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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933677/the-effect-of-slow-paced-breathing-on-stress-management-in-adolescents-with-intellectual-disability
#1
S Laborde, M S Allen, N Göhring, F Dosseville
BACKGROUND: Intellectual disabilities often create a state of chronic stress for both the person concerned and their significant others (family, caregivers). The development of stress management methods is therefore important for the reduction of stress in persons with intellectual disability. The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effect of slow-paced breathing on stress symptoms experienced by adolescents with intellectual disabilities during a cognitive task under time pressure...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933676/white-matter-hyperintensities-are-associated-with-disproportionate-progressive-hippocampal-atrophy
#2
Cassidy M Fiford, Emily N Manning, Jonathan W Bartlett, David M Cash, Ian B Malone, Gerard R Ridgway, Manja Lehmann, Kelvin K Leung, Carole Sudre, Sebastien Ourselin, Geert Jan Biessels, Owen T Carmichael, Nick C Fox, M Jorge Cardoso, Josephine Barnes
This study investigates relationships between white matter hyperintensity (WMH) volume, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology markers, and brain and hippocampal volume loss. Subjects included 198 controls, 345 Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and 154 AD subjects with serial volumetric 1.5T MRI. CSF Aβ42 and total tau were measured (n=353). Brain and hippocampal loss were quantified from serial MRI using the Boundary Shift Integral (BSI). Multiple linear regression models assessed the relationships between WMHs and hippocampal and brain atrophy rates...
December 9, 2016: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933672/single-neuron-activity-and-theta-modulation-in-the-posterior-parietal-cortex-in-a-visuospatial-attention-task
#3
Fang-Chi Yang, T K Jacobson, R D Burwell
The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is implicated in directing and maintaining visual attention to locations in space. We hypothesized that the PPC also engages other cognitive processes in the transformation of behaviorally relevant visual inputs into appropriate actions, for example, monitoring of multiple locations, selection of responses to locations in space, and monitoring the outcome of response selections. We recorded single cells and local field potentials in the rat PPC during performance on a novel visuospatial attention (VSA) task that requires visually monitoring locations in space in order to make appropriate stimulus-guided locomotor responses...
December 9, 2016: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933636/primary-headaches-in-an-elderly-population-seeking-medical-care-for-cognitive-decline
#4
Michele Feleppa, Silvia Fucci, Marcelo E Bigal
OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of specific headache disorders in a population older than 65 years seeking consultation due to memory problems or cognitive impairment. METHODS: We verified the occurrence of headache symptoms and the impact of headaches on daily life. Headaches were classified as per the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd edition (ICHD-2). All patients were screened with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), followed by the Selective Reminding Test and neuroimaging...
December 9, 2016: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933608/assessing-fear-learning-via-conditioned-respiratory-amplitude-responses
#5
Giuseppe Castegnetti, Athina Tzovara, Matthias Staib, Samuel Gerster, Dominik R Bach
Respiratory physiology is influenced by cognitive processes. It has been suggested that some cognitive states may be inferred from respiration amplitude responses (RAR) after external events. Here, we investigate whether RAR allow assessment of fear memory in cued fear conditioning, an experimental model of aversive learning. To this end, we built on a previously developed psychophysiological model (PsPM) of RAR, which regards interpolated RAR time series as the output of a linear time invariant system. We first establish that average RAR after CS+ and CS- are different...
December 8, 2016: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933582/microrna-181c-ameliorates-cognitive-impairment-induced-by-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion-in-rats
#6
Chen Fang, Qian Li, Guowen Min, Min Liu, Jing Cui, Jing Sun, Liang Li
Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) characterized by global cerebral ischemia is an important risk factor contributing to the development of dementia. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in the cellular adaptation to long-term ischemia/hypoxia by turning off or on the expression of target genes. MiR-181c is widely expressed in the nervous system, and tripartite motif 2 (TRIM2) is one of its target genes. In this work, we had identified that progressive spatial memory deficiency was induced in the bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (2-VO) rat models...
December 8, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933555/pharmacist-s-comprehensive-geriatric-assessment-introduction-and-evaluation-at-elderly-patient-admission
#7
Faiza Rhalimi, Mounir Rhalimi, Alain Rauss
BACKGROUND: The role of the clinical pharmacist within the healthcare system remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to describe a pharmacist's comprehensive geriatric assessment (pCGA) at admission of elderly patients and to assess its relevance in terms of medication compliance and pharmacist interventions (PIs). METHODS: We conducted a prospective interventional study over 29 months in a 34-bed medical/rehabilitation geriatric ward in a French geriatric hospital...
December 8, 2016: Drugs—Real World Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933449/clearing-the-fog-a-review-of-the-effects-of-dietary-omega-3-fatty-acids-and-added-sugars-on-chemotherapy-induced-cognitive-deficits
#8
REVIEW
Tonya S Orchard, Monica M Gaudier-Diaz, Kellie R Weinhold, A Courtney DeVries
Cancer treatments such as chemotherapy have been an important part of extending survival in women diagnosed with breast cancer. However, chemotherapy can cause potentially toxic side effects in the brain that impair memory, verbal fluency, and processing speed in up to 30% of women treated. Women report that post-chemotherapy cognitive deficits negatively impact quality of life and may last up to ten years after treatment. Mechanisms underlying these cognitive impairments are not fully understood, but emerging evidence suggests that chemotherapy induces structural changes in the brain, produces neuroinflammation, and reduces adult hippocampal neurogenesis...
December 8, 2016: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933418/temporal-characteristics-of-eeg-microstates-mediate-trial-by-trial-risk-taking
#9
Andreas Pedroni, Lorena R R Gianotti, Thomas Koenig, Dietrich Lehmann, Pascal Faber, Daria Knoch
People seem to have difficulties when perceiving events whose outcome has no influence on the outcome of future events. This illusion that patterns exist where there are none may lead to adverse consequences, such as escalating losses in financial trading or gambling debt. Despite the enormous social consequences of these cognitive biases, however, their neural underpinnings are poorly understood. Attempts to investigate them have so far relied on evoked neural activity, whereas spontaneous brain activity has been treated as noise to be averaged out...
December 8, 2016: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933416/positron-emission-tomography-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-towards-targeting-of-molecular-pathological-hallmarks
#10
Stefanie M A Willekens, Donatienne Van Weehaeghe, Philip Van Damme, Koen Van Laere
During the past decades, extensive efforts have been made to expand the knowledge of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, clinical translation of this research, in terms of earlier diagnosis and improved therapy, remains challenging. Since more than 30% of motor neurons are lost when symptoms become clinically apparent, techniques allowing non-invasive, in vivo detection of motor neuron degeneration are needed in the early, pre-symptomatic disease stage. Furthermore, it has become apparent that non-motor signs play an important role in the disease and there is an overlap with cognitive disorders, such as frontotemporal dementia (FTD)...
December 8, 2016: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933366/deficits-in-autonomic-indices-of-emotion-regulation-and-reward-processing-associated-with-prescription-opioid-use-and-misuse
#11
Eric L Garland, Craig J Bryan, Yoshio Nakamura, Brett Froeliger, Matthew O Howard
RATIONALE: Prescription opioid misuse and high-dose opioid use may result in allostatic dysregulation of hedonic brain circuitry, leading to reduced emotion regulation capacity. In particular, opioid misuse may blunt the ability to experience and upregulate positive affect from natural rewards. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine associations between opioid use/misuse and autonomic indices of emotion regulation capability in a sample of chronic pain patients receiving prescription opioid pharmacotherapy...
December 8, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933285/developmental-profile-and-diagnoses-in-children-presenting-with-motor-stereotypies
#12
Francesco Cardona, Francesca Valente, Daniela Miraglia, Caterina D'Ardia, Valentina Baglioni, Flavia Chiarotti
INTRODUCTION: Motor stereotypies represent a typical example of the difficulty in distinguishing non-clinical behaviors (physiological and transient) from symptoms or among different disorders ["primary stereotypies," associated with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), intellectual disabilities, genetic syndromes, and sensory impairment]. The aim of this study was to obtain an accurate assessment on the relationship between stereotypies and neurodevelopmental disorders. METHODS: We studied 23 children (3 girls), aged 36-95 months, who requested a consultation due to the persistence or increased severity of motor stereotypies...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933066/functionally-diverse-nk-like-t-cells-are-effectors-and-predictors-of-successful-aging
#13
REVIEW
Joshua J Michel, Patricia Griffin, Abbe N Vallejo
The fundamental challenge of aging and long-term survivorship is maintenance of functional independence and compression of morbidity despite a life history of disease. Inasmuch as immunity is a determinant of individual health and fitness, unraveling novel mechanisms of immune homeostasis in late life is of paramount interest. Comparative studies of young and old persons have documented age-related atrophy of the thymus, the contraction of diversity of the T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire, and the intrinsic inefficiency of classical TCR signaling in aged T cells...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933031/exhaustion-experiences-in-junior-athletes-the-importance-of-motivation-and-self-control-competencies
#14
Gro Jordalen, Pierre-Nicolas Lemyre, Natalie Durand-Bush
Quality of motivation, self-control competencies, as well as past performance experience influence sport participation outcomes in developing athletes. Studies have shown that junior athletes high in self-determined motivation are less prone to experience burnout, while self-control competencies help developing athletes to be conscious and deliberate in their self-regulatory efforts toward elite sport performances and avoid negative sport participation outcomes. Combining the self-determination theory framework and psychosocial theories of self-regulation, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine how various types of motivation and self-control competencies together are associated with the development of burnout symptoms in junior athletes...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933028/autism-in-action-reduced-bodily-connectedness-during-social-interactions
#15
C Lieke E Peper, Sija J van der Wal, Sander Begeer
Autism is a lifelong disorder, defined by deficits in social interactions and flexibility. To date, diagnostic markers for autism primarily include limitations in social behavior and cognition. However, such tests have often shown to be inadequate for individuals with autism who are either more cognitively able or intellectually disabled. The assessment of the social limitations of autism would benefit from new tests that capture the dynamics of social initiative and reciprocity in interaction processes, and that are not dependent on intellectual or verbal skills...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933021/dimensions-of-compulsive-exercise-across-eating-disorder-diagnostic-subtypes-and-the-validation-of-the-spanish-version-of-the-compulsive-exercise-test
#16
Sarah Sauchelli, Jon Arcelus, Roser Granero, Susana Jiménez-Murcia, Zaida Agüera, Amparo Del Pino-Gutiérrez, Fernando Fernández-Aranda
Objectives: Compulsive exercise in eating disorders has been traditionally considered as a behavior that serves the purpose of weight/shape control. More recently, it has been postulated that there may be other factors that drive the compulsive need to exercise. This has led to the development of the Compulsive Exercise Test (CET); a self-reported questionnaire that aims to explore the cognitive-behavioral underpinnings of compulsive exercise from a multi-faceted perspective. The objectives of this study were threefold: (1) to validate the Spanish version of the CET; (2) to compare eating disorder diagnostic subtypes and a healthy control group in terms of the factors that drive compulsive exercise as defined by the CET; (3) to explore how the dimensions evaluated in the CET are associated with eating disorder symptoms and general psychopathology...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933013/on-elementary-affective-decisions-to-like-or-not-to-like-that-is-the-question
#17
Arthur Jacobs, Markus J Hofmann, Annette Kinder
Perhaps the most ubiquitous and basic affective decision of daily life is deciding whether we like or dislike something/somebody, or, in terms of psychological emotion theories, whether the object/subject has positive or negative valence. Indeed, people constantly make such liking decisions within a glimpse and, importantly, often without expecting any obvious benefit or knowing the exact reasons for their judgment. In this paper, we review research on such elementary affective decisions (EADs) that entail no direct overt reward with a special focus on Neurocognitive Poetics and discuss methods and models for investigating the neuronal and cognitive-affective bases of EADs to verbal materials with differing degrees of complexity...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933011/psychological-restoration-can-depend-on-stimulus-source-attribution-a-challenge-for-the-evolutionary-account
#18
Andreas Haga, Niklas Halin, Mattias Holmgren, Patrik Sörqvist
Visiting or viewing nature environments can have restorative psychological effects, while exposure to the built environment typically has less positive effects. A classic view is that this difference in restorative potential of nature and built environments depends on differences in the intrinsic characteristics of the stimuli. In addition, an evolutionary account is often assumed whereby restoration is believed to be a hardwired response to nature's stimulus-features. Here, we propose the novel hypothesis that the restorative effects of a stimulus do not entirely depend on the stimulus-features per se, but also on the meaning that people assign to the stimulus...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933005/social-brain-hypothesis-vocal-and-gesture-networks-of-wild-chimpanzees
#19
Sam G B Roberts, Anna I Roberts
A key driver of brain evolution in primates and humans is the cognitive demands arising from managing social relationships. In primates, grooming plays a key role in maintaining these relationships, but the time that can be devoted to grooming is inherently limited. Communication may act as an additional, more time-efficient bonding mechanism to grooming, but how patterns of communication are related to patterns of sociality is still poorly understood. We used social network analysis to examine the associations between close proximity (duration of time spent within 10 m per hour spent in the same party), grooming, vocal communication, and gestural communication (duration of time and frequency of behavior per hour spent within 10 m) in wild chimpanzees...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932978/gender-specific-re-organization-of-resting-state-networks-in-older-age
#20
Aimée Goldstone, Stephen D Mayhew, Izabela Przezdzik, Rebecca S Wilson, Joanne R Hale, Andrew P Bagshaw
Advancing age is commonly associated with changes in both brain structure and function. Recently, the suggestion that alterations in brain connectivity may drive disruption in cognitive abilities with age has been investigated. However, the interaction between the effects of age and gender on the re-organization of resting-state networks is not fully understood. This study sought to investigate the effect of both age and gender on intra- and inter-network functional connectivity (FC) and the extent to which resting-state network (RSN) node definition may alter with older age...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
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