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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531099/vitamin-a-status-of-women-and-children-in-yaound%C3%A3-and-douala-cameroon-is-unchanged-one-year-after-initiation-of-a-national-vitamin-a-oil-fortification-program
#1
Reina Engle-Stone, Martin Nankap, Alex Ndjebayi, Marie-Madeleine Gimou, Avital Friedman, Marjorie J Haskell, Ann Tarini, Kenneth H Brown
Vitamin A (VA) fortification of cooking oil is considered a cost-effective strategy for increasing VA status, but few large-scale programs have been evaluated. We conducted representative surveys in Yaoundé and Douala, Cameroon, 2 years before and 1 year after the introduction of a mandatory national program to fortify cooking oil with VA. In each survey, 10 different households were selected within each of the same 30 clusters (n = ~300). Malaria infection and plasma indicators of inflammation and VA (retinol-binding protein, pRBP) status were assessed among women aged 15-49 years and children aged 12-59 months, and casual breast milk samples were collected for VA and fat measurements...
May 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530651/surface-attached-molecules-control-staphylococcus-aureus-quorum-sensing-and-biofilm-development
#2
Minyoung Kevin Kim, Aishan Zhao, Ashley Wang, Zachary Z Brown, Tom W Muir, Howard A Stone, Bonnie L Bassler
Bacteria use a process called quorum sensing to communicate and orchestrate collective behaviours, including virulence factor secretion and biofilm formation. Quorum sensing relies on the production, release, accumulation and population-wide detection of signal molecules called autoinducers. Here, we develop concepts to coat surfaces with quorum-sensing-manipulation molecules as a method to control collective behaviours. We probe this strategy using Staphylococcus aureus. Pro- and anti-quorum-sensing molecules can be covalently attached to surfaces using click chemistry, where they retain their abilities to influence bacterial behaviours...
May 22, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525923/a-national-implementation-project-to-prevent-catheter-associated-urinary-tract-infection-in-nursing-home-residents
#3
Lona Mody, M Todd Greene, Jennifer Meddings, Sarah L Krein, Sara E McNamara, Barbara W Trautner, David Ratz, Nimalie D Stone, Lillian Min, Steven J Schweon, Andrew J Rolle, Russell N Olmsted, Dale R Burwen, James Battles, Barbara Edson, Sanjay Saint
Importance: Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (UTI) in nursing home residents is a common cause of sepsis, hospital admission, and antimicrobial use leading to colonization with multidrug-resistant organisms. Objective: To develop, implement, and evaluate an intervention to reduce catheter-associated UTI. Design, Setting, and Participants: A large-scale prospective implementation project was conducted in community-based nursing homes participating in the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Safety Program for Long-Term Care...
May 19, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521747/insights-into-the-ancestral-organisation-of-the-mammalian-mhc-class-ii-region-from-the-genome-of-the-pteropid-bat-pteropus-alecto
#4
Justin H J Ng, Mary Tachedjian, Lin-Fa Wang, Michelle L Baker
BACKGROUND: Bats are an extremely successful group of mammals and possess a variety of unique characteristics, including their ability to co-exist with a diverse range of pathogens. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is the most gene dense and polymorphic region of the genome and MHC class II (MHC-II) molecules play a vital role in the presentation of antigens derived from extracellular pathogens and activation of the adaptive immune response. Characterisation of the MHC-II region of bats is crucial for understanding the evolution of the MHC and of the role of pathogens in shaping the immune system...
May 18, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516974/sialendoscope-assisted-transoral-removal-of-hilo-parenchymal-sub-mandibular-stones-surgical-results-and-subjective-scores
#5
P Capaccio, M Gaffuri, V Rossi, L Pignataro
It has been suggested that a conservative trans-oral approach to proximal and hilo-parenchymal submandibular stones (HPSMS) is a valid alternative to the more frequently used sialadenectomy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the surgical, ultrasonographic and patients' subjective outcomes of results of the trans-oral removal of HPSMS. Between January 2003 and September 2015, sialendoscope-assisted trans-oral surgery was used to remove symptomatic, large (> 7 mm), fixed and palpable HPSMS from 479 patients under general anaesthesia...
April 2017: Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515805/is-computed-tomography-defined-obstruction-a-predictor-of-urological-intervention-in-emergency-department-patients-presenting-with-renal-colic
#6
Peter Alexander Massaro, Avinash Kanji, Paul Atkinson, Ryan Pawsey, Tom Whelan
INTRODUCTION: Our objective was to determine whether unilateral calculus-induced ureteric obstruction on computed tomography (CT) was independently associated with the need for urological intervention and 30-day return to the emergency department (ED). METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients with symptomatic urinary calculi diagnosed by unenhanced helical CT. Stepwise regression analysis was used to determine the predictors of urological intervention and 30-day return to the ED...
March 2017: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514227/real-time-evolution-of-zika-virus-disease-outbreak-roat%C3%A3-n-honduras
#7
Trevor Brooks, Arup Roy-Burman, Cascade Tuholske, Michael P Busch, Sonia Bakkour, Mars Stone, Jeffrey M Linnen, Kui Gao, Jayleen Coleman, Evan M Bloch
A Zika virus disease outbreak occurred in Roatán, Honduras, during September 2015-July 2016. Blood samples and clinical information were obtained from 183 patients given a clinical diagnosis of suspected dengue virus infection. A total of 79 patients were positive for Zika virus, 13 for chikungunya virus, and 6 for dengue virus.
August 17, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507586/neutrophil-elastase-stimulates-muc5ac-expression-in-human-biliary-epithelial-cells-a-possible-pathway-of-pkc-nox-ros
#8
Yu Tian, Min Li, Shuodong Wu, Duoliang Wang, Ben Sun, Junqing Xie, Hong Wang
INTRODUCTION: Bacterial infection and bile flow retardation form a vicious cycle which promotes stone formation and recurrence, and it seems that mucin overexpression plays an important role in this process. However, the mechanism of increased mucus secretion in the biliary tract by bacterial infection and its treatment remain unclear. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Human biliary epithelial cells were induced by neutrophil elastase (NE), and H2O2 production in the cell supernatants was detected by a specific kit, and then cells were pretreated with a H2O2 inhibitor, and expression of MUC5AC was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Western blot, and immunohistochemistry...
April 1, 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505328/advanced-hiv-disease-in-botswana-following-successful-antiretroviral-therapy-rollout-incidence-of-and-temporal-trends-in-cryptococcal-meningitis
#9
Mark W Tenforde, Margaret Mokomane, Tshepo Leeme, Raju K K Patel, Nametso Lekwape, Chandapiwa Ramodimoosi, Bonno Dube, Elizabeth A Williams, Kelebeletse O Mokobela, Ephraim Tawanana, Tlhagiso Pilatwe, William J Hurt, Hannah Mitchell, Doreen L Banda, Hunter Stone, Mooketsi Molefi, Kabelo Mokgacha, Heston Phillips, Paul C Mullan, Andrew P Steenhoff, Yohana Mashalla, Madisa Mine, Joseph N Jarvis
Background: Botswana has a well-developed antiretroviral therapy (ART) program which serves as a regional model. With wide ART availability, the burden of advanced HIV and associated opportunistic infections would be expected to decline. We performed a nationwide surveillance study to determine the national incidence of cryptococcal meningitis, and describe characteristics of cases 2000-2014 and temporal trends at two national referral hospitals. Methods: Cerebrospinal fluid data from all 37 laboratories performing meningitis diagnostics in Botswana were collected 2000-2014 to identify cases of cryptococcal meningitis...
May 13, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493162/single-setting-endoscopic-retrograde-cholangiopancreatography-ercp-and-cholecystectomy-improve-the-rate-of-surgical-site-infection
#10
Michele M Loor, Jean Dominique Morancy, James K Glover, Gregory J Beilman, Catherine L Statz
INTRODUCTION: Cholecystectomy is a common surgical procedure. The presence of common bile duct stones complicates treatment, often requiring a second procedure for stone retrieval. For such patients, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) provides adequate therapy, and can be performed before, after, or at the same time as cholecystectomy. In 2013, duodenoscopes were implicated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in transmission of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae...
May 10, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492152/effect-of-stone-composition-on-the-outcomes-of-semi-rigid-ureteroscopy-using-holmium-yttrium-aluminum-garnet-laser-or-pneumatic-lithotripsy
#11
Mustafa Kadihasanoglu, Ugur Yucetas, Mehmet Gokhan Culha, Erkan Erkan, Mahmut Gokhan Toktas
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of laser lithotripsy (LL) and pneumatic lithotripters (PL) in calcium oxalate (CaOx) and calcium phosphate (CaP) stones and assess whether these stone compositions affect the outcomes of LL and PL. STUDY DESIGN: Comparative, descriptive study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Istanbul Training and Research Hospital, Turkey, from August 2010 to August 2015. METHODOLOGY: A total of 114 patients underwent ureteroscopy using LL and PL...
April 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485472/relevance-of-the-main-postharvest-handling-operations-on-the-development-of-brown-rot-disease-on-stone-fruits
#12
M Bernat, J Segarra, C Casals, N Teixidó, R Torres, J Usall
BACKGROUND: Brown rot caused by Monilinia spp. is one of the most important postharvest diseases of stone fruit. The aim of this study was evaluate the relevance of the main postharvest operations of fruit; hydrocooling, cold room, water dump, sorting and cooling tunnel in the development of M. laxa on peaches and nectarines artificially infected 48, 24 or 2 hours before postharvest operations. RESULTS: Commercial hydrocooling operation reduced incidence to 10 % in 'Pp 100' nectarine inoculated 2 and 24 hours before this operation however in 'Fantasia' nectarine incidence was not reduced, although lesion diameter was decreased in all studied varieties...
May 9, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482898/ethnopharmacological-survey-of-medicinal-plants-practiced-by-traditional-healers-and-herbalists-for-treatment-of-some-urological-diseases-in-the-west-bank-palestine
#13
Nidal Amin Jaradat, Abdel Naser Zaid, Rowa Al-Ramahi, Malik A Alqub, Fatima Hussein, Zakaria Hamdan, Mahmoud Mustafa, Mohammad Qneibi, Iyad Ali
BACKGROUND: Throughout history, every civilization in the world used plants or their derivatives for treatment or prevention of diseases. In Palestine as in many other countries, herbal medicines are broadly used in the treatment of wide range of diseases including urological diseases. The main objective of this research is to study the use of herbal remedies by herbalists and traditional healers for treatment of various urological diseases in the West Bank regions of Palestine and to assess their efficacy and safety through the literature review of the most cited plants...
May 8, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479288/a-randomized-trial-of-foley-bulb-for-labor-induction-in-premature-rupture-of-membranes-in-nulliparas-flip
#14
Jennifer Mh Amorosa, Joanne Stone, Stephanie H Factor, Whitney Booker, Meredith Newland, Angela Bianco
BACKGROUND: In premature rupture of membranes (PROM) the risk of chorioamnionitis increases with increasing duration of membrane rupture. Decreasing the time from PROM to delivery is associated with lower rates of maternal infection. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists suggests that all women with PROM who do not have a contraindication to vaginal delivery have their labor induced instead of being expectantly managed. While the use of oxytocin for labor induction has been demonstrated to decrease the time to delivery when compared to expectant management, no studies have evaluated the effectiveness of cervical ripening using a Foley bulb to additionally decrease the time to delivery...
May 4, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467526/centers-for-disease-control-and-prevention-guideline-for-the-prevention-of-surgical-site-infection-2017
#15
Sandra I Berríos-Torres, Craig A Umscheid, Dale W Bratzler, Brian Leas, Erin C Stone, Rachel R Kelz, Caroline E Reinke, Sherry Morgan, Joseph S Solomkin, John E Mazuski, E Patchen Dellinger, Kamal M F Itani, Elie F Berbari, John Segreti, Javad Parvizi, Joan Blanchard, George Allen, Jan A J W Kluytmans, Rodney Donlan, William P Schecter
Importance: The human and financial costs of treating surgical site infections (SSIs) are increasing. The number of surgical procedures performed in the United States continues to rise, and surgical patients are initially seen with increasingly complex comorbidities. It is estimated that approximately half of SSIs are deemed preventable using evidence-based strategies. Objective: To provide new and updated evidence-based recommendations for the prevention of SSI...
May 3, 2017: JAMA Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466078/subcapsular-kidney-urinoma-after-percutaneous-nephrolithotomy
#16
Eugenio Di Grazia, Letterio D'Arrigo, Alberto Saita, Giuseppe Giordano, Giuseppe Russo, Giuseppe Morgia, Pasquale La Rosa
Background: A rare percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) complication and its management is reported. Case Presentation: A male patient, 43 years of age, underwent PCNL for a large left pyelocaliceal stone. Surgery was performed in the Valdivia-Galdakao supine position. The percutaneous tract was established by combined radiologic and sonographic guidance. The tract was dilated by balloon and a 24F Amplatz sheath was located. As complete clearance was not achieved because of a residual lower pole caliceal stone, a ureteral Double-J and a 20F nephrostomy were located for a second-look PCNL through the same tract after 7 days...
2017: Journal of Endourology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448536/lateral-flow-immunoassay-for-on-site-detection-of-xanthomonas-arboricola-pv-pruni-in-symptomatic-field-samples
#17
Pablo López-Soriano, Patricia Noguera, María Teresa Gorris, Rosa Puchades, Ángel Maquieira, Ester Marco-Noales, María M López
Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni is a quarantine pathogen and the causal agent of the bacterial spot disease of stone fruits and almond, a major threat to Prunus species. Rapid and specific detection methods are essential to improve disease management, and therefore a prototype of a lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) was designed for the detection of X. arboricola pv. pruni in symptomatic field samples. It was developed by producing polyclonal antibodies which were then combined with carbon nanoparticles and assembled on nitrocellulose strips...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429379/retrospective-evaluation-of-thoracic-computed-tomography-findings-in-dogs-naturally-infected-by-angiostrongylus-vasorum
#18
Mark E Coia, Gawain Hammond, Daniel Chan, Randi Drees, David Walker, Kevin Murtagh, Janine Stone, Nicholas Bexfield, Lizzie Reeve, Jenny Helm
Angiostrongylus vasorum (A. vasorum) is an important emerging disease of canidae. Cardiorespiratory signs are common in affected dogs, therefore thoracic imaging is critical for diagnosing and monitoring disease. Descriptions of thoracic computed tomography (CT) findings in dogs naturally infected with A. vasorum are currently lacking. Aims of this multicenter, retrospective study were to describe thoracic CT findings in a group of dogs with confirmed disease, determine whether any changes were consistent among dogs, and propose standardized terms for describing thoracic CT findings...
April 20, 2017: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428722/therapeutic-experience-of-289-elderly-patients-with-biliary-diseases
#19
Zong-Ming Zhang, Zhuo Liu, Li-Min Liu, Chong Zhang, Hong-Wei Yu, Bai-Jiang Wan, Hai Deng, Ming-Wen Zhu, Zi-Xu Liu, Wen-Ping Wei, Meng-Meng Song, Yue Zhao
AIM: To present clinical characteristics, diagnosis and treatment strategies in elderly patients with biliary diseases. METHODS: A total of 289 elderly patients with biliary diseases were enrolled in this study. The clinical data relating to these patients were collected in our hospital from June 2013 to May 2016. Patient age, disease type, coexisting diseases, laboratory examinations, surgical methods, postoperative complications and therapeutic outcomes were analyzed...
April 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426023/infection-brief-encounter-uti-triggered-by-vaginal-microbiota
#20
Louise Stone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 20, 2017: Nature Reviews. Urology
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