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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786972/a-lyophilized-and-thermal-two-step-synthesis-of-cofe-alloy-nanoparticles-embedded-in-n-doped-carbon-nanosheets-carbon-nanotubes-for-highly-efficient-oxygen-evolution-reaction
#1
Yang Liu, Feng Li, Haidong Yang, Jing Li, Ping Ma, Yan Zhu, Jiantai Ma
There is a vital need to explore highly-efficient and stable nonprecious-metal catalysts for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) to reduce the overpotential and further improve the energy conversion efficiency. Herein, we report a unique and cost-effective lyophilized and thermal two step procedure to synthesize high-performance CoFe alloy nanoparticles embedded in N-doped carbon nanosheets interspersed with carbon nanotubes (CoFe-N-CN/CNTs) hybrid. The lyophilization step during catalysts preparation is beneficial to uniform the dispersion of carbon-like precursors and avoid the agglomeration of metal particles...
May 22, 2018: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786907/simulation-of-the-degradation-of-cyclic-ketene-acetal-and-vinyl-based-copolymers-synthesized-via-a-radical-process-influence-of-the-reactivity-ratios-on-the-degradability-properties
#2
Didier Gigmes, Paul H M Van Steenberge, Didier Siri, Dagmar R D'hooge, Yohann Guillaneuf, Catherine Lefay
The radical copolymerization of vinyl and cyclic ketene acetal (CKA) monomers is a promising way to prepare degradable vinyl polymers. The reactivity of the comonomer pair is known to be dependent of the vinyl monomer structure that requires to play with experimental conditions (feed ratio, overall monomer conversion, etc.) to target a desired cumulative (average) copolymer composition. Even if the materials are completely degradable, there is no information about the homogeneity of the degraded products. This theoretical study, using kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, allows simulating degradation at the molecular level...
May 22, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786889/a-novel-conductive-mesoporous-layer-with-a-dynamic-two-step-deposition-strategy-boosts-efficiency-of-perovskite-solar-cells-to-20
#3
Haoxuan Sun, Kaimo Deng, Yayun Zhu, Min Liao, Jie Xiong, Yanrong Li, Liang Li
Lead halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) with the high power conversion efficiency (PCE) typically use mesoporous metal oxide nanoparticles as the scaffold and electron-transport layers. However, the traditional mesoporous layer suffers from low electron conductivity and severe carrier recombination. Here, antimony-doped tin oxide nanorod arrays are proposed as novel transparent conductive mesoporous layers in PSCs. Such a mesoporous layer improves the electron transport as well as light utilization. To resolve the common problem of uneven growth of perovskite on rough surface, the dynamic two-step spin coating strategy is proposed to prepare highly smooth, dense, and crystallized perovskite films with micrometer-scale grains, largely reducing the carrier recombination ratio...
May 22, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786887/perovskite-solar-cells-with-inorganic-electron-and-hole-transport-layers-exhibiting-long-term-%C3%A2-500-h-stability-at-85-%C3%A2-c-under-continuous-1-sun-illumination-in-ambient-air
#4
Seongrok Seo, Seonghwa Jeong, Changdeuck Bae, Nam-Gyu Park, Hyunjung Shin
Despite the high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of perovskite solar cells (PSCs), poor long-term stability is one of the main obstacles preventing their commercialization. Several approaches to enhance the stability of PSCs have been proposed. However, an accelerating stability test of PSCs at high temperature under the operating conditions in ambient air remains still to be demonstrated. Herein, interface-engineered stable PSCs with inorganic charge-transport layers are shown. The highly conductive Al-doped ZnO films act as efficient electron-transporting layers as well as dense passivation layers...
May 22, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786878/dietary-omega-3-fatty-acids-differentially-impact-acute-ethanol-responsive-behaviors-and-ethanol-consumption-in-dba-2j-versus-c57bl-6j-mice
#5
Jennifer T Wolstenholme, M Scott Bowers, Alexander B Pais, A Christian Pais, Ryan S Poland, Justin L Poklis, Andrew G Davies, Jill C Bettinger
BACKGROUND: Complex interactions between environmental and genetic factors influence the risk for developing alcohol use disorder (AUD) in humans. To date, studies of the impact of environment on AUD risk have primarily focused on psychological characteristics or on the effects of developmental exposure to ethanol. We recently observed that modifying levels of the long-chain ω-3 (LC ω-3) fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), alters acute physiological responses to ethanol in C. elegans...
May 22, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786726/boron-doped-graphene-nanosheet-supported-pt-a-highly-active-and-selective-catalyst-for-low-temperature-h-2-scr
#6
Maocong Hu, Zhenhua Yao, Lili Li, Yung-Hao Tsou, Liyuan Kuang, Xiaoyang Xu, Wen Zhang, Xianqin Wang
A series of boron-doped graphene-supported Pt (Pt/BG) nanosheets were designed and synthesized using a one-step facile hydrothermal method. ICP, XPS, and TPD results confirmed that boron atoms were successfully embedded into the graphene matrix. The selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide with hydrogen (H2-SCR) was tested over Pt/BG catalysts. The multi-roles of doped-boron were investigated by Raman, BET, CO-chemisorption, H2-TPD, XPS, and NO-TPD. Boron doping led to a higher dispersion and smaller size of Pt nanoparticles, facilitated hydrogen spillover, promoted more metallic Pt formation, and increased both H2 and NO chemisorption, which were attributed to an enhanced Pt nucleation rate over doped-boron, electron donation from boron to Pt, and extra chemisorption sites...
May 22, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786697/imaging-glutathione-depletion-in-the-rat-brain-using-ascorbate-derived-hyperpolarized-mr-and-pet-probes
#7
Hecong Qin, Valerie N Carroll, Renuka Sriram, Javier E Villanueva-Meyer, Cornelius von Morze, Zhen Jane Wang, Christopher A Mutch, Kayvan R Keshari, Robert R Flavell, John Kurhanewicz, David M Wilson
Oxidative stress is a critical feature of several common neurologic disorders. The brain is well adapted to neutralize oxidative injury by maintaining a high steady-state concentration of small-molecule intracellular antioxidants including glutathione in astrocytes and ascorbic acid in neurons. Ascorbate-derived imaging probes for hyperpolarized 13 C magnetic resonance spectroscopy and positron emission tomography have been used to study redox changes (antioxidant depletion and reactive oxygen species accumulation) in vivo...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786632/influences-of-playing-position-and-quality-of-opposition-on-standardized-relative-distance-covered-in-domestic-women-s-field-hockey-implications-for-coaches
#8
Don Vinson, Nicola Gerrett, David V B James
Vinson, D, Gerrett, N, and James, DVB. Influences of playing position and quality of opposition on standardized relative distance covered in domestic women's field hockey: Implications for coaches. J Strength Cond Res 32(6): 1770-1777, 2018-The purpose of this study was to compare the standardized relative distance covered by the various playing positions (defenders, midfielders, and forwards) against different quality of opponents in domestic women's field hockey. Data were collected from 13 individuals competing for 1 team in the English Premier League across an 18-game season...
June 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786619/-i-in-situ-i-nap-xps-spectroscopy-during-methane-dry-reforming-on-zro-sub-2-sub-pt-111-inverse-model-catalyst
#9
Christoph Rameshan, Hao Li, Kresimir Anic, Matteo Roiaz, Verena Pramhaas, Raffael Rameshan, Raoul Blume, Michael Hävecker, Jan Knudsen, Axel Knop-Gericke, Gunther Rupprechter
Due to the need of sustainable energy sources, methane dry reforming (MDR) is a useful reaction for the conversion of the greenhouse gases CH<sub>4</sub> and CO<sub>2</sub> to synthesis gas (CO + H<sub>2</sub>). Syngas is the basis for a wide range of commodity chemicals and can be utilized for fuel production via Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis. The current study focuses on spectroscopic investigations of the surface and reaction properties of a ZrO<sub>2</sub>/Pt inverse model catalyst, i...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786612/a-formalism-for-reference-dosimetry-in-photon-beams-in-the-presence-of-a-magnetic-field
#10
Bram van Asselen, Simon J Woodings, Sara L Hackett, Theo L van Soest, Jan G M Kok, Bas W Raaymakers, Jochem W H Wolthaus
A generic formalism is proposed for reference dosimetry in the presence of a magnetic field. Besides the regular correction factors from the conventional reference dosimetry formalisms, two factors are used to take into account magnetic field effects: 1) a dose conversion factor to correct for the change in local dose distribution and 2) a correction of the reading of the dosimeter used for the reference dosimetry measurements. The formalism was applied to the Elekta MRI-Linac, for which the 1.5 T magnetic field is orthogonal to the 7 MV photon beam...
May 22, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786475/connecting-structure-property-and-structure-function-relationships-across-the-disciplines-of-chemistry-and-biology-exploring-student-perceptions
#11
Kathryn P Kohn, Sonia M Underwood, Melanie M Cooper
While many university students take science courses in multiple disciplines, little is known about how they perceive common concepts from different disciplinary perspectives. Structure-property and structure-function relationships have long been considered important explanatory concepts in the disciplines of chemistry and biology, respectively. Fourteen university students concurrently enrolled in introductory chemistry and biology courses were interviewed to explore their perceptions regarding 1) the meaning of structure, properties, and function; 2) the presentation of these concepts in their courses; and 3) how these concepts might be related...
June 2018: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786437/cobalt-catalyzed-oxidative-c-sp3-h-phosphonylation-for-%C3%AE-aminophosphonates-via-c-sp3-h-p-o-h-coupling
#12
Binzhou Lin, Shanshan Shi, Rongcan Lin, Yiqun Cui, Meijuan Fang, Guo Tang, YuFen Zhao
The first oxidative C(sp3)-H phosphonylation of tertiary aliphatic amines has been developed. The use of cobalt acetate as catalyst, N-hydroxyphthalimide as co-catalyst, and air as oxidant enabled the conversion of tertiary aromatic and aliphatic amines into α-aminophosphonates in moderate to excellent yields under mild conditions via a cross dehydrogenative coupling reaction.
May 22, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786422/mechanisms-regulating-the-association-of-protein-phosphatase-1-with-spinophilin-and-neurabin
#13
Michael C Edler, Asma B Salek, Darryl S Watkins, Harjot Kaur, Cameron W Morris, Bryan K Yamamoto, Anthony J Baucum
Protein phosphorylation is a key mediator of signal transduction, allowing for dynamic regulation of substrate activity. Whereas protein kinases obtain substrate specificity by targeting specific amino acid sequences, serine/threonine phosphatase catalytic subunits are much more promiscuous in their ability to dephosphorylate substrates. To obtain substrate specificity, serine/threonine phosphatases utilize targeting proteins to regulate phosphatase subcellular localization and catalytic activity. Spinophilin and its homolog neurabin are two of the most abundant dendritic spine-localized protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) targeting proteins...
May 22, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786416/zinc-oxide-enhanced-piezoelectret-polypropylene-microfiber-for-mechanical-energy-harvesting
#14
Jianxiong Zhu, Yali Zhu, Weixing Song, Hui Wang, Min Gao, Minkyu Cho, Inkyu Park
This paper reports zinc oxide (ZnO) coated piezoelectret polypropylene (PP) microfibers with a structure of two opposite arc-shaped braces for enhanced mechanical energy harvesting. The ZnO film was coated onto PP microfibers via magnetron sputtering to form a ZnO/PP compound structure. Triboelectric Nanogenerator (TENG) based on ZnO/PP microfiber compound film was carefully designed with two opposite arc-shaped braces. The results of this study demonstrated that the mechanical energy collection efficiency of TENG based on piezoelectret PP microfiber was greatly enhanced by the coated ZnO and high voltage corona charging method...
May 22, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786160/aberrant-learning-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-neurocomputational-study-on-bradykinesia
#15
Mauro Ursino, Chiara Baston
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a progressive decline in motor functions, such as bradykinesia, caused by the pathological denervation of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons within the basal ganglia (BG). It is acknowledged that dopamine (DA) directly affects the modulatory role of BG towards the cortex. However, a growing body of literature is suggesting that DA induced aberrant synaptic plasticity could play a role in the core symptoms of PD, thus recalling for a "reconceptualization" of the pathophysiology...
May 22, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786112/ctla%C3%A2-4-interferes-with-the-hbv%C3%A2-specific-t-cell-immune-response-review
#16
Hui Cao, Ruiwen Zhang, Wei Zhang
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major cause of hepatic inflammation. Successful HBV clearance in patients is associated with sustained viral control by effector T cells. Compared with acute hepatitis B, chronic HBV infection is associated with the depletion of T cells, resulting in weak or absent virus‑specific T cells reactivity, which is described as 'exhaustion'. This exhaustion is characterized by impaired cytokine production and sustained expression of multiple coinhibitory molecules. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte‑associated antigen‑4 (CTLA‑4) is one of many coinhibitory molecules that can attenuate T cell activation by inhibiting costimulation and transmitting inhibitory signals to T cells...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786099/cluster-to-cluster-transformation-among-au-6-au-8-and-au-11-nanoclusters
#17
Xiuqing Ren, Junhong Fu, Xinzhang Lin, Xuemei Fu, Jinghui Yan, Ren'an Wu, Chao Liu, Jiahui Huang
We present the cluster-to-cluster transformations among three gold nanoclusters, [Au6(dppp)4]2+ (Au6), [Au8(dppp)4Cl2]2+ (Au8) and [Au11(dppp)5]3+ (Au11). The conversion process follows a rule that states that the transformation of a small cluster to a large cluster is achieved through an oxidation process with an oxidizing agent (H2O2) or with heating, while the conversion of a large cluster to a small one occurs through a reduction process with a reducing agent (NaBH4). All the reactions were monitored using UV-Vis spectroscopy and ESI-MS...
May 22, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786081/distinct-learning-induced-changes-in-stimulus-selectivity-and-interactions-of-gabaergic-interneuron-classes-in-visual-cortex
#18
Adil G Khan, Jasper Poort, Angus Chadwick, Antonin Blot, Maneesh Sahani, Thomas D Mrsic-Flogel, Sonja B Hofer
How learning enhances neural representations for behaviorally relevant stimuli via activity changes of cortical cell types remains unclear. We simultaneously imaged responses of pyramidal cells (PYR) along with parvalbumin (PV), somatostatin (SOM), and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) inhibitory interneurons in primary visual cortex while mice learned to discriminate visual patterns. Learning increased selectivity for task-relevant stimuli of PYR, PV and SOM subsets but not VIP cells. Strikingly, PV neurons became as selective as PYR cells, and their functional interactions reorganized, leading to the emergence of stimulus-selective PYR-PV ensembles...
May 21, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785960/reduction-in-regulatory-t-cells-in-early-pregnancy-causes-uterine-artery-dysfunction-in-mice
#19
Alison S Care, Stephane L Bourque, Jude S Morton, Emma P Hjartarson, Sarah A Robertson, Sandra T Davidge
Preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction, and miscarriage remain important causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. These complications are associated with reduced numbers of a specialized T lymphocyte subset called regulatory T cells (Treg cells) in the maternal circulation, decidua, and placenta. Treg cells suppress inflammation and prevent maternal immunity toward the fetus, which expresses foreign paternal alloantigens. Treg cells are demonstrated to contribute to vascular homeostasis, but whether Treg cells influence the vascular adaptations essential for a healthy pregnancy is unknown...
May 21, 2018: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785899/ragd-regulates-amino-acid-mediated-casein-synthesis-and-cell-proliferation-via-mtor-signalling-in-cow-mammary-epithelial-cells
#20
Ying Mu, Dongmei Zheng, Cong Wang, Wei Yu, Xiaonan Zhang
This research paper addresses the hypothesis that RagD is a key signalling factor that regulates amino acid (AA) mediated-casein synthesis and cell proliferation in cow mammary epithelial cells (CMECs). The expression of RagD was analysed at different times during pregnancy and lactation in bovine mammary tissue from dairy cows. We showed that expression of RagD at lactation period was higher (P < 0·05) than that at pregnancy period. When CMECs were treated with methionine (Met) or lysine (Lys), expression of RagD, β-casein (CSN2), mTOR and p-mTOR, and cell proliferation were increased...
May 2018: Journal of Dairy Research
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