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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222518/differential-regional-distribution-of-juxtacortical-white-matter-signal-abnormalities-in-aging-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Emily R Lindemer, Douglas N Greve, Bruce Fischl, Jean C Augustinack, David H Salat
BACKGROUND: White matter signal abnormalities (WMSA) (also known as 'hyperintensities') on MRI are commonly seen in normal aging and increases have been noted in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but whether there is a spatial specificity to these increases is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To discern whether or not there is a spatial pattern of WMSA in the brains of individuals with AD that differs from those who exhibit cognitively healthy aging. METHOD: Structural MRI data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative public database were used to quantify WMSA in 35 regions of interest (ROIs)...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222514/one-year-evolution-of-behavioral-and%C3%A2-psychological-symptoms-of-dementia-in-patients-initially-hospitalized-in%C3%A2-cognitive-behavioral-units-the-evital-prospective-cohort
#2
Isabelle Rouch, Elodie Pongan, Béatrice Trombert, Florence Fabre, Nicolas Auguste, Claire Sellier, Magalie Freulon, Sophie Jacqueline, Denis Federico, Christelle Mouchoux, Géraldine Martin-Gaujard, Pierre Krolak-Salmon, Bernard Laurent, Jean-Michel Dorey
BACKGROUND: The 2008-2012 French Alzheimer's Plan has provided hospital Cognitive and Behavioral Units (CBU) to improve the management of patients with productive behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). Little is known concerning the behavioral outcome of these patients after discharge. OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated the long-term evolution of BPSD over one year after CBU discharge. METHODS: The EVITAL cohort included 221 participants admitted to the CBUs of 3 French hospitals...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222405/thyroid-hormones-a-potential-ally-to-ldl-cholesterol-lowering-agents
#3
REVIEW
Leonidas N Duntas, Gabriela Brenta
L-thyroxine (LT4) treatment of hypothyroidism, particularly in patients with thyroid- stimulating hormone (TSH) >10mU/L, results in improved lipid profile, as LT4 stimulates low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) degradation and the conversion of cholesterol in bile acids by inducing LDL-receptor and 7 alpha hydroxylase expression, respectively. Statins decrease total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C mainly by suppressing 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A activity. Therefore, the addition of statins to LT4 treatment, following the reversal of hypothyroidism, acts synergistically and forms a powerful treatment modality in patients with this condition whose serum lipids have not achieved the target...
October 2016: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222384/direct-catalytic-production-of-sorbitol-from-waste-cellulosic-materials
#4
Lucília Sousa Ribeiro, José J de Melo Órfão, Manuel Fernando Ribeiro Pereira
Cotton wool, cotton textile, tissue paper and printing paper, all potential waste cellulosic materials, were directly converted to sorbitol using a Ru/CNT catalyst in the presence of H2 and using only water as solvent, without any acids. Conversions up to 38% were attained for the raw substrates, with sorbitol yields below 10%. Ball-milling of the materials disrupted their crystallinity, allowing reaching 100% conversion of cotton wool, cotton textile and tissue paper after 4h, with sorbitol yields around 50%...
February 8, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222264/graphene-ink-laminate-structures-on-polyvinylidene-difluoride-pvdf-for-pyroelectric-thermal-energy-harvesting-and-waste-heat-recovery
#5
Daniel Zabek, Kris Seunarine, Chris Spacie, Chris R Bowen
Thermal energy can be effectively converted into electricity using pyroelectrics, which act as small scale power generator and energy harvesters providing nW to mW of electrical power. In this paper, a novel pyroelectric harvester based on free standing polyvinilidene difluoride (PVDF) was manufactured that exploits the high thermal radiation absorbance of a screen printed graphene-ink electrode structure to facilitate the conversion of the available thermal radiation energy into electrical energy. The interconnected graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) enable high thermal radiation absorbance and high electrical conductivity along with the ease of deposition using a screen print technique...
February 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222199/examining-current-or-future-trade-offs-for-biodiversity-conservation-in-north-eastern-australia
#6
April E Reside, Jeremy VanDerWal, Atte Moilanen, Erin M Graham
With the high rate of ecosystem change already occurring and predicted to occur in the coming decades, long-term conservation has to account not only for current biodiversity but also for the biodiversity patterns anticipated for the future. The trade-offs between prioritising future biodiversity at the expense of current priorities must be understood to guide current conservation planning, but have been largely unexplored. To fill this gap, we compared the performance of four conservation planning solutions involving 662 vertebrate species in the Wet Tropics Natural Resource Management Cluster Region in north-eastern Australia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222169/decellularized-wharton-s-jelly-from-human-umbilical-cord-as-a-novel-3d-scaffolding-material-for-tissue-engineering-applications
#7
Sushma Jadalannagari, Gabriel Converse, Christopher McFall, Eric Buse, Michael Filla, Maria T Villar, Antonio Artigues, Adam J Mellot, Jinxi Wang, Michael S Detamore, Richard A Hopkins, Omar S Aljitawi
In tissue engineering, an ideal scaffold attracts and supports cells thus providing them with the necessary mechanical support and architecture as they reconstruct new tissue in vitro and in vivo. This manuscript details a novel matrix derived from decellularized Wharton's jelly (WJ) obtained from human umbilical cord for use as a scaffold for tissue engineering application. This decellularized Wharton's jelly matrix (DWJM) contained 0.66 ± 0.12 μg/mg sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), and was abundant in hyaluronic acid, and completely devoid of cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222068/inhibition-of-cdk5-induces-cell-death-of-tumor-initiating-cells
#8
Melanie M Mandl, Siwei Zhang, Melanie Ulrich, Elisa Schmoeckel, Doris Mayr, Angelika M Vollmar, Johanna Liebl
BACKGROUND: Tumour-initiating cells (TICs) account for chemoresistance, tumour recurrence and metastasis, and therefore represent a major problem in tumour therapy. However, strategies to address TICs are limited. Recent studies indicate Cdk5 as a promising target for anti-cancer therapy and Cdk5 has recently been associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, a role of Cdk5 in TICs has not been described yet. METHODS: Expression of Cdk5 in human cancer tissue was analysed by staining of a human tissue microarray (TMA)...
February 21, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222033/non-hdl-cholesterol-and-c-reactive-protein-in-children-and-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes
#9
María Mercedes Prado, Teresita Carrizo, Adela Victoria Abregú, Tomás Meroño
BACKGROUND: To what extent high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is associated with known cardiovascular risk factors in children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) has not been fully explored. METHODS: Forty-two T1D children (age: 12+/-1 years) without hypertension, retinopathy, hypothyroidism, albuminuria or other endocrine diseases and 20 controls were studied. Out of the 42 T1D patients studied 57% were prepubertal or early pubertal (Tanner I/II), 38% were pubertal (Tanner III/IV) and 5% post-pubertal (Tanner V)...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222016/a-review-of-the-challenge-in-measuring-and-standardizing-bcr-abl1
#10
Shuping Yu, Ming Cui, Xiao He, Rongrong Jing, Huimin Wang
Breakpoint cluster region-Abelson (BCR-ABL1) translocation is the characteristic sign of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). The quantitation of BCR-ABL1 messenger RNA is requisite for patients with CML, and reverse-transcription real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR) is the method used most extensively in testing laboratories worldwide. Nevertheless, substantial variation in RQ-PCR results from different laboratories makes interlaboratory comparability inconvincible owing to the lack of standardization...
February 21, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221829/the-evolutionary-economics-of-embryonic-sac-fluids-in-squamate-reptiles
#11
Xavier Bonnet, Guy Naulleau, Richard Shine
The parchment-shelled eggs of squamate reptiles take up substantial water from the nest environment, enabling the conversion of yolk into neonatal tissue and buffering the embryo against the possibility of subsequent dry weather. During development, increasing amounts of water are stored in the embryonic sacs (i.e., membranes around the embryo: amnion, allantois, and chorion). The evolution of viviparity (prolonged uterine retention of developing embryos) means that embryonic-sac fluid storage now imposes a cost (increased maternal burdening), confers less benefit (because the mother buffers fetal water balance), and introduces a potential conflict among uterine siblings (for access to finite water supplies)...
March 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221701/accelerated-combinatorial-high-throughput-star-polymer-synthesis-via-a-rapid-one-pot-sequential-aqueous-raft-rosa-raft-polymerization-scheme
#12
Steffen Cosson, Maarten Danial, Julien Rosselgong Saint-Amans, Justin J Cooper-White
Advanced polymerization methodologies, such as reversible addition-fragmentation transfer (RAFT), allow unprecedented control over star polymer composition, topology, and functionality. However, using RAFT to produce high throughput (HTP) combinatorial star polymer libraries remains, to date, impracticable due to several technical limitations. Herein, the methodology "rapid one-pot sequential aqueous RAFT" or "rosa-RAFT," in which well-defined homo-, copolymer, and mikto-arm star polymers can be prepared in very low to medium reaction volumes (50 µL to 2 mL) via an "arm-first" approach in air within minutes, is reported...
February 21, 2017: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221697/solution-processable-hyperbranched-conjugated-polymer-nanoparticles-based-on-c3h-symmetric-benzotrithiophene-for-polymer-solar-cells
#13
Xiaofu Wu, Zijian Zhang, Hao Hang, Yonghong Chen, Yuxiang Xu, Hui Tong, Lixiang Wang
The development of photovoltaic polymers based on C3h -symmetric benzotrithiophene (C3h -BTT), an analogue of the well-known benzodithiophene (BDT) donor unit, has been severely limited due to difficult processability. Here the authors report the preparation of solution-processable C3h -BTT-based hyperbranched conjugated polymer nanoparticles (BTT-HCPNs) with tunable particle sizes via Stille miniemulsion polymerization. Compared with the corresponding star-shaped small molecule (C3h -BTT core with three diketopyrrolopyrrole arms, BTT-3DPP) with a wide bandgap (1...
February 21, 2017: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221160/-urinary-lithiasis-the-patient-also-plays
#14
Juan Antonio Galán Llopis, Aleixandre Vergés Prósper, Helena Pérez-Seoane Ballester, Eva Escudero Fontano, Leonardo Tortolero Blanco
Renal lithiasis is known for its high incidence and prevalence, but mainly for its morbidity and recurrence. Despite a good indication and appropriate surgical treatment, the essential problem, the origin of the formation of the stones, generally persists and it is not uncommon that patients suffer multiple treatments and discomfort secondary to ancillary measures normally used to prevent complications. It is widely known, for consistency, that a prophylactic treatment with general or, in a smaller group of patients, specific measures are appropriate to diminish recurrences...
January 2017: Archivos Españoles de Urología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221125/comparison-of-sputum-culture-conversion-for-mycobacterium-bovis-and-m-tuberculosis
#15
Colleen Scott, Joseph S Cavanaugh, Benjamin J Silk, Julia Ershova, Gerald H Mazurek, Philip A LoBue, Patrick K Moonan
Current US guidelines recommend longer treatment for tuberculosis (TB) caused by pyrazinamide-resistant organisms (e.g., Mycobacterium bovis) than for M. tuberculosis TB. We compared treatment response times for patients with M. bovis TB and M. tuberculosis TB reported in the United States during 2006-2013. We included culture-positive, pulmonary TB patients with genotyping results who received standard 4-drug treatment at the time of diagnosis. Time to sputum-culture conversion was defined as time between treatment start date and date of first consistently culture-negative sputum...
March 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221054/the-common-good-phenomenon-why-similarities-are-positive-and-differences-are-negative
#16
Hans Alves, Alex Koch, Christian Unkelbach
Positive attributes are more prevalent than negative attributes in the social environment. From this basic assumption, 2 implications that have been overlooked thus far: Positive compared with negative attributes are more likely to be shared by individuals, and people's shared attributes (similarities) are more positive than their unshared attributes (differences). Consequently, similarity-based comparisons should lead to more positive evaluations than difference-based comparisons. We formalized our probabilistic reasoning in a model and tested its predictions in a simulation and 8 experiments (N = 1,181)...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221033/molecule-level-g-c3n4-coordinated-transition-metals-as-a-new-class-of-electrocatalysts-for-oxygen-electrode-reactions
#17
Yao Zheng, Yan Jiao, Yihan Zhu, Qiran Cai, Anthony Vasileff, Lu Hua Li, Yu Han, Ying Chen, Shi Zhang Qiao
Organometallic complexes with metal-nitrogen/carbon (M-N/C) coordination are the most important alternatives to precious metal catalysts for oxygen reduction and evolution reactions (ORR and OER) in energy conversion devices. Here, we designed and developed a range of molecule-level graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) coordinated transition metals (M-C3N4) as a new generation of M-N/C catalysts for these oxygen electrode reactions. As a proof-of-concept example, we conducted theoretical evaluation and experimental validation on a cobalt-C3N4 catalyst with a desired molecular configuration, which possesses comparable electrocatalytic activity to that of precious metal benchmarks for the ORR and OER in alkaline media...
February 21, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220961/carbon-based-perovskite-solar-cells-without-hole-transport-materials-the-front-runner-to-the-market
#18
REVIEW
Haining Chen, Shihe Yang
Organometal trihalide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have garnered recent interest in the scientific community. In the past few years, they have achieved power conversion efficiencies comparable to traditional commercial solar cells (e.g., crystalline Si, CuInGaSe and CdTe) due to their low-cost of production via solution-processed fabrication techniques. However, the stability of PSCs must be addressed before their commercialization is viable. Among various kinds of PSCs, carbon-based PSCs without hole transport materials (C-PSCs) seem to be the most promising for addressing the stability issue because carbon materials are stable, inert to ion migration (which originates from perovskite and metal electrodes), and inherently water-resistant...
February 21, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220940/pharmacologic-conversion-during-dofetilide-treatment-for-persistent-atrial-fibrillation
#19
Jonathan S Steinberg, Yash Shah, Barbara Szepietowska
BACKGROUND: Dofetilide is a pure IKr blocker and is one of the few drugs specifically studied and approved in the United States for the management of persistent AF. Dofetilide has been noted to have a high rate of pharmacologic conversion during initial dosing in prior smaller studies. The intent of the study was to examine the safety of an inpatient loading strategy, and the incidence and patterns of pharmacologic conversion by dofetilide during the treatment of persistent AF in a large consecutive cohort...
February 21, 2017: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220705/comparison-of-methods-for-determining-the-mechanical-properties-of-semiconducting-polymer-films-for-stretchable-electronics
#20
Daniel Rodriquez, Jae-Han Kim, Samuel E Root, Zhuping Fei, Pierre Boufflet, Martin Heeney, Taek-Soo Kim, Darren J Lipomi
This paper describes a comparison of two characterization techniques for determining the mechanical properties of thin-film organic semiconductors for applications in soft electronics. In the first method, the film is supported by water (film-on-water, FOW), and a stress-strain curve is obtained using a direct tensile test. In the second method, the film is supported by an elastomer (film-on-elastomer, FOE), and is subjected to three tests to reconstruct the key features of the stress-strain curve: the buckling test (tensile modulus), the onset of buckling (yield point), and the crack-onset strain (strain at fracture)...
February 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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