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Pharmacokinetics of biotherapeutics

Carlos H Villa, Douglas B Cines, Don L Siegel, Vladimir Muzykantov
Red blood cells (RBCs) are innate carriers that can also be engineered to improve the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of many drugs, particularly biotherapeutics. Successful loading of drugs, both internally and on the external surface of RBCs, has been demonstrated for many drugs including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antithrombotic agents. Methods for internal loading of drugs within RBCs are now entering clinical use. Although internal loading can result in membrane disruption that may compromise biocompatibility, surface loading using either affinity or chemical ligands offers a diverse set of approaches for the production of RBC drug carriers...
August 17, 2016: Transfusion Medicine Reviews
Alison Smith, Hugh Manoli, Stacey Jaw, Kimberley Frutoz, Alan L Epstein, Leslie A Khawli, Frank-Peter Theil
Biologics have emerged as a powerful and diverse class of molecular and cell-based therapies that are capable of replacing enzymes, editing genomes, targeting tumors, and more. As this complex array of tools arises a distinct set of challenges is rarely encountered in the development of small molecule therapies. Biotherapeutics tend to be big, bulky, polar molecules comprised of protein and/or nucleic acids. Compared to their small molecule counterparts, they are fragile, labile, and heterogeneous. Their biodistribution is often limited by hydrophobic barriers which often restrict their administration to either intravenous or subcutaneous entry routes...
2016: Journal of Immunology Research
Michael A Partridge, Shobha Purushothama, Chinnasamy Elango, Yanmei Lu
Anti-drug antibodies induced by biologic therapeutics often impact drug pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics response, clinical efficacy, and patient safety. It is critical to assess the immunogenicity risk of potential biotherapeutics in producing neutralizing and nonneutralizing anti-drug antibodies, especially in clinical phases of drug development. Different assay methodologies have been used to detect all anti-drug antibodies, including ELISA, radioimmunoassay, surface plasmon resonance, and electrochemiluminescence-based technologies...
2016: Journal of Immunology Research
Mary E Spilker, Xiaoying Chen, Ravi Visswanathan, Chandra Vage, Shinji Yamazaki, Gang G Li, Judy Lucas, Erica L Bradshaw-Pierce, Paolo Vicini
PURPOSE: The translation of nonclinical oncology studies is a subject of continuous debate. We propose that translational oncology studies need to optimize both pharmacokinetic (drug exposure) and pharmacodynamic (xenograft model) aspects. While improvements in pharmacodynamic translatability can be obtained by choosing cell lines or patient-derived xenograft models closer to the clinical indication, significant ambiguity and variability exists when optimizing the pharmacokinetic translation of small molecule and biotherapeutic agents...
August 22, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Takashi K Kishimoto, Joseph D Ferrari, Robert A LaMothe, Pallavi N Kolte, Aaron P Griset, Conlin O'Neil, Victor Chan, Erica Browning, Aditi Chalishazar, William Kuhlman, Fen-Ni Fu, Nelly Viseux, David H Altreuter, Lloyd Johnston, Roberto A Maldonado
The development of antidrug antibodies (ADAs) is a common cause for the failure of biotherapeutic treatments and adverse hypersensitivity reactions. Here we demonstrate that poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles carrying rapamycin, but not free rapamycin, are capable of inducing durable immunological tolerance to co-administered proteins that is characterized by the induction of tolerogenic dendritic cells, an increase in regulatory T cells, a reduction in B cell activation and germinal centre formation, and the inhibition of antigen-specific hypersensitivity reactions...
October 2016: Nature Nanotechnology
Surinder Kaur, Luna Liu, Diego F Cortes, Junlong Shao, Rand Jenkins, William R Mylott, Keyang Xu
BACKGROUND: Biotherapeutics development requires validated assays in biological matrices for pharmacokinetic assessment. Historically, ligand-binding assays have been the predominant platform available. Recently, alternative hybrid methods, combining ligand-binding analyte enrichment with LC-MS detection have emerged. Methodology & results: The validation of an immunoaffinity (IA)-LC-MS/MS method to quantify a monoclonal antibody biotherapeutic in cynomolgus monkey serum is described...
July 11, 2016: Bioanalysis
Karl E Griswold, Chris Bailey-Kellogg
Therapeutic proteins are powerful next-generation drugs able to effectively treat diverse and devastating diseases, but the development and use of biotherapeutics entails unique challenges and risks. In particular, protein drugs are subject to immune surveillance in the human body, and ensuing antidrug immune responses can cause a wide range of problems including altered pharmacokinetics, loss of efficacy, and even life-threating complications. Here we review recent progress in technologies for engineering deimmunized biotherapeutics, placing particular emphasis on deletion of immunogenic antibody and T cell epitopes via experimentally or computationally guided mutagenesis...
June 17, 2016: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
Yao-Yun Fan, Lindsay B Avery, Mengmeng Wang, Denise M O'Hara, Sheldon Leung, Hendrik Neubert
The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) is a homeostatic receptor responsible for prolonging immunoglobulin G (IgG) half-life by protecting it from lysosomal degradation and recycling it to systemic circulation. Tissue-specific FcRn expression is a critical parameter in physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling for translational pharmacokinetics of Fc-containing biotherapeutics. Using online peptide immuno-affinity chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry, we established a quantitative FcRn tissue protein expression profile in human FcRn (hFcRn) transgenic mice, Tg32 homozygous and hemizygous strains...
July 2016: MAbs
Montserrat Carrasco-Triguero, Helen Davis, Yuda Zhu, Daniel Coleman, Denise Nazzal, Paul Vu, Surinder Kaur
Immunogenicity assessment during early stages of nonclinical biotherapeutic development is not always warranted. It is rarely predictive for clinical studies and evidence for the presence of anti-drug antibodies (ADAs) may be inferred from the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile. However, collecting and banking samples during the course of the study are prudent for confirmation and a deeper understanding of the impact on PK and safety. Biotherapeutic-specific ADA assays commonly developed can require considerable time and resources...
2016: Journal of Immunology Research
Yao-Yun Fan, Hendrik Neubert
Neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) is the homeostatic receptor responsible for the long half-life of endogenous IgG by protecting it from lysosomal degradation. Understanding systemic FcRn tissue expression is important to predict and design the half-life of therapeutic antibodies and Fc-coupled biotherapeutics. To this end, we measured human FcRn (hFcRn) tissue expression in Tg32, a human FcRn knock-in transgenic mouse model, for which a strong correlation of drug clearance to humans has been demonstrated. Building an hFcRn tissue expression profile in Tg32 was enabled by the development of a tissue preparation procedure composed of bead-based protein extraction and protein precipitation using acetone followed by pellet digestion with trypsin...
April 19, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Roland E Kontermann
INTRODUCTION: Many of the biotherapeutics approved or under development suffer from a short half-life necessitating frequent applications in order to maintain a therapeutic concentration over an extended period of time. The implementation of half-life extension strategies allows the generation of long-lasting therapeutics with improved pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. AREAS COVERED: This review gives an overview of the different half-life extension strategies developed over the past years and their application to generate next-generation biotherapeutics...
July 2016: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
Justin Daller
Biosimilars are defined as biological products that are highly similar to a reference product, notwithstanding minor differences in clinically inactive components. Biosimilars show no clinically meaningful differences in safety, purity, and potency of the product in comparison to the reference product. With the ever looming patent expiry of some major high cost biologics, biosimilar production is becoming ever more lucrative to companies. Europe (EU) set the precedent, followed by the United States (US) in early 2012, for the approval process for biosimilars...
April 2016: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Jay Tibbitts, David Canter, Ryan Graff, Alison Smith, Leslie A Khawli
Protein therapeutics represent a diverse array of biologics including antibodies, fusion proteins, and therapeutic replacement enzymes. Since their inception, they have revolutionized the treatment of a wide range of diseases including respiratory, vascular, autoimmune, inflammatory, infectious, and neurodegenerative diseases, as well as cancer. While in vivo pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and efficacy studies are routinely carried out for protein therapeutics, studies that identify key factors governing their absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) properties have not been fully investigated...
2016: MAbs
Hyeon-Ju Kang, Hye-Jin Kim, Sang-Hoon Cha
The serum albumin (SA) has been exploited to generate long-acting biotherapeutics by taking advantage of the FcRn-mediated recycling mechanism in a direct or an indirect way. Since Fab fragments have been proven to be clinically safe for human usage, we assumed that human anti-SA Fab antibodies could have a great potential as a carrier molecule to extend the serum half-life of therapeutic proteins. We, herein, had attempted to isolate anti-SA Fab antibodies from HuDVFab-8L antibody library via a phage display technology, and identified eight discrete human Fab antibodies...
January 2016: Immunology Letters
Cherie L Green, Jennifer J Stewart, Carl-Magnus Högerkorp, Alan Lackey, Nicholas Jones, Meina Liang, Yuanxin Xu, John Ferbas, Maxime Moulard, Kamila Czechowska, Thomas W Mc Closkey, Barry W A van der Strate, Danice E C Wilkins, David Lanham, Timothy Wyant, Virginia Litwin
Receptor occupancy measurements demonstrate the binding of a biotherapeutic agent to its extra-cellular target and represent an integral component of the pharmacodynamic (PD) portfolio utilized to advance the development and commercialization of a therapeutic agent. Coupled with traditional pharmacokinetic (PK) assessments derived from serum drug concentration, receptor occupancy data can be used to model PK/PD relationships and validate dose selection decisions throughout the drug development lifecycle. Receptor occupancy assays can be even more challenging to develop than other flow cytometric methods (e...
March 2016: Cytometry. Part B, Clinical Cytometry
Amita Datta-Mannan, Lihua Huang, Jennifer Pereira, Benjamin Yaden, Andrew Korytko, Johnny E Croy
Follistatin 315 heparan sulfate-binding deficient mutant human IgG4 Fc fusion (FST-ΔHBS-Fc) is a follistatin (FST) based Fc fusion protein currently being developed as a novel therapy for several potential indications, including muscle wasting. Previous assessments of the pharmacokinetics and therapeutic activity of FST-ΔHBS-Fc have shown a close association of the exposure-response relationship. The current work builds upon these initial studies by investigating the glycosylation characteristics of FST-ΔHBS-Fc after recombinant expression and its impact on the pharmacokinetics in mice and Cynomolgus monkeys...
December 2015: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
Yinghua Shen, Guodong Zhang, Jinsong Yang, Yongchang Qiu, Thomas McCauley, Luying Pan, Jiang Wu
The formation of antidrug antibodies (ADA) can interfere with the accurate quantitation of therapeutic proteins, leading to significantly underestimated drug concentrations and confounded pharmacokinetic (PK) data interpretation. Although highly desirable, development of ADA-tolerant bioanalytical methods enabling unbiased measurement of both free and ADA-bound drug presents a considerable challenge. We report herein the development and validation of a robust LC-MS assay capable of quantifying therapeutic protein immunoglobulin A1 protease (IgAP) in human serum in the presence of pre-existing anti-IgAP antibodies...
August 18, 2015: Analytical Chemistry
Matthew Andisik, Lisa DeStefano, Colin Stefan, Meghna Gathani, Kevin Laurino, Vicky Ch Lai, Manoj Rajadhyaksha, Albert Torri, Weiping Shao
BACKGROUND: Pre-analytical factors such as sample processing, handling or storage could affect the stability of biotherapeutics and anti-drug antibodies in clinical samples, potentially impacting the pharmacokinetic and immunogenicity assessments. METHODS: We used sarilumab, a fully human IgG1 monoclonal antibody, and evaluated the stability of sarilumab (both functional and bound forms) and anti-sarilumab antibodies in blood samples during serum collection and the impact of various processing conditions on the analyte stability in serum for long-term storage...
2015: Bioanalysis
Kay Stubenrauch, Christian Künzel, Rudolf Vogel, Dietrich Tuerck, Eginhard Schick, Julia Heinrich
Targeted immunocytokines (TICs) display potent activity in selective tumor suppression. This class of multi domain biotherapeutics (MDBs) is composed of the three major domains Fab, Fc, and a cytokine which may induce a complex polyclonal anti-drug antibody (ADA) response. However, classical ADA assays usually are not suitable to specify ADAs and to identify the immunogenic domains of a TIC. The purpose of the present study was to establish epitope characterization of ADA responses in order to specify immunogenic responses against a TIC and their direct impact on the pharmacokinetic profile, safety, and efficacy...
October 10, 2015: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Mahmoud Elsabahy, Karen L Wooley
The potential immunotoxicity of nanoparticles that are currently being approved, in different phases of clinical trials, or undergoing rigorous in vitro and in vivo characterizations in several laboratories has recently raised special attention. Products with no apparent in vitro or in vivo toxicity may still trigger various components of the immune system unintentionally and lead to serious adverse reactions. Cytokines are one of the useful biomarkers for predicting the effect of biotherapeutics on modulation of the immune system and for screening the immunotoxicity of nanoparticles both in vitro and in vivo, and they were recently found to partially predict the in vivo pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of nanomaterials...
June 16, 2015: Accounts of Chemical Research
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