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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231596/-impact-of-a-senso-motoric-intervention-in-copd-patients-participating-in-an-outpatient-pulmonary-rehabilitation-program-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#1
M Spielmanns, K Müller, N Schott, A Winkler, H Polanski, C Nell, T Boeselt, A R Koczulla, J H Storre, W Windisch, F S Magnet, K Baum
Objective: Exercise training provides a cornerstone of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) in COPD-patients. However, the components of the training are not yet fully investigated. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to investigate the effectiveness of a sensory-motoric training (SMT) in comparison to a conventional strength training (KT) according to the physical performance. Patients and Methods: 43 COPD patients were randomized and participated either in the intervention group (SMT = 30 minutes SMT per day) or in the control group (KT = 30 minutes KT per day)...
February 23, 2017: Die Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231489/moving-and-positioning-the-endolysosomal-system
#2
REVIEW
Juan S Bonifacino, Jacques Neefjes
The endolysosomal system is extremely dynamic, yet highly organized. The spatio-temporal distribution of endolysosomal organelles depends on transport driven by microtubule motors such as kinesins and dynein, and by actin-based myosin motors. It has recently become appreciated that interactions with motors are controlled by contacts with other organelles, particularly the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The ER also controls the concentration of endolysosomal organelles in the perinuclear area, as well as their fission and fusion, through a complex system of tethering proteins...
February 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231477/effects-of-tdcs-on-motor-learning-and-memory-formation-a-consensus-and-critical-position-paper
#3
REVIEW
Ethan R Buch, Emiliano Santarnecchi, Andrea Antal, Jan Born, Pablo A Celnik, Joseph Classen, Christian Gerloff, Mark Hallett, Friedhelm C Hummel, Michael A Nitsche, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Walter J Paulus, Janine Reis, Edwin M Robertson, John C Rothwell, Marco Sandrini, Heidi M Schambra, Eric M Wassermann, Ulf Ziemann, Leonardo G Cohen
Motor skills are required for activities of daily living. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied in association with motor skill learning has been investigated as a tool for enhancing training effects in health and disease. Here, we review the published literature investigating whether tDCS can facilitate the acquisition, retention or adaptation of motor skills. Work in multiple laboratories is underway to develop a mechanistic understanding of tDCS effects on different forms of learning and to optimize stimulation protocols...
January 29, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231474/early-disturbances-in-multimodal-evoked-potentials-as-a-prognostic-factor-for-long-term-disability-in-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#4
Frédéric London, Souraya El Sankari, Vincent van Pesch
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether early alterations in evoked potentials (EPs) have a prognostic value in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). METHODS: We retrospectively selected 108 early MS patients with a neurological follow-up ranging from 5 to 15years, in whom multimodal EPs (visual, brainstem auditory, somatosensory and motor) were performed at diagnosis. A conventional ordinal score was used to quantify the observed abnormalities...
January 28, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231470/rapid-integration-of-artificial-sensory-feedback-during-operant-conditioning-of-motor-cortex-neurons
#5
Mario Prsa, Gregorio L Galiñanes, Daniel Huber
Neuronal motor commands, whether generating real or neuroprosthetic movements, are shaped by ongoing sensory feedback from the displacement being produced. Here we asked if cortical stimulation could provide artificial feedback during operant conditioning of cortical neurons. Simultaneous two-photon imaging and real-time optogenetic stimulation were used to train mice to activate a single neuron in motor cortex (M1), while continuous feedback of its activity level was provided by proportionally stimulating somatosensory cortex...
February 22, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231395/functional-connectivity-in-amygdalar-sensory-pre-motor-networks-at-rest-new-evidence-from-the-human-connectome-project
#6
Nicola Toschi, Andrea Duggento, Luca Passamonti
The word "e-motion" derives from the Latin word "ex-moveo" which literally means "moving away from something / somebody". Emotions are thus fundamental to prime action and goal-directed behavior with obvious implications for individual's survival. However, the brain mechanisms underlying the interactions between emotional and motor cortical systems remain poorly understood. A recent diffusion tensor imaging study in humans has reported the existence of direct anatomical connections between the amygdala and sensory/(pre)motor cortices, corroborating an initial observation in animal research...
February 23, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231269/a-mouse-model-of-paralytic-myelitis-caused-by-enterovirus-d68
#7
Alison M Hixon, Guixia Yu, J Smith Leser, Shigeo Yagi, Penny Clarke, Charles Y Chiu, Kenneth L Tyler
In 2014, the United States experienced an epidemic of acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) cases in children coincident with a nationwide outbreak of enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) respiratory disease. Up to half of the 2014 AFM patients had EV-D68 RNA detected by RT-PCR in their respiratory secretions, although EV-D68 was only detected in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from one 2014 AFM patient. Given previously described molecular and epidemiologic associations between EV-D68 and AFM, we sought to develop an animal model by screening seven EV-D68 strains for the ability to induce neurological disease in neonatal mice...
February 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231260/effects-of-the-skills4genius-sports-based-training-program-in-creative-behavior
#8
Sara Santos, Sergio Jiménez, Jaime Sampaio, Nuno Leite
Team Sports has been suggested as a suitable environment to investigate creative behavior. This study's purpose was two-fold: first, it intended to identify the effects of the Skills4Genius sports-bases training program in thinking, motor, and in-game creative behavior in team sports. Second, it aimed to investigate the relationship between creative thinking and in-game creativity. Forty children from primary school were allocated into control (n = 18, age: 9.2±0.4) and experimental (n = 22, age: 9.5±0.7) groups...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231250/corticospinal-excitability-measurements-using-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-are-valid-with-intramuscular-electromyography
#9
Rebekah L S Summers, Mo Chen, Teresa J Kimberley
OBJECTIVES: Muscular targets that are deep or inaccessible to surface electromyography (sEMG) require intrinsic recording using fine-wire electromyography (fEMG). It is unknown if fEMG validly record cortically evoked muscle responses compared to sEMG. The purpose of this investigation was to establish the validity and agreement of fEMG compared to sEMG to quantify typical transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) measures pre and post repetitive TMS (rTMS). The hypotheses were that fEMG would demonstrate excellent validity and agreement compared with sEMG...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230572/automated-bone-screw-tightening-to-adaptive-levels-of-stripping-torque
#10
Karen J Reynolds, Aaron A Mohtar, Tammy M Cleek, Melissa K Ryan, Trevor C Hearn
OBJECTIVE: To use relationships between tightening parameters, related to bone quality, to develop an automated system that determines and controls the level of screw tightening. METHODS: An algorithm relating current at head contact (IHC) to current at construct failure (Imax) was developed. The algorithm was used to trigger cessation of screw insertion at a pre-defined tightening level, in real time, between head contact and maximum current. The ability of the device to stop at the pre-defined level was assessed...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230350/cyclic-voltammetry-probe-approach-curves-with-alkali-amalgams-at-mercury-sphere-cap-scanning-electrochemical-microscopy-probes
#11
Zachary J Barton, Joaquín Rodríguez-López
We report a method of precisely positioning a Hg-based ultramicroelectrode (UME) for scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) investigations of any substrate. Hg-based probes are capable of performing amalgamation reactions with metal cations, which avoid unwanted side reactions and positive feedback mechanisms that can prove problematic for traditional probe positioning methods. However, prolonged collection of ions eventually leads to saturation of the amalgam accompanied by irreversible loss of Hg. In order to obtain negative feedback positioning control without risking damage to the SECM probe, we implement cyclic voltammetry probe approach surfaces (CV-PASs), consisting of CVs performed between incremental motor movements...
February 23, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230070/an-fmri-compatible-force-measurement-system-for-the-evaluation-of-the-neural-correlates-of-step-initiation
#12
Andrea Cristina de Lima-Pardini, Raymundo Machado de Azevedo Neto, Daniel Boari Coelho, Catarina Costa Boffino, Sukhwinder S Shergill, Carolina de Oliveira Souza, Rachael Brant, Egberto Reis Barbosa, Ellison Fernando Cardoso, Luis Augusto Teixeira, Rajal G Cohen, Fay Bahling Horak, Edson Amaro
Knowledge of brain correlates of postural control is limited by the technical difficulties in performing controlled experiments with currently available neuroimaging methods. Here we present a system that allows the measurement of anticipatory postural adjustment of human legs to be synchronized with the acquisition of functional magnetic resonance imaging data. The device is composed of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) compatible force sensors able to measure the level of force applied by both feet. We tested the device in a group of healthy young subjects and a group of elderly subjects with Parkinson's disease using an event-related functional MRI (fMRI) experiment design...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230057/ensemble-and-single-molecule-dynamics-of-ift-dynein-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-cilia
#13
Jona Mijalkovic, Bram Prevo, Felix Oswald, Pierre Mangeol, Erwin J G Peterman
Cytoplasmic dyneins drive microtubule-based, minus-end directed transport in eukaryotic cells. Whereas cytoplasmic dynein 1 has been widely studied, IFT dynein has received far less attention. Here, we use fluorescence microscopy of labelled motors in living Caenorhabditis elegans to investigate IFT-dynein motility at the ensemble and single-molecule level. We find that while the kinesin composition of motor ensembles varies along the track, the amount of dynein remains relatively constant. Remarkably, this does not result in directionality changes of cargo along the track, as has been reported for other opposite-polarity, tug-of-war motility systems...
February 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229937/1-high-definition-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-to-both-primary-motor-cortices-improves-unimanual-and-bimanual-dexterity
#14
Nils H Pixa, Fabian Steinberg, Michael Doppelmayr
While most research on brain stimulation with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) targets unimanual motor tasks, little is known about its effects on bimanual motor performance. This study aims to investigate the effects of tDCS on unimanual as well as bimanual motor dexterity. We examined the effects of bihemispheric anodal high-definition tDCS (HD-atDCS) on both primary motor cortices (M1) applied concurrent with unimanual and bimanual motor training. We then measured the effects with the Purdue Pegboard Test (PPT) and compared them to a sham stimulation...
February 13, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229931/modulation-of-the-sensorimotor-system-by-sustained-manual-pressure-stimulation
#15
Pavel Hok, Jaroslav Opavský, Miroslav Kutín, Zbyněk Tüdös, Petr Kaňovský, Petr Hluštík
In Vojta physiotherapy, also known as reflex locomotion therapy, prolonged peripheral pressure stimulation induces complex generalized involuntary motor responses and modifies subsequent behavior, but its neurobiological basis remains unknown. We hypothesized that the stimulation would induce sensorimotor activation changes in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during sequential finger opposition. Thirty healthy volunteers (mean age 24.2) underwent two randomized fMRI sessions involving manual pressure stimulation applied either at the right lateral heel according to Vojta, or at the right lateral ankle (control site)...
February 13, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229903/acute-and-subchronic-toxicity-studies-of-methanol-extract-of-polygonum-minus-leaves-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#16
Parayil Varghese Christapher, Subramani Parasuraman, Mohd Zaini Asmawi, Vikneswaran Murugaiyah
Medicinal plant preparations may contain high levels of toxic chemical constituents to potentially cause serious harm to animals and/or humans. Thus, toxicity studies are important to assess the toxic effects of plant derived products. Polygonum minus is used traditionally for different ailments in Southeast Asia. This study was conducted to establish the acute and subchronic toxicity profile of the methanol extract of P. minus leaves. The acute toxicity study showed that the methanol extract of P. minus is safe even at the highest dose tested of 2000 mg/kg in female Sprague Dawley rats...
February 13, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229895/impulse-control-disorders-and-levodopa-induced-dyskinesias-in-parkinson-s-disease-an-update
#17
REVIEW
Valerie Voon, T Celeste Napier, Michael J Frank, Veronique Sgambato-Faure, Anthony A Grace, Maria Rodriguez-Oroz, Jose Obeso, Erwan Bezard, Pierre-Olivier Fernagut
Dopaminergic medications used in the treatment of patients with Parkinson's disease are associated with motor and non-motor behavioural side-effects, such as dyskinesias and impulse control disorders also known as behavioural addictions. Levodopa-induced dyskinesias occur in up to 80% of patients with Parkinson's after a few years of chronic treatment. Impulse control disorders, including gambling disorder, binge eating disorder, compulsive sexual behaviour, and compulsive shopping occur in about 17% of patients with Parkinson's disease on dopamine agonists...
March 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229577/maximal-aerobic-capacity-can-be-increased-by-enhancing-performers-expectancies
#18
Jeff Montes, Gabriele Wulf, James W Navalta
BACKGROUND: Maximum aerobic capacity (VO2max) is widely accepted as the best measure of cardiovascular fitness and aerobic power. The present study investigated whether enhancing participants' performance expectancies through positive social-comparative feedback would increase VO2max. METHODS: Participants were experienced runners who regularly ran for exercise or competitively. All participants completed two VO2max tests within a 2-week period at similar times of the day...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229560/comparison-of-motor-diagnoses-by-chicago-classification-versions-2-0-and-3-0-on-esophageal-high-resolution-manometry
#19
A Patel, B Cassell, N Sainani, D Wang, B Shahid, M Bennett, F A Mirza, S Munigala, C P Gyawali
BACKGROUND: The Chicago Classification (CC) uses high-resolution manometry (HRM) software tools to designate esophageal motor diagnoses. We evaluated changes in diagnostic designations between two CC versions, and determined motor patterns not identified by either version. METHODS: In this observational cohort study of consecutive patients undergoing esophageal HRM over a 6-year period, proportions meeting CC 2.0 and 3.0 criteria were segregated into esophageal outflow obstruction, hypermotility, and hypomotility disorders...
February 23, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229532/n-butylidenephthalide-treatment-prolongs-life-span-and-attenuates-motor-neuron-loss-in-sod1-g93a-mouse-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#20
Qin-Ming Zhou, Jing-Jing Zhang, Song Li, Sheng Chen, Wei-Dong Le
AIMS: To evaluate the therapeutic effects of n-butylidenephthalide (BP) in SOD1(G93A) mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and explore the possible mechanisms. METHODS: The SOD1(G93A) mice were treated by oral administration of BP (q.d., 400 mg/kg d) starting from 60 days of age and continuing until death. The rotarod test was performed to assess the disease onset. The expression levels of apoptosis-related proteins, inflammatory molecules, and autophagy-associated proteins were determined...
February 22, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
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