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Infection stone

Kumar Rajnish, Sathasivam Sureshkumar, Manwar S Ali, Chellappa Vijayakumar, Sundaramurthi Sudharsanan, Chinnakali Palanivel
Introduction Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is the most commonly done, minimally invasive surgical procedure. Routinely used electrocautery produces more smoke, which masks the operating field, thereby prolongs the surgery and posing an increased risk of gallbladder (GB) perforation. The titanium clips used for clipping the cystic artery and cystic duct have a risk of slippage, which may lead to bleeding, and an increased risk for bile leakage. In addition, it may act as a nidus for stone formation. Advanced energy sources, such as the harmonic scalpel, though expensive, may provide the advantage of shorter operating time by reducing smoke, bloodless dissection in the GB bed, lower risk of bleeding from the cystic artery due to secure vessel sealing, and avoiding the use of a larger number of titanium clips...
January 18, 2018: Curēus
Asokan Devarajan
The prevalence of kidney stones and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are increasing throughout the world. Both diseases are chronic and characterized by accumulation of oxidized proteins and lipids in the renal tissue and arterial wall, respectively. Emerging studies have revealed a positive association between nephrolithiasis and CVDs. Based on preclinical and clinical evidences, this review discusses: (i) stone forming risk factors, crystal nucleation, aggregation, injury-induced crystal retention, and stone formation, (ii) CVD risk factors such as dyslipidemia, perturbation of gut microbiome, obesity, free radical-induced lipoprotein oxidation, and retention in the arterial wall, subsequent foam cell formation, and atherosclerosis, (iii) mechanism by which stone forming risk factors such as oxalate, calcium, uric acid, and infection contribute toward CVDs, and (iv) how CVD risk factors, such as cholesterol, phospholipids, and uric acid, contribute to kidney stone formation are described...
March 30, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
Takaaki Kobayashi, Nitzy Munoz Casablanca, Matthew Harrington
We present a case of pyeloduodenal fistula in an 89-year-old woman with history of nephrolithiasis and recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI) who presented to the emergency department with back pain. CT revealed a malrotated right kidney with a large renal stone and possible fistulous connection between the second portion of the duodenum and the right renal collecting system. Technetium-99m scintigraphy confirmed presence of the fistula. The patient declined intervention and was discharged from the hospital with oral antibiotic suppressive therapy...
March 20, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Duncan R Morhardt, Miriam Hadj-Moussa, He Chang, J Stuart Wolf, William W Roberts, John T Stoffel, Gary J Faerber, Anne P Cameron
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of clinical factors on outcomes in SCI patients undergoing ureteroscopy. Immobility, recurrent urinary tract infection, and lower urinary tract dysfunction contribute to renal stone formation in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients. Ureteroscopy is a commonly utilized treatment modality, however, surgical complication rates and outcomes have been poorly defined. Evidence guiding safe and effective treatment of stones in this cohort remains scarce. METHODS: Records were retrospectively reviewed for SCI patients who underwent ureteroscopy for kidney stones from 1996-2014 at a single institution...
March 12, 2018: Urology
Nicole Stone, Cynthia Graham, Sydney Anstee, Katherine Brown, Katie Newby, Roger Ingham
Background: Condoms remain the main protection against sexually transmitted infections (STIs) when used correctly and consistently. Yet, there are many reported barriers to their use such as negative attitudes, reduced sexual pleasure, fit-and-feel problems and erection difficulties. The UK home-based intervention strategy (HIS-UK) is a behaviour change condom promotion intervention for use among young men (aged 16-25 years) designed to increase condom use by enhancing enjoyment of condom-protected intercourse...
2018: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
Síle F Molloy, Cecilia Kanyama, Robert S Heyderman, Angela Loyse, Charles Kouanfack, Duncan Chanda, Sayoki Mfinanga, Elvis Temfack, Shabir Lakhi, Sokoine Lesikari, Adrienne K Chan, Neil Stone, Newton Kalata, Natasha Karunaharan, Kate Gaskell, Mary Peirse, Jayne Ellis, Chimwemwe Chawinga, Sandrine Lontsi, Jean-Gilbert Ndong, Philip Bright, Duncan Lupiya, Tao Chen, John Bradley, Jack Adams, Charles van der Horst, Joep J van Oosterhout, Victor Sini, Yacouba N Mapoure, Peter Mwaba, Tihana Bicanic, David G Lalloo, Duolao Wang, Mina C Hosseinipour, Olivier Lortholary, Shabbar Jaffar, Thomas S Harrison
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcal meningitis accounts for more than 100,000 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related deaths per year. We tested two treatment strategies that could be more sustainable in Africa than the standard of 2 weeks of amphotericin B plus flucytosine and more effective than the widely used fluconazole monotherapy. METHODS: We randomly assigned HIV-infected adults with cryptococcal meningitis to receive an oral regimen (fluconazole [1200 mg per day] plus flucytosine [100 mg per kilogram of body weight per day] for 2 weeks), 1 week of amphotericin B (1 mg per kilogram per day), or 2 weeks of amphotericin B (1 mg per kilogram per day)...
March 15, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
Chien-Hua Chen, Cheng-Li Lin, Chia-Hung Kao
We assessed the subsequent risk of cholelithiasis development in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) such as Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC). We identified 8186 patients who aged ≥20 years and were diagnosed with IBD between 2000 and 2010 as the study cohort. A total of 8186 patients without IBD were selected by frequency-matching according to age, sex, comorbidities, and the index date of diagnosis, and they were identified as the control cohort. To measure the incidence of cholelithiasis, all patients were followed up until the end of 2011...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Daniel Koh, Kenneth K Lau, Evonne Teoh
PURPOSE: To investigate if the presence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in patients with urinary tract obstruction at time of presentation to the emergency department correlates with a subsequent positive urine culture and to determine if it could be used as a tool to predict the urgency of a percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN). The secondary aim of the study was to assess the incidence of in-hour and after-hour emergent PCNs performed in a tertiary center which has both interventional radiological and urological expertise...
March 13, 2018: Emergency Radiology
Hongyan Yu, Esther Ern-Hwei Chan, Pravin Lingam, Jingwen Lee, Winston Wei Liang Woon, Jee Keem Low, Vishal G Shelat
Backgrounds/Aims: Previous studies have evaluated quality of life (QoL) in patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) for cholelithiasis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate QoL after index admission LC in patients diagnosed with acute cholecystitis (AC) using the Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index (GIQLI) questionnaire. Methods: Patients ≥21 years admitted to Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore for AC and who underwent index admission LC between February 2015 and January 2016 were evaluated using the GIQLI questionnaire preoperatively and 30 days postoperatively...
February 2018: Annals of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery
Bader Hamza Shirah, Hamza Asaad Shirah, Syed Husham Zafar, Khalid B Albeladi
Backgrounds/Aims: Postcholecystectomy syndrome represents a heterogeneous group of symptoms and findings in patients who have previously undergone cholecystectomy. It is rare and under-reported in Saudi Arabia. It can be attributed to many complications such as bile duct injury, biliary leak, retained common bile duct stones, recurrent bile duct stones, and bile duct strictures. In this study, we aimed to analyze the causes and evaluate the approach to postcholecystectomy syndrome in our local Saudi Arabian community because of the vast number of cases encountered in our hospital for gallbladder clinical conditions and its related complications...
February 2018: Annals of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery
Ashish Singh, Abhimanyu Kapoor, Rajneesh Kumar Singh, Anand Prakash, Anu Behari, Ashok Kumar, Vinay Kumar Kapoor, Rajan Saxena
Backgrounds/Aims: A residual gallbladder (RGB) following a partial/subtotal cholecystectomy may cause symptoms that require its removal. We present our large study regarding the problem of a RGB over a 15 year period. Methods: This study involved a retrospective analysis of patients managed for symptomatic RGB from January 2000 to December 2015. Results: A RGB was observed in 93 patients, who had a median age of 45 (25-70) years, and were comprised of 69 (74...
February 2018: Annals of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery
Luis G Vargas Buonfiglio, Jennifer A Borcherding, Mark Frommelt, Gavin J Parker, Bryce Duchman, Oriana G Vanegas Calderón, Ruth Fernandez-Ruiz, Julio E Noriega, Elizabeth A Stone, Alicia K Gerke, Joseph Zabner, Alejandro P Comellas
BACKGROUND: Smoking is a leading cause of respiratory infections worldwide. Tobacco particulate matter disrupts iron homeostasis in the lungs and increases the iron content in the airways of smokers. The airway epithelia secrete lactoferrin to quench iron required for bacteria to proliferate and cause lung infections. We hypothesized that smokers would have increased bacterial growth and biofilm formation via iron lactoferrin imbalance. METHODS: We collected bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples from non-smokers and smokers...
March 10, 2018: Respiratory Research
Harshana S De Silva Feelixge, Daniel Stone, Pavitra Roychoudhury, Martine Aubert, Keith R Jerome
Chronic viral infections remain a major public health issue affecting millions of people worldwide. Highly active antiviral treatments have significantly improved prognosis and infection-related morbidity and mortality, but have failed to eliminate persistent viral forms. Therefore, new strategies to either eradicate or control these viral reservoirs are paramount to allow patients to stop antiretroviral therapy and realize a cure. Viral genome disruption based on gene editing by programmable endonucleases is one promising curative gene therapy approach...
March 9, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
Sarah Prattley, James Voss, Stephanie Cheung, Robert Geraghty, Patrick Jones, Bhaskar K Somani
OBJECTIVE: To assess outcomes of ureteroscopy for treatment of stone disease in the elderly. Ureteroscopy (URS) is an increasingly popular treatment modality for urolithiasis and its applications are ever expanding with the development of newer technologies. Its feasibility and outcomes within the elderly population to our knowledge remain under-reported. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined the patient demographics and surgical outcomes from our prospective database for patients ≥70 years who underwent URS for urolithiasis, in a 5-year period between March 2012 and December 2016...
March 9, 2018: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
Kelly J Gambino-Shirley, Adiam Tesfai, Colin A Schwensohn, Cindy Burnett, Lori Smith, Jennifer M Wagner, Dana Eikmeier, Kirk Smith, Jolianne P Stone, Dawn Updike, Jonas Hines, Lauren N Shade, Beth Tolar, Tong-Jen Fu, Stelios Viazis, Sharon L Seelman, Kathryn Blackshear, Matthew E Wise, Karen P Neil
Background: Nontyphoidal Salmonella is the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in the United States. Meal replacement products containing raw and 'superfood' ingredients have gained increasing popularity among consumers in recent years. In January 2016, we investigated a multistate outbreak of infections with a novel strain of Salmonella Virchow. Methods: Cases were defined using molecular subtyping procedures. Commonly reported exposures were compared with responses from healthy people interviewed in the 2006-2007 FoodNet Population Survey...
March 7, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Gerard Morales, Concepció Moragrega, Emilio Montesinos, Isidre Llorente
Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni is the causal agent of bacterial spot disease of stone fruits and almond. The bacterium is distributed throughout the major stone-fruit-producing areas of the World and is considered a quarantine organism in the European Union according to the Council Directive 2000/29/EC, and by the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. The effect of leaf wetness duration and temperature on infection of Prunus by X. arboricola pv. pruni was determined in controlled environment experiments...
2018: PloS One
Thomas Peponis, Trine G Eskesen, Tomaz Mesar, Noelle Saillant, Haytham Ma Kaafarani, D Dante Yeh, Peter J Fagenholz, Marc A de Moya, David R King, George C Velmahos
BACKGROUND: Bile spillage (BS) occurs frequently during laparoscopic cholecystectomy, yet its impact on postoperative outcomes remains unknown. We hypothesized that BS increases the risk of surgical site infections (SSI) after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. STUDY DESIGN: Patients older than 18, who were admitted to an academic hospital for a laparoscopic (or laparoscopic converted to open) cholecystectomy from 05/2010 to 03/2017, were prospectively included. Open cholecystectomies were excluded...
March 1, 2018: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
Jiawei Wang, Ying Zhai, Dongzi Zhu, Weizhen Liu, Hanu R Pappu, Qingzhong Liu
Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) causes yield loss in most cultivated stone fruits, including sweet cherry. Using a small RNA deep-sequencing approach combined with end-genome sequence cloning, we identified the complete genomes of all three PNRSV strands from PNRSV-infected sweet cherry trees and compared them with those of two previously reported isolates.
March 1, 2018: Genome Announcements
Mehmet Sarier, Ibrahim Duman, Yucel Yuksel, Sabri Tekin, Meltem Demir, Fatih Arslan, Osman Ergun, Alim Kosar, Asuman Havva Yavuz
Allograft lithiasis is a rare urologic complication of renal transplantation (RT). Our aim is to present our experience with minimally invasive surgical treatment of allograft lithiasis in our series of live-donor renal transplant recipients. In a retrospective analysis of 3758 consecutive live-donor RTs performed in our center between November 2009 and January 2017, the results of minimally invasive surgery for the treatment of renal graft lithiasis diagnosed at follow-up were evaluated. Twenty-two (0.58%) patients underwent minimally invasive surgery for renal graft lithiasis...
February 26, 2018: Urolithiasis
Danielle L Palms, Elisabeth Mungai, Taniece Eure, Angela Anttila, Nicola D Thompson, Margaret A Dudeck, Jonathan R Edwards, Jeneita M Bell, Nimalie D Stone
BACKGROUND: In 2012, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention launched the Long-term Care Facility (LTCF) Component of the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) designed for LTCFs to monitor Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs), urinary tract infections (UTIs), infections due to multidrug-resistant organisms, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and infection prevention process measures. METHODS: We describe characteristics and reporting patterns of facilities enrolled in the first 3 years of the surveillance system and rate estimates for CDI, UTI, and MRSA data submitted between 2013 and 2015...
February 22, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
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