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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110129/identifying-and-overcoming-the-effect-of-mass-transfer-limitation-on-decreased-yield-in-enzymatic-hydrolysis-of-lignocellulose-at-high-solid-concentrations
#1
Jian Du, Yuan Cao, Guodong Liu, Jian Zhao, Xuezhi Li, Yinbo Qu
Cellulose conversion decreases significantly with increasing solid concentrations during enzymatic hydrolysis of insoluble lignocellulosic materials. Here, mass transfer limitation was identified as a significant determining factor of this decrease by studying the hydrolysis of delignified corncob residue in shake flask, the most used reaction vessel in bench scale. Two mass transfer efficiency-related factors, mixing speed and flask filling, were shown to correlate closely with cellulose conversion at solid loadings higher than 15% DM...
January 12, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107070/tracheal-collapse-in-a-pekin-duck-anas-platyrhynchos-domestica
#2
Eugénie Henry-Guyot, Isabelle Langlois, Isabelle Lanthier, Dipl Acvp
A 5-year-old, 3.72-kg female Pekin duck ( Anas platyrhynchos domestica) was presented for acute respiratory distress, head shaking, and collapse. Similar spontaneously resolving episodes had previously occurred. Physical examination revealed severe inspiratory and expiratory dyspnea. Due to poor prognosis, euthanasia was elected. Postmortem examination revealed severe tracheal collapse involving the proximal trachea. The tracheal lumen was reduced in size by 75%. Histologic evaluation revealed ossification of the tracheal rings for approximately 60%-100% of their circumference...
December 2016: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104792/new-insight-into-chondroitin-and-heparosan-like-capsular-polysaccharide-synthesis-by-profiling-of-the-nucleotide-sugar-precursors
#3
Odile Francesca Restaino, Irene di Lauro, Rosaria Di Nuzzo, Mario De Rosa, Chiara Schiraldi
Escherichia coli K4 and K5 capsular polysaccharides have been used as starting material for the biotechnological production of chondroitin sulfate and heparin, respectively. The capsular polysaccharide covers the outer cell wall but in late exponential or stationary growth phase it is started to be released in the surrounding medium. The released capsular polysaccharide concentration was used, so far, as the only marker to connect the strain production ability to the different cultivation conditions employed...
January 19, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102518/quercetin-glucoside-production-by-engineered-escherichia-coli
#4
REVIEW
Tian Xia, Mark A Eiteman
Escherichia coli strains expressing the O-glucosyltransferases UGT73B3 or UGT84B1 were compared for the production of glucosides from quercetin supplied into a defined medium. The formation of quercetin-3-glucoside (Q3G) by UGT73B3 showed a maximum at 33 °C, while the formation of quercetin-7-glucoside by UGT84B1 increased with increasing temperature to 37 °C. The highest concentrations of Q3G were attained by strains having a deletion in the pgi gene-coding phosphoglucose isomerase, which effectively blocked the entry of glucose-6P into the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway...
January 19, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101644/comparative-evaluation-of-phototrophic-microtiter-plate-cultivation-against-laboratory-scale-photobioreactors
#5
Holger Morschett, Danny Schiprowski, Jannis Rohde, Wolfgang Wiechert, Marco Oldiges
Extended cultivation times, rendering phototrophic bioprocess development time inefficient, resulted in the recent development of micro-photobioreactors enabling accelerated process development. However, especially for laboratory photobioreactors, only little is known concerning the influence of design on process performance. Thus, the aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the scalability of a microtiter plate-based parallelized micro-photobioreactor against a representative set of established laboratory photobioreactors...
January 18, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101160/facile-mechanical-shaking-method-is-an-improved-isolation-approach-for-islet-preparation-and-transplantation
#6
Nina Yin, Tao Chen, Yuling Yu, Yongming Han, Fei Yan, Zhou Zheng, Zebin Chen
Successful islet isolation is crucial for islet transplantation and cell treatment for type 1 diabetes. Current isolation methods are able to obtain 500-1,000 islets per rat, which results in a waste of ≥50% of total islets. In the present study, a facile mechanical shaking method for improving islet yield (up to 1,500 per rat) was developed and summarized, which was demonstrated to be more effective than the existing well-established stationary method. The present results showed that isolated islets have a maximum yield of 1,326±152 when shaking for 15 min for the fully-cannulated pancreas...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100236/human-%C3%AE-defensin-2-production-from-s-cerevisiae-using-the-repressible-met17-promoter
#7
Thea S B Møller, Joanna Hay, Malcolm J Saxton, Karen Bunting, Evamaria I Petersen, Søren Kjærulff, Christopher J A Finnis
BACKGROUND: Baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a proven host for the commercial production of recombinant biopharmaceutical proteins. For the manufacture of heterologous proteins with activities deleterious to the host it can be desirable to minimise production during the growth phase and induce production late in the exponential phase. Protein expression by regulated promoter systems offers the possibility of improving productivity in this way by separating the recombinant protein production phase from the yeast growth phase...
January 18, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095853/crispri-mediated-metabolic-engineering-of-e-coli-for-o-methylated-anthocyanin-production
#8
Brady F Cress, Quentin D Leitz, Daniel C Kim, Teresita D Amore, Jon Y Suzuki, Robert J Linhardt, Mattheos A G Koffas
BACKGROUND: Anthocyanins are a class of brightly colored, glycosylated flavonoid pigments that imbue their flower and fruit host tissues with hues of predominantly red, orange, purple, and blue. Although all anthocyanins exhibit pH-responsive photochemical changes, distinct structural decorations on the core anthocyanin skeleton also cause dramatic color shifts, in addition to improved stabilities and unique pharmacological properties. In this work, we report for the first time the extension of the reconstituted plant anthocyanin pathway from (+)-catechin to O-methylated anthocyanins in a microbial production system, an effort which requires simultaneous co-option of the endogenous metabolites UDP-glucose and S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM or AdoMet)...
January 17, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093335/intracoerulear-microinjection-of-orexin-a-induces-morphine-withdrawal-like-signs-in-rats
#9
Masoumeh Ghaemi-Jandabi, Hossein Azizi, S Mohammad Ahmadi-Soleimani, Saeed Semnanian
Orexin (hypocretin) neuropeptides play a pivotal role in expression of opioid withdrawal signs. Hypothalamic orexinergic neurons provide dense afferents for the nucleus locus coeruleus (LC). Somatic signs of opioid withdrawal are associated with the enhanced activity of LC neurons. In addition, intra-LC administration of orexin-A leads to the hyperactivity of LC neurons. The present study was an attempt to investigate whether intra-LC microinjection of orexin-A induces morphine withdrawal-like signs in both morphine dependent and control rats...
January 13, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093037/encapsulation-of-lemongrass-oil-with-cyclodextrins-by-spray-drying-and-its-controlled-release-characteristics
#10
Sarunya Phunpee, Uracha Rangsadthong Ruktanonchai, Hidefumi Yoshii, Suttichai Assabumrungrat, Apinan Soottitantawat
Inclusion of the two isomers of citral (E-citral and Z-citral), components of lemongrass oil, was investigated within the confines of various cyclodextrin (α-CD, β-CD and γ-CD) host molecules. Aqueous complex formation constants for E-citral with α-CD, β-CD and γ-CD were determined to be 123, 185, and 204 L/mol, respectively, whereas Z-citral exhibited stronger affinities (157, 206, and 253 L/mol, respectively). The binding trend γ-CD > β-CD > α-CD is a reflection of the more favorable geometrical accommodation of the citral isomers with increasing cavity size...
January 17, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091592/effective-extraction-of-arabidopsis-adherent-seed-mucilage-by-ultrasonic-treatment
#11
Xianhai Zhao, Lijun Qiao, Ai-Min Wu
The Arabidopsis seed coat is composed of two layers of mucilage, a water-soluble non-adherent outer layer and an adherent inner layer. The non-adherent mucilage can easily be extracted by gentle shaking. However, adherent mucilage is extremely difficult to dissociate from the seed coat. Despite various treatments to extract the adherent mucilage, including EDTA, ammonium oxalate, dilute alkali or acid washes, most of it remains on the seed coat. Here, we show for the first time the extraction of almost all of the adherent mucilage from the Arabidopsis seed coat...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091394/a-simple-bio-inspired-vehicle-collision-detection-system
#12
Manfred Hartbauer
Modern cars are equipped with both active and passive sensor systems that can detect potential collisions. In contrast, locusts avoid collisions solely by responding to certain visual cues that are associated with object looming. In neurophysiological experiments, I investigated the possibility that "collision-detector neurons��� of locusts respond to impending collisions in films recorded with dashboard cameras of fast driving cars. In a complementary modelling approach, I developed a simple algorithm to reproduce the neuronal response that was recorded during object approach...
January 16, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089706/a-sipometer-for-measuring-motivation-to-consume-and-reward-value-of-foods-and-beverages-in-humans-description-and-proof-of-principle
#13
P S Hogenkamp, A Shechter, M-P St-Onge, A Sclafani, H R Kissileff
New methods, derived from animal work, for measuring food reward value, i.e. reinforcing value of food, and motivation (i.e. strength of desire) to consume, in humans are described and validated. A sipping device (sipometer) was developed that permits access to a liquid food or beverage on two reward schedules: continuous reinforcement (CR) and progressively increasing time spent exerting pressure on a straw (PR-schedule). In addition, a pictorial scale showing a cup, from which the 'amount wanted' could be marked was used to pre-test potential consumption...
January 12, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088096/mycelium-transformation-of-streptomyces-toxytricini-into-pellet-role-of-culture-conditions-and-kinetics
#14
Punit Kumar, Kashyap Kumar Dubey
The present study envisages the role of different carbon sources, nitrogen sources, metals, pH, inoculum volume and agitation rate in pellet formation of S. toxytricini at shake-flask level. It was found that galactose, ammonium sulphate, sodium nitrate, Cu(2+), Zn(2+), higher inoculum volume (5% v/v) and agitation rate at 300rpm caused significant reduction in pellet size (up to the range of 30μm-0.5mm) but biomass formations was also reduced subsequently. Interestingly diffused type of morphology was obtained in Fe(2+) supplemented medium with reduced biomass (1...
January 6, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079304/localized-measurements-of-physical-parameters-within-human-sperm-cells-obtained-with-wide-field-interferometry
#15
Michal Balberg, Mattan Levi, Ksawery Kalinowski, Itay Barnea, Simcha K Mirsky, Natan T Shaked
We developed a new method to identify the separate cellular compartments in the optical path delay (OPD) maps of un-labeled spermatozoa. This was conducted by comparing OPD maps of fixed, un-labeled spermatozoa to bright field images of the same cells following labeling. The labeling enabled us to identify the acrosomal and nuclear compartments in the corresponding OPD maps of the cells. We then extracted the refractive index maps of fixed cells by dividing the OPD maps of spermatozoa by the corresponding thickness maps of the same cells, obtained with AFM...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077740/the-jarisch-herxheimer-reaction-after-antibiotic-treatment-of-spirochetal-infections-a-review-of-recent-cases-and-our-understanding-of-pathogenesis
#16
REVIEW
Thomas Butler
Within 24 hours after antibiotic treatment of the spirochetal infections syphilis, Lyme disease, leptospirosis, and relapsing fever (RF), patients experience shaking chills, a rise in temperature, and intensification of skin rashes known as the Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction (JHR) with symptoms resolving a few hours later. Case reports indicate that the JHR can also include uterine contractions in pregnancy, worsening liver and renal function, acute respiratory distress syndrome, myocardial injury, hypotension, meningitis, alterations in consciousness, seizures, and strokes...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077351/a-new-year-hangover-the-nhs-can-t-shake-off
#17
Nigel Edwards
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073058/surface-engineering-of-pamam-sdb-chelating-resin-with-diglycolamic-acid-dga-functional-group-for-efficient-sorption-of-u-vi-and-th-iv-from-aqueous-medium
#18
P Ilaiyaraja, A K Singha Deb, D Ponraju, Sk Musharaf Ali, B Venkatraman
A novel chelating resin obtained via growth of PAMAM dendron on surface of styrene divinyl benzene resin beads, followed by diglycolamic acid functionalization of the dendrimer terminal. Batch experiments were conducted to study the effects of pH, nitric acid concentration, amount of adsorbent, shaking time, initial metal ion concentration and temperature on U(VI) and Th(IV) adsorption efficiency. Diglycolamic acid terminated PAMAM dendrimer functionalized styrene divinylbenzene chelating resin (DGA-PAMAM-SDB) is found to be an efficient candidate for the removal of U(VI) and Th(IV) ions from aqueous (pH >4) and nitric acid media (>3M)...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068887/the-use-of-smart-glasses-for-surgical-video-streaming
#19
Takafumi Hiranaka, Yuta Nakanishi, Takaaki Fujishiro, Yuichi Hida, Masanori Tsubosaka, Yosaku Shibata, Kenjiro Okimura, Harunobu Uemoto
Observation of surgical procedures performed by experts is extremely important for acquisition and improvement of surgical skills. Smart glasses are small computers, which comprise a head-mounted monitor and video camera, and can be connected to the internet. They can be used for remote observation of surgeries by video streaming. Although Google Glass is the most commonly used smart glasses for medical purposes, it is still unavailable commercially and has some limitations. This article reports the use of a different type of smart glasses, InfoLinker, for surgical video streaming...
January 1, 2017: Surgical Innovation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068428/a-network-model-of-local-field-potential-activity-in-essential-tremor-and-the-impact-of-deep-brain-stimulation
#20
Nada Yousif, Michael Mace, Nicola Pavese, Roman Borisyuk, Dipankar Nandi, Peter Bain
Essential tremor (ET), a movement disorder characterised by an uncontrollable shaking of the affected body part, is often professed to be the most common movement disorder, affecting up to one percent of adults over 40 years of age. The precise cause of ET is unknown, however pathological oscillations of a network of a number of brain regions are implicated in leading to the disorder. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a clinical therapy used to alleviate the symptoms of a number of movement disorders. DBS involves the surgical implantation of electrodes into specific nuclei in the brain...
January 9, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
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