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James Densley, Robert McLean, Ross Deuchar, Simon Harding
BACKGROUND: Many efforts have been undertaken to construct an overview of various aspects of illicit drug distribution in the United Kingdom. Yet given that national, regional, and local differences can be profound, this has proven difficult, to the extent that Scotland has been largely excluded from the conversation. In addition, the level of supply being examined, the drug type, and the actors involved only add to confusion and vast differences between some findings. METHOD: The current study aims to provide a holistic account, as best as possible considering variations of illegal drug supply in illicit networks, by focusing in on a particular geographical context (Scotland) and addressing drug supply at all levels...
June 13, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Gianluca Pescaroli, David Alexander
In recent years, there has been a gradual increase in research literature on the challenges of interconnected, compound, interacting, and cascading risks. These concepts are becoming ever more central to the resilience debate. They aggregate elements of climate change adaptation, critical infrastructure protection, and societal resilience in the face of complex, high-impact events. However, despite the potential of these concepts to link together diverse disciplines, scholars and practitioners need to avoid treating them in a superficial or ambiguous manner...
June 15, 2018: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
Roberta Baron, Karen Drucker, Liza Lagdamen, Maureen Cannon, Carrie Mancini, Erica Fischer-Cartlidge
Recent updates have led to variations in national recommendations. ABSTRACT: Breast cancer accounts for more than a quarter million diagnoses each year in the United States. Routine screening is the primary method used to detect cancer in its earliest stages, before symptoms develop. Recent changes to national screening guidelines have resulted in a lack of consensus and confusion among health care providers and the public. This article reviews the guidelines of the American Cancer Society, the U...
June 13, 2018: American Journal of Nursing
Behnam Jafari, Gholamabas Sabz, Elahe Masnavi, Roghaye Panahi, Saeid Jokar, Amrollah Roozbehi, Sajad Hasanzadeh
Introduction : Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disease with unknown cause that can vary from an asymptomatic condition. Almost half of the patients with sarcoidosis have no symptoms. In this article, we describe a sarcoidosis patient with lung and liver engagement; it may be confused with metastasis. Case report : A 39-year-old man, known as hypothyroidism who had come to the emergency ward with dyspnea and coughing after exposure to detergents in a closed environment A 39-year-old man, known as hypothyroidism who had come to the emergency ward with dyspnea and coughing after exposure to detergents in a closed environment...
2018: F1000Research
Bibai Ren, Glenmore Lasam
We report a case of a 56-year-old man who presented initially with a sudden onset of right-sided facial droop and weakness, aphasia, and confusion with no associated fever, chills, syncope, fatigue, weight loss, night sweats, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, odontalgia, palpitations, cough, or dyspnea. Code stroke was called and the patient received tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) with subsequent resolution of his symptoms. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging showed left frontal punctate cortical restricted diffusion consistent with subacute to acute infarction...
June 2018: Cardiology Research
Alberto Sánchez-Vialas, Marta Calvo-Revuelta, Santiago Castroviejo-Fisher, Ignacio De la Riva
The taxon Petropedetes newtonii was described in 1895 by Bocage, from Bioko Island (Equatorial Guinea). This taxon, whose holotype is lost, has been misidentified since Boulenger's revision of the genus in 1900 and its relationships with other taxa ( P. vulpiae and P. johnstoni ) is confusing. Currently, P. newtonii is considered a synonym of P. johnstoni . In this work, by revising morphological characters of non-webbed Petropedetes of Bioko, we demonstrate the morphological singularity of these specimens with respect to P...
2018: ZooKeys
S Clough, A Shaw, C Morgan
Tuberculosis (TB) is a preventable and curable infection, but remains a significant cause of death. The dental team is likely to encounter patients with a history of TB, however, at present there is limited guidance available to inform the provision of oral healthcare for this patient group. This may lead to confusion with delays in care. There is a potential health risk posed to patients and co-workers by a member of the dental team who becomes infected. TB has the potential to be a major issue for oral healthcare in the United Kingdom (UK)...
June 15, 2018: British Dental Journal
Karin Nordin, Anna-Lena Brorsson, Kerstin Ekbom
BACKGROUND: The positive effects of behavioural treatment and weight management in adolescents with severe obesity are modest. Obesity surgery can be an option for adolescents, but is not the first-hand choice of treatment. The knowledge about adolescents' own experiences of having undergone surgery and their thoughts and feelings of the follow-up period are limited. OBJECTIVES: To describe adolescents' decision to go through obesity surgery as teenager and their experiences of the follow-up period...
April 26, 2018: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
Tessa van Dijk, Frank Baas, Peter G Barth, Bwee Tien Poll-The
BACKGROUND: Pontocerebellar hypoplasia (PCH) describes a rare, heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders mainly with a prenatal onset. Patients have severe hypoplasia or atrophy of cerebellum and pons, with variable involvement of supratentorial structures, motor and cognitive impairments. Based on distinct clinical features and genetic causes, current classification comprises 11 types of PCH. MAIN TEXT: In this review we describe the clinical, neuroradiological and genetic characteristics of the different PCH subtypes, summarize the differential diagnosis and reflect on potential disease mechanisms in PCH...
June 15, 2018: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
James M McKim, Jamin A Willoughby, William R Blakemore, Myra L Weiner
Carrageenan (CGN) is a common food additive that has been widely used for decades as a gelling, thickening and stabilizing agent. Carrageenan has been proven safe for human consumption; however, there has been significant confusion in the literature between CGN and the products of intentional acid-hydrolysis of CGN, which are degraded CGN (d-CGN) and poligeenan (PGN). In part, this confusion was due to the nomenclature used in early studies on CGN, where poligeenan was referred to as "degraded carrageenan" (d-CGN) and "degraded carrageenan" was simply referred to as carrageenan...
June 14, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Sang Joon An, Mi Sook Seo, Soo Il Choi, Tae-Ha Lim, So Jin Shin, Keum Nae Kang, Young Uk Kim
One of the major causes of lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LSCS) has been considered facet joint hypertrophy (FJH). However, a previous study asserted that "FJH" is a misnomer because common facet joints are no smaller than degenerative facet joints; however, this hypothesis has not been effectively demonstrated. Therefore, in order to verify that FJH is a misnomer in patients with LSCS, we devised new morphological parameters that we called facet joint thickness (FJT) and facet joint cross-sectional area (FJA)...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Karen L Talia, Richard Wing-Cheuk Wong, W Glenn McCluggage
The incidence of cervical adenocarcinoma, both absolute and relative to squamous cell carcinoma, is increasing. Most cervical adenocarcinomas are human papillomavirus associated, although non-human papillomavirus-associated neoplasms exist; the latter include gastric-type adenocarcinoma (GAS) and clear cell carcinoma (CCC). Histologically, these 2 tumors may superficially resemble one other and although morphologic evaluation usually permits a correct diagnosis, immunohistochemistry may be required to resolve diagnostic uncertainty, especially in a small biopsy specimen...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Gynecological Pathology
Silja Samerski
This article examines how digital epidemiology and eHealth coalesce into a powerful health surveillance system that fundamentally changes present notions of body and health. In the age of Big Data and Quantified Self, the conceptual and practical distinctions between individual and population body, personal and public health, surveillance and health care are diminishing. Expanding on Armstrong's concept of "surveillance medicine" to "quantified self medicine" and drawing on my own research on the symbolic power of statistical constructs in medical encounters, this article explores the impact of digital health surveillance on people's perceptions, actions and subjectivities...
June 14, 2018: Life Sciences, Society and Policy
E J Yates, L C Yates, H Harvey
AIM: To develop a machine learning-based model for the binary classification of chest radiography abnormalities, to serve as a retrospective tool in guiding clinician reporting prioritisation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The open-source machine learning library, Tensorflow, was used to retrain a final layer of the deep convolutional neural network, Inception, to perform binary normality classification on two, anonymised, public image datasets. Re-training was performed on 47,644 images using commodity hardware, with validation testing on 5,505 previously unseen radiographs...
June 10, 2018: Clinical Radiology
Constantino Ledesma-Montes, María Dolores Jiménez-Farfán, Juan Carlos Hernández-Guerrero
INTRODUCTION: Giant Osteosclerotic Lesions (GOLs) are a group of rarely reported intraosseous lesions. Their precise diagnosis is important since they can be confused with malignant neoplasms. OBJECTIVE: This retrospective study aimed to record and analyze the clinical and radiographic Giant Osteosclerotic Lesions (GOLs) detected in the maxillomandibular area of patients attending to our institution. Materials and Methods: Informed consent from the patients was obtained and those cases of 2...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Applied Oral Science: Revista FOB
Jonathan P Chan, Grace Boyd, Patrick A Quinn, Matthew J Ridd
OBJECTIVE: To identify and compare emollient formularies across all clinical commissioning groups (CCGs) and local health boards (LHBs) in England and Wales. DESIGN: Formularies were retrieved via CCG/LHB websites or Google search (October 2016-February 2017). Data on structure and content were extracted, and descriptive analyses were undertaken. SETTING: 209 English CCGs and 7 Welsh LHBs. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number and structure of formularies; number, type and name of emollients and bath additive recommendedandnot recommended; and any rationale given...
June 12, 2018: BMJ Open
Michael Nirenberg, Wesley Vernon, Ivan Birch
The use of gait analysis is a well-established facet of practice for many professions and a fundamental aspect of clinical practice. In recent times, gait analysis evidence has emerged as a new area of forensic practice. As its use has continued to spread and develop, the area of work has come under close scrutiny and subsequent criticism. The purpose of this paper is to examine the historical use of gait analysis evidence and consider the criticisms of this work. Through the use of the historical records of cases within the public domain it has been determined that gait analysis as evidence was first presented in court over 175 years ago, although it has only been utilized by experts in more recent times...
July 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
Juliette Ferry-Danini
In some quarters within philosophy of medicine, more particularly in the phenomenological approaches, naturalism is looked upon with suspicion. This paper argues, first, that it is necessary to distinguish between two expressions of this attitude towards naturalism: phenomenological approaches to illness disagree with naturalism regarding various theoretical claims and they disapprove of naturalism on an ethical level. Second, this paper argues that both the disagreement with and the disapproval of naturalism are to a large extent confused...
June 9, 2018: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
Marc A Morgan, Ali Shilatifard
In this issue of Cancer Cell, McBride and colleagues report that the synovial sarcoma SS18-SSX fusion drives BAF complex recruitment to bivalent domains repressed by PRC2 complex to orchestrate aberrant transcriptional activation. Redistribution of BAF localization is a major driver of synovial sarcoma proliferation and presents a promising therapeutic target.
June 11, 2018: Cancer Cell
Diane C McLaughlin, Tonja M Hartjes, William D Freeman
OBJECTIVE: Hourly neurological examinations are frequently performed in the neurointensive care unit (NICU) to quickly detect neurological deterioration. These examinations require the patient to be awakened hourly for days disrupting the sleep cycle and potentially causing neurological deterioration through sleep deprivation and the development of delirium. This pilot study's aim was to describe the prevalence of neurologic deterioration and delirium in patients receiving hourly neuro checks...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Nursing: Journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses
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