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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743022/neural-evolution-homology-in-neuronal-networks
#1
Ronald L Calabrese
Do behaviors and neuronal networks that control them evolve together in lockstep, or do separate selection processes lead to their evolution? New research, dissecting the swim motor networks in two related nudibranch species, seeks to answer this question.
July 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743011/posterior-parietal-cortex
#2
Jonathan R Whitlock
The posterior parietal cortex, along with temporal and prefrontal cortices, is one of the three major associative regions in the cortex of the mammalian brain. It is situated between the visual cortex at the caudal pole of the brain and the somatosensory cortex just behind the central sulcus. Technically, any cortex covered by the parietal bone is referred to as 'parietal cortex', but the posterior sector, formally referred to as posterior parietal cortex, is indeed its own functional section of cortex, consisting of Brodmann's areas 5, 7, 39, and 40 in humans, areas 5 and 7 in macaques, and area 7 in rodents (Figure 1)...
July 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742610/near-point-of-convergence-and-gait-deficits-in-adolescents-after-sport-related-concussion
#3
David R Howell, Michael J OʼBrien, Aparna Raghuram, Ankoor S Shah, William P Meehan
OBJECTIVE: To prospectively examine gait characteristics of participants acutely after concussion with and without receded near point of convergence (NPC), compared with healthy controls. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Sports-medicine clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Patients examined after concussion (n = 33; mean ± SD = 7.2 ± 3.1 days) and a group of uninjured athletes (n = 31) completed a Postconcussion Symptom Scale, underwent NPC testing, and single/dual-task gait assessments...
July 21, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742498/subthalamic-nucleus-gamma-activity-increases-not-only-during-movement-but-also-during-movement-inhibition
#4
Petra Fischer, Alek Pogosyan, Damian M Herz, Binith Cheeran, Alexander L Green, James Fitzgerald, Tipu Z Aziz, Jonathan Hyam, Simon Little, Thomas Foltynie, Patricia Limousin, Ludvic Zrinzo, Peter Brown, Huiling Tan
Gamma activity in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is widely viewed as a pro-kinetic rhythm. Here we test the hypothesis that rather than being specifically linked to movement execution, gamma activity reflects dynamic processing in this nucleus. We investigated the role of gamma during fast stopping and recorded scalp electroencephalogram and local field potentials from deep brain stimulation electrodes in 9 Parkinson's disease patients. Patients interrupted finger tapping (paced by a metronome) in response to a stop-signal sound, which was timed such that successful stopping would occur only in ~50% of all trials...
July 25, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742411/is-major-depression-linked-to-alcohol-impaired-driving
#5
Ye Z Pogue, Jahn K Hakes, Frank A Sloan
BACKGROUND: Alcohol-impaired driving causes a substantial proportion of motor vehicle accidents. Depression is a prevalent psychiatric disorder among drinker-drivers. Few previous studies have investigated the relationship between major depression and alcohol-impaired driving. OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether depression has a positive relationship with the probability of alcohol-impaired driving after controlling for the co-occurrence of binge drinking and alcohol dependence...
July 25, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742362/convective-self-sustained-motion-in-mixtures-of-chemically-active-and-passive-particles
#6
Oleg Shklyaev, Henry Shum, Victor V Yashin, Anna C Balazs
We develop a model to describe the behavior of a system of active and passive particles in solution that can undergo spontaneous self-organization and self-sustained motion. The active particles are uniformly coated with a catalyst that decomposes the reagent in the surrounding fluid. The resulting variations in the fluid density give rise to a convective flow around the active particles. The generated fluid flow, in turn, drives the self-organization of both the active and passive particles into clusters that undergo self-sustained propulsion along the bottom wall of a microchamber...
July 25, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742155/acceleration-of-the-sliding-movement-of-actin-filaments-with-the-use-of-a-non-motile-mutant-myosin-in-in-vitro-motility-assays-driven-by-skeletal-muscle-heavy-meromyosin
#7
Kohei Iwase, Masateru Tanaka, Keiko Hirose, Taro Q P Uyeda, Hajime Honda
We examined the movement of an actin filament sliding on a mixture of normal and genetically modified myosin molecules that were attached to a glass surface. For this purpose, we used a Dictyostelium G680V mutant myosin II whose release rates of Pi and ADP were highly suppressed relative to normal myosin, leading to a significantly extended life-time of the strongly bound state with actin and virtually no motility. When the mixing ratio of G680V mutant myosin II to skeletal muscle HMM (heavy myosin) was 0.01%, the actin filaments moved intermittently...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742107/analyzing-the-locomotory-gaitprint-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-on-the-basis-of-empirical-mode-decomposition
#8
Li-Chun Lin, Han-Sheng Chuang
The locomotory gait analysis of the microswimmer, Caenorhabditis elegans, is a commonly adopted approach for strain recognition and examination of phenotypic defects. Gait is also a visible behavioral expression of worms under external stimuli. This study developed an adaptive data analysis method based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD) to reveal the biological cues behind intricate motion. The method was used to classify the strains of worms according to their gaitprints (i.e., phenotypic traits of locomotion)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742022/modeling-of-axonal-endoplasmic-reticulum-network-by-spastic-paraplegia-proteins
#9
Belgin Yalçın, Lu Zhao, Martin Stofanko, Niamh C O'Sullivan, Zi Han Kang, Annika Roost, Matthew R Thomas, Sophie Zaessinger, Olivier Blard, Alex L Patto, Anood Sohail, Valentina Baena, Mark Terasaki, Cahir J O'Kane
Axons contain a smooth tubular endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network that is thought to be continuous with ER throughout the neuron; the mechanisms that form this axonal network are unknown. Mutations affecting reticulon or REEP proteins, with intramembrane hairpin domains that model ER membranes, cause an axon degenerative disease, hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP). We show that Drosophila axons have a dynamic axonal ER network, which these proteins help to model. Loss of HSP hairpin proteins causes ER sheet expansion, partial loss of ER from distal motor axons, and occasional discontinuities in axonal ER...
July 25, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741987/multimodal-characterization-of-gray-matter-alterations-in-neuromyelitis-optica
#10
Yaou Liu, Xueyan Jiang, Helmut Butzkueven, Yunyun Duan, Jing Huang, Zhuoqiong Ren, Huiqing Dong, Fu-Dong Shi, Frederik Barkhof, Kuncheng Li, Jinhui Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate structural and functional alterations of gray matter (GM) and examine their clinical relevance in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) using multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques. METHODS: A total of 35 NMO and 36 healthy controls (HC) were recruited in this study. Cortical lesions were investigated by double inversion recovery technique. Five voxel-wise MRI measurements were obtained for each participant in the GM including gray matter volume (GMV), fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF), and weighted functional connectivity strength (wFCS)...
July 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741845/self-regulation-shift-theory-a-dynamic-systems-approach-to-traumatic-stress
#11
Charles C Benight, Kotaro Shoji, Douglas L Delahanty
Self-regulation shift theory (SRST) is a threshold theory explaining self-regulation following trauma that utilizes nonlinear dynamics to capture systemic shifts in trauma adaptation. Cusp catastrophe modeling tests nonlinear changes in an outcome (e.g., posttraumatic distress) based on an identified bifurcation factor under specific conditions (i.e., asymmetry variables). We evaluated two cusp models in a motor vehicle accident (MVA) database and then confirmed findings within a similar dataset. Based on SRST, we tested coping self-efficacy (CSE) as the bifurcation factor and a set of asymmetry controlling variables...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741623/effects-of-suvorexant-a-dual-orexin-hypocretin-receptor-antagonist-on-impulsive-behavior-associated-with-cocaine
#12
Taylor A Gentile, Steven J Simmons, Mia N Watson, Krista L Connelly, Eugen Brailoiu, Yanan Zhang, John W Muschamp
Hypothalamic hypocretin (orexin) peptides mediate arousal, attention, and reward processing. Fibers containing orexins project to brain structures that govern motivated behavior, including the ventral tegmental area (VTA). A number of psychiatric conditions, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substance use disorders, are characterized by deficits in impulse control, however the relationship between orexin and impulsive behavior is incompletely characterized. The effects of systemic or centrally administered orexin receptor (OXR) antagonists on measures of impulsive-like behavior in rats were evaluated using the five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) and delay discounting procedures...
July 25, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741622/in-vivo-detection-of-cpp-115-target-engagement-in-human-brain
#13
Andrew P Prescot, Steven R Miller, Gary Ingenito, Rebekah S Huber, Douglas G Kondo, Perry F Renshaw
CPP-115, a next-generation γ-amino butyric acid (GABA)-aminotransferase (AT) inhibitor, shows comparable pharmacokinetics, improved safety and tolerability, and a more favorable toxicity profile when compared to vigabatrin. The pharmacodynamic characteristics of CPP-115 remain to be evaluated. The present study employed state-of-the-art proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy techniques to measure changes in brain GABA+ (the composite resonance of GABA, homocarnosine, and macromolecules) concentrations in healthy subjects receiving oral daily doses of CPP-115 or placebo...
July 25, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741413/modulating-children-s-manual-preference-through-spontaneous-nondominant-hand-use
#14
Juliana Maia Garcia, Luis Augusto Teixeira
We evaluated the effect of repeated use of the nonpreferred hand on young children's manual preference by positioning toys in the left hemifield in egocentric coordinates to induce right-handed 4- to 5-year-olds to use their left hands spontaneously. We induced motor activities in the laterally biased workspace by presenting tasks in a ludic context over different days, similar to their daily kindergarten experience. Preceding and following these lateralized experiences, the children were tested on a task requiring reaching, grasping, and inserting cards into a slot...
January 1, 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741401/trans-diagnostic-comparison-of-response-inhibition-in-tourette-s-disorder-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#15
Siyan Fan, Danielle C Cath, Ysbrand D van der Werf, Stella de Wit, Dick J Veltman, Odile A van den Heuvel
OBJECTIVES: Impaired response inhibition is related to neurodevelopmental disorders, such as Tourette's disorder (TD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Unlike OCD, in which neural correlates of response inhibition have been extensively studied, TD literature is limited. By using a Stop-Signal task, we investigated the neural mechanisms underlying response inhibition deficits in TD compared to OCD and healthy controls (HCs). METHODS: Twenty-three TD patients, 20 OCD patients and 22 HCs were scanned (3T MRI)...
July 25, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741400/high-prevalence-of-dysgraphia-in-elementary-through-high-school-students-with-adhd-and-autism
#16
Susan D Mayes, Rosanna P Breaux, Susan L Calhoun, Sara S Frye
OBJECTIVE: Prevalence of dysgraphia by age across all grade levels was determined in students with ADHD or autism. METHOD: Referred children with normal intelligence and ADHD-Combined, ADHD-Inattentive, or autism ( N = 1,034) were administered the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VMI) and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC). RESULTS: VMI and WISC Coding scores were significantly lower than IQ and the normal mean of 100 for all diagnoses...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741037/shifted-dynamic-interactions-between-subcortical-nuclei-and-inferior-frontal-gyri-during-response-preparation-in-persistent-developmental-stuttering
#17
F Luise Metzger, Tibor Auer, Gunther Helms, Walter Paulus, Jens Frahm, Martin Sommer, Nicole E Neef
Persistent developmental stuttering is associated with basal ganglia dysfunction or dopamine dysregulation. Here, we studied whole-brain functional connectivity to test how basal ganglia structures coordinate and reorganize sensorimotor brain networks in stuttering. To this end, adults who stutter and fluent speakers (control participants) performed a response anticipation paradigm in the MRI scanner. The preparation of a manual Go/No-Go response reliably produced activity in the basal ganglia and thalamus and particularly in the substantia nigra...
July 24, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740822/neurological-soft-signs-effects-of-trait-schizotypy-psychological-distress-and-auditory-hallucination-predisposition
#18
Saskia de Leede-Smith, Steven Roodenrys, Lauren Horsley, Shannen Matrini, Erin Mison, Emma Barkus
Schizotypy is regarded as a trait vulnerability for psychotic disorders, yet alone is insufficient for development of a diagnosable disorder. Additional symptoms and psychological distress are necessary for help seeking and transition from an at risk mental state to a clinical diagnosis. The present study investigated the interaction between trait schizotypy, state auditory verbal hallucination (AVH) predisposition, distress and handedness for the expression of neurological soft signs (NSS), a neurodevelopmental vulnerability factor for psychosis...
March 2017: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740725/huntington-s-disease-calcium-dyshomeostasis-and-pathology-models
#19
Y A Kolobkova, V A Vigont, A V Shalygin, E V Kaznacheyeva
Huntington's disease (HD) is a severe inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor dysfunction, cognitive decline, and mental impairment. At the molecular level, HD is caused by a mutation in the first exon of the gene encoding the huntingtin protein. The mutation results in an expanded polyglutamine tract at the N-terminus of the huntingtin protein, causing the neurodegenerative pathology. Calcium dyshomeostasis is believed to be one of the main causes of the disease, which underlies the great interest in the problem among experts in molecular physiology...
April 2017: Acta Naturae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740669/impact-of-thoracic-surgery-on-esophageal-motor-function-evaluation-by-high-resolution-manometry
#20
Anja Wäsche, Arne Kandulski, Peter Malfertheiner, Sandra Riedel, Patrick Zardo, Thomas Hachenberg, Jens Schreiber
BACKGROUND: Alteration of esophageal function is a potential risk factor for postoperative complications in thoracic surgery. This prospective study investigates esophageal motility and function during and after thoracic procedures via high resolution manometry (HRM) and impedance technology with spatiotemporal representation of pressure data. METHODS: Twelve consecutive patients eligible for elective thoracic surgery underwent preoperative and postoperative (48 hours and 7 days) esophageal HRM...
June 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
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