramin Parsey
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a debilitating condition that affects over 14 million Americans. Remission only occurs in a minority of individuals following first-line antidepressant treatment (~35%); predictors of treatment outcome are therefore needed. Using Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging with a radiotracer specific for the serotonin transporter (5-HTT), (11)C-McN5652, we found that patients with MDD who did not achieve remission following 12 months of naturalistic treatment had lower pre-treatment midbrain and amygdala binding compared to healthy volunteers...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927446/neurochemical-and-behavioral-characterization-of-neuronal-glutamate-transporter-eaat3-heterozygous-mice
#3
Luis F González, Francisca Henríquez-Belmar, Claudia Delgado-Acevedo, Marisol Cisternas-Olmedo, Gloria Arriagada, Ramón Sotomayor-Zárate, Dennis L Murphy, Pablo R Moya
BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a severe neuropsychiatric condition affecting 1-3% of the worldwide population. OCD has a strong genetic component, and the SLC1A1 gene that encodes neuronal glutamate transporter EAAT3 is a strong candidate for this disorder. To evaluate the impact of reduced EAAT3 expression in vivo, we studied male EAAT3 heterozygous and wild-type littermate mice using a battery of behavioral paradigms relevant to anxiety (open field test, elevated plus maze) and compulsivity (marble burying), as well as locomotor activity induced by amphetamine...
September 19, 2017: Biological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921740/5-httlpr-moderates-the-association-between-interdependence-and-brain-responses-to-mortality-threats
#4
Siyang Luo, Dian Yu, Shihui Han
While behavioral research suggests an association between cultural worldview and decreased anxiety of death, the underlying neurobiological mechanisms remain unclear. Using functional MRI, we investigated whether and how the serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR), which has been associated with mental disorders such as anxiety and depression, moderates the associations between a cultural trait (i.e., interdependence) and self-report of death anxiety/depression and between interdependence and brain responses to mortality threats...
September 17, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916638/pharmacological-and-physiological-assessment-of-serotonin-formation-and-degradation-in-isolated-preparations-from-mouse-and-human-heart
#5
Ulrich Gergs, Franziska Jung, Igor B Buchwalow, Britt Hofmann, Andreas Simm, Hendrik Treede, Joachim Neumann
Using transgenic mice (TG) that overexpress the human 5-HT4a-receptor specifically in cardiomyocytes, we wanted to know whether 5-HT can be formed and degraded in the mammalian heart and whether this can likewise lead to inotropic and chronotropic effects in this TG model. We noted that the 5-HT precursor, 5-hydroxy-tryptophan (5-HTP), can exert inotropic and chronotropic effects in cardiac preparations from TG but not from wild type (WT): similar results were found in human atrial preparations, as well as in intact TG animals using echocardiography...
September 15, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914102/5-httlpr-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-bdnf-gene-interactions-and-early-adverse-life-events-effect-on-impulsivity-in-suicide-attempters
#6
Luis Jiménez-Treviño, Pilar Alejandra Saiz, Maria Paz García-Portilla, Hilario Blasco-Fontecilla, Vladimir Carli, Miriam Iosue, Isabelle Jaussent, Jorge López-Castroman, Concepcion Vaquero-Lorenzo, Marco Sarchiapone, Enrique Baca-García, Philippe Courtet, Julio Bobes
OBJECTIVES: An expanding body of research suggests that childhood adverse experiences can lead to different negative health outcomes, including attempted suicide. Serotonergic genes such as the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) have been associated both with impulsivity in suicide attempts and reactivity to environmental stress exposure. BDNF gene may play an epigenetic role. METHODS: We studied the influence of childhood stressful events and 5-HTTLPR genotype on impulsivity measured by Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS-10) in a multicentre sample of 1,655 suicide attempters (69...
September 15, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912901/can-a-selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitor-act-as-a-glutamatergic-modulator
#7
Marcos Emilio Frizzo
Sertraline (Zoloft) and fluoxetine (Prozac) are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors whose antidepressant mechanism of action is classically attributed to an elevation of the extracellular levels of serotonin in the synaptic cleft. However, the biological effects of these drugs seem to be more complex than their traditionally described mechanism of action. Among their actions is the inhibition of different types of Na(+) and K(+) channels, as well as of glutamate uptake activity. The clearance of extracellular glutamate is essential to maintain the central nervous system within physiological conditions, and this excitatory neurotransmitter is removed from the synaptic cleft by astrocyte transporters...
2017: Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910072/mapping-the-binding-site-for-escitalopram-and-paroxetine-in-the-human-serotonin-transporter-using-genetically-encoded-photocrosslinkers
#8
Hafsteinn Rannversson, Jacob Andersen, Benny Bang-Andersen, Kristian Strømgaard
In spite of the important role of the human serotonin transporter (hSERT) in depression treatment, the molecular details of how antidepressant drugs bind are still not completely understood, in particular those related to potential high- and low-affinity binding sites in hSERT. Here, we utilize amber codon suppression in hSERT to encode the photocrosslinking unnatural amino acid p-azido-L-phenylalanine into the suggested high- and low-affinity binding sites. We then employ UV-induced crosslinking with azF to map the binding site of escitalopram and paroxetine, two prototypical selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)...
September 14, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903099/resilience-mediates-the-influence-of-a-polymorphism-in-the-serotonin-transporter-gene-on-the-relationship-between-the-burden-of-chronic-illness-and-depression
#9
Foteini Delis, André F Carvalho, Nafsika Poulia, Petros Bozidis, Vassiliki Paika, Elisavet Ntountoulaki, Dimitra Papaioannou, Else Guthrie, Katerina Antoniou, Thomas N Hyphantis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 14, 2017: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901577/suppression-mediates-the-effect-of-5-httlpr-by-stress-interaction-on%C3%A2-depression
#10
Gennady G Knyazev, Daria V Bazovkina, Alexander N Savostyanov, Vladimir S Naumenko, Valeriya B Kuznetsova, Ekaterina A Proshina
A number of studies have shown that the presence of short (S), as opposed to long (L), allele of the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) is associated with a higher risk for depression following exposure to stressful life events. However, many other studies failed to confirm this association. One reason for this inconsistency might be the fact that the interaction of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism with stress may relate not to depression per se, but rather to adaptive or maladaptive emotion regulation strategies...
October 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899958/serotonin-transporter-binding-and-anxiety-symptoms-in-parkinson-s-disease
#11
Merijn Joling, Odile A van den Heuvel, Henk W Berendse, Jan Booij, Chris Vriend
BACKGROUND: Anxiety is a common neuropsychiatric symptom in Parkinson's disease (PD), yet the neural mechanisms have been scarcely investigated. Disturbances in dopaminergic and serotonergic signalling may play a role in its pathophysiology. (123)I-N-ω-fluoropropyl-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)nortropane ((123)I-FP-CIT) is a single-photon emission CT radiotracer, and its binding in striatal and extrastriatal subcortical brain areas represents predominant binding to the presynaptic dopamine transporter (DAT) and the serotonin transporter (SERT), respectively...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899417/serotonin-augmentation-therapy-by-escitalopram-has-minimal-effects-on-amyloid-%C3%AE-levels-in-early-stage-alzheimer-s-like-disease-in-mice
#12
Christian Ulrich von Linstow, Jonas Waider, Manuela Grebing, Athanasios Metaxas, Klaus Peter Lesch, Bente Finsen
BACKGROUND: Dysfunction of the serotonergic (5-HTergic) system has been implicated in the cognitive and behavioural symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Accumulation of toxic amyloid-β (Aβ) species is a hallmark of AD and an instigator of pathology. Serotonin (5-HT) augmentation therapy by treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in patients with AD has had mixed success in improving cognitive function, whereas SSRI administration to mice with AD-like disease has been shown to reduce Aβ pathology...
September 12, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892067/association-of-the-serotonin-transporter-linked-polymorphic-region-genotype-with-lower-bone-mineral-density
#13
M I Lapid, S Kung, M A Frye, J M Biernacka, J R Geske, M T Drake, M D Jankowski, B L Clarke
The serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) of the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) S allele is linked to pathogenesis of depression and slower response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs); depression and SSRIs are independently associated with bone loss. We aimed to determine whether 5-HTTLPR was associated with bone loss. This cross-sectional study included psychiatric patients with both 5-HTTLPR analysis and bone mineral density (BMD) assessment (hip and spine Z-scores if age <50 years and T-scores if ⩾50 years)...
August 22, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887185/role-of-monoaminergic-systems-and-ambient-temperature-in-bath-salts-constituent-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-mdpv-elicited-hyperthermia-and-locomotor-stimulation-in-mice
#14
REVIEW
Brenda M Gannon, Adrian Williamson, Kenner C Rice, William E Fantegrossi
3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a common constituent of illicit bath salts products, and in vitro studies implicate monoamine transporters as mediators of its pharmacological effects. Locomotor and thermoregulatory effects of MDPV depend on ambient temperature, so the current studies aimed to gauge the involvement of dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), and serotonin (5-HT) in MDPV-induced locomotor stimulation and hyperthermia in the mouse at different ambient temperatures. Mice were pretreated with the selective 5-HT-reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine (3 mg/kg), the NE-reuptake inhibitor desipramine (3 mg/kg), the DA-reuptake inhibitor bupropion (10 mg/kg), or saline, followed by 10 mg/kg MDPV while thermoregulation and locomotor activity were monitored via radiotelemetry...
September 5, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887162/extrinsic-nerves-are-not-involved-in-branchial-5-ht-dynamics-or-pulsatile-urea-excretion-in-gulf-toadfish-opsanus-beta
#15
Maria C Cartolano, Molly H B Amador, Velislava Tzaneva, William K Milsom, M Danielle McDonald
Gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta) can switch from continuously excreting ammonia as their primary nitrogenous waste to excreting predominantly urea in distinct pulses. Previous studies have shown that the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) is involved in controlling this process, but it is unknown if 5-HT availability is under central nervous control or if the 5-HT signal originates from a peripheral source. Following up on a previous study, cranial nerves IX (glossopharyngeal) and X (vagus) were sectioned to further characterize their role in controlling pulsatile urea excretion and 5-HT release within the gill...
September 5, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883047/intrinsic-exercise-capacity-in-rats-influences-dopamine-neuroplasticity-induced-by-physical-training
#16
Patricia C R Rabelo, Nayara Abreu Coelho Horta, Letícia Maria Souza Cordeiro, Maristela O Poletini, Cândido Celso Coimbra, Raphael Escorsim Szawka, Danusa Dias Soares
The study evaluates whether the intrinsic capacity for physical exercise influences dopamine neuroplasticity induced by physical training. Male rats were submitted to 3 progressive tests until fatigue. Based on the maximal time of exercise (TE), rats were considered as low-performance (LP), standard-performance (SP) or high-performance (HP) to exercise. Eight animals from each group (LP, SP and HP) were randomly subdivided in sedentary (SED) or trained (TR). Physical training was performed during six weeks...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881483/meta-analysis-risk-of-hyperhidrosis-with-second-generation-antidepressants
#17
Chad Beyer, Kiley Cappetta, Jessica A Johnson, Michael H Bloch
BACKGROUND: Our goal was to quantify the risk of hyperhidrosis associated with commonly used antidepressant agents and examine the impact of medication class, pharmacodynamics, and dose on risk of hyperhidrosis. METHODS: We conducted a PubMed search to identify all double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials examining the efficacy of second-generation antidepressant medications in the treatment of adults with a depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, or obsessive-compulsive disorder...
September 7, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875958/5-hydroxytryptamine-changes-under-different-pretreatments-on-rat-models-of-myocardial-infarction-and-or-depression
#18
Mei-Yan Liu, Li-Jun Zhang, Yu-Xin Zhou, Wan-Lin Wei
Background: Psychocardiological researches have suggested a central role of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) on psychocardiological mechanism. This study aimed to further explore the central role of 5-HT and pretreatment effects of XinLingWan on rats with myocardial infarction (MI) and/or depression. Methods: Ninety Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: MI group, depression group, and MI + depression group (n = 30 in each group). Each group was then divided into three subgroups (n = 10 in each subgroup): a negative control subgroup (NCS), a Western medicine subgroup (WMS), and a traditional Chinese medicine subgroup (TCMS), which were received pretreatment once a day for 4 weeks by saline, 20 mg/kg sertraline mixed with 2 ml saline, and 40 mg/kg XingLingWan mixed with 2 ml saline, respectively...
September 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871143/dysbiosis-contributes-to-chronic-constipation-development-via-regulation-of-serotonin-transporter-in-the-intestine
#19
Hailong Cao, Xiang Liu, Yingying An, Guoqiong Zhou, Yanrong Liu, Mengque Xu, Wenxiao Dong, Sinan Wang, Fang Yan, Kui Jiang, Bangmao Wang
Chronic constipation is a prevalent functional gastrointestinal disorder accompanied with intestinal dysbiosis. However, causal relationship between dysbiosis and constipation remains poorly understood. Serotonin transporter (SERT) is a transmembrane transport protein which re-uptakes excessive 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) from effective location to terminate its physiological effects and involves in regulating gastrointestinal motility. In this study, fecal microbiota from patients with constipation and healthy controls were transplanted into the antibiotic depletion mice model...
September 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856500/methamphetamine-induced-brain-injury-and-alcohol-drinking
#20
Amanda L Blaker, Bryan K Yamamoto
A majority of methamphetamine (Meth) abusers also abuse alcohol but the neurochemical consequences of this co-abuse are unknown. Individually, alcohol and Meth cause inflammation and long-term alterations in dopamine and serotonin signaling within the brain. Experiments were conducted to identify if serial exposure to alcohol and Meth has neurochemical consequences that are greater than after either drug alone. Male Sprague Dawley rats voluntarily drank 10% ethanol (EtOH) every other day for 4 weeks and were then exposed to a binge injection regimen of Meth (10 mg/kg injected every 2 h, for a total of 4 injections)...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
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