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Pei Ma, Haitao Wang, Lu Han, Wei Jing, Xin Zhou, Zhisu Liu
Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) as a novel molecular species may have significant and comprehensive influences on the development and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We recently characterized snoRNA transcriptome signatures in HCC tissues by small RNA sequencing and found that small nucleolar RNA 78 (SNORD78) was associated with HCC. However, little is known about the pathological role of SNORD78 in HCC patients. This study aimed to profile SNORD78 expression signature and then to explore the pathogenesis of SNORD78 in HCC...
October 21, 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Wannapa Sornjai, Pathrapol Lithanatudom, Jenny Erales, Philippe Joly, Alain Francina, Sabine Hacot, Suthat Fucharoen, Saovaros Svasti, Jean Jacques Diaz, Hichem C Mertani, Duncan R Smith
Ribosome biogenesis is the process of synthesis of the cellular ribosomes which mediate protein translation. Integral with the ribosomes are four cytoplasmic ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) which show extensive post-transcriptional modifications including 2'-O-methylation and pseudouridylation. Several hereditary hematologic diseases including Diamond-Blackfan anemia have been shown to be associated with defects in ribosome biogenesis. Thalassemia is the most important hematologic inherited genetic disease worldwide, and this study examined the post-transcriptional ribose methylation status of three specific active sites of the 28S rRNA molecule at positions 1858, 4197 and 4506 of β-thalassemia trait carriers and normal controls...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Agnieszka Rybarczyk, Paulina Jackowiak, Marek Figlerowicz, Jacek Blazewicz
Since the beginning of the 21st century, an increasing interest in the research of ribonucleic acids has been observed in response to a surprising discovery of the role that RNA molecules play in the biological systems. It was demonstrated that they do not only take part in the protein synthesis (mRNA, rRNA, tRNA) but also are involved in the regulation of gene expression. Several classes of small regulatory RNAs have been discovered (e.g. microRNA, small interfering RNA, piwiRNA). Most of them are excised from specific double-stranded RNA precursors by enzymes that belong to the RNaseIII family (Drosha, Dicer or Dicer-like proteins)...
October 19, 2016: Acta Biochimica Polonica
Caterina Catalanotto, Carlo Cogoni, Giuseppe Zardo
The finding that small non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are able to control gene expression in a sequence specific manner has had a massive impact on biology. Recent improvements in high throughput sequencing and computational prediction methods have allowed the discovery and classification of several types of ncRNAs. Based on their precursor structures, biogenesis pathways and modes of action, ncRNAs are classified as small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), microRNAs (miRNAs), PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), endogenous small interfering RNAs (endo-siRNAs or esiRNAs), promoter associate RNAs (pRNAs), small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) and sno-derived RNAs...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Grigory A Stepanov, Julia A Filippova, Anna A Nushtaeva, Elena V Kuligina, Olga A Koval, Vladimir A Richter, Dmitriy V Semenov
Fragments of small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) were found among various non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) circulating in human blood. Currently, the function of such cell-free sno-derived-RNAs is not clearly defined. This work is aimed at identifying regulatory pathways controlled by extracellular snoRNAs. In order to determine the molecular targets and pathways affected by artificial snoRNAs, we performed Illumina array analysis of MCF-7 human adenocarcinoma cells transfected with box C/D RNAs. The genes related to the innate immune response and apoptotic cascades were found to be activated in transfected cells compared with control cells...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Madalena M Reimão-Pinto, Raphael A Manzenreither, Thomas R Burkard, Pawel Sledz, Martin Jinek, Karl Mechtler, Stefan L Ameres
The posttranscriptional addition of nucleotides to the 3' end of RNA regulates the maturation, function, and stability of RNA species in all domains of life. Here, we show that in flies, 3' terminal RNA uridylation triggers the processive, 3'-to-5' exoribonucleolytic decay via the RNase II/R enzyme CG16940, a homolog of the human Perlman syndrome exoribonuclease Dis3l2. Together with the TUTase Tailor, dmDis3l2 forms the cytoplasmic, terminal RNA uridylation-mediated processing (TRUMP) complex that functionally cooperates in the degradation of structured RNA RNA immunoprecipitation and high-throughput sequencing reveals a variety of TRUMP complex substrates, including abundant non-coding RNA, such as 5S rRNA, tRNA, snRNA, snoRNA, and the essential RNase MRP Based on genetic and biochemical evidence, we propose a key function of the TRUMP complex in the cytoplasmic quality control of RNA polymerase III transcripts...
October 11, 2016: EMBO Journal
Séverine Massenet, Edouard Bertrand, Céline Verheggen
Box C/D and box H/ACA snoRNAs are abundant non-coding RNAs that localize in the nucleolus and mostly function as guides for nucleotide modifications. While a large pool of snoRNAs modifies ribosomal RNAs, an increasing number of snoRNAs could also potentially target mRNAs. ScaRNAs belong to a family of specific RNAs that localize in Cajal bodies and that are structurally similar to snoRNAs. Most scaRNAs are involved in snRNA modification, while telomerase RNA, which contains H/ACA motifs, functions in telomeric DNA synthesis...
October 7, 2016: RNA Biology
Pan Zhu, Yuqiu Wang, Nanxun Qin, Feng Wang, Jia Wang, Xing Wang Deng, Danmeng Zhu
Ribosome production in eukaryotes requires the complex and precise coordination of several hundred assembly factors, including many small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs). However, at present, the distinct role of key snoRNAs in ribosome biogenesis remains poorly understood in higher plants. Here we report that a previously uncharacterized C (RUGAUGA)/D (CUGA) type snoRNA, HIDDEN TREASURE 2 (HID2), acts as an important regulator of ribosome biogenesis through a snoRNA-rRNA interaction. Nucleolus-localized HID2 is actively expressed in Arabidopsis proliferative tissues, whereas defects in HID2 cause a series of developmental defects reminiscent of ribosomal protein mutants...
October 5, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jibin Qu, Mengran Zhao, Tom Hsiang, Xiaoxing Feng, Jinxia Zhang, Chenyang Huang
Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) have been identified in many fungi. However, no genome-scale identification of ncRNAs has been inventoried for basidiomycetes. In this research, we detected 254 small noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs) in a genome assembly of an isolate (CCEF00389) of Pleurotus ostreatus, which is a widely cultivated edible basidiomycetous fungus worldwide. The identified sncRNAs include snRNAs, snoRNAs, tRNAs, and miRNAs. SnRNA U1 was not found in CCEF00389 genome assembly and some other basidiomycetous genomes by BLASTn...
2016: BioMed Research International
Lei Chang, Yufeng Yuan, Cuicui Li, Tao Guo, Haolong Qi, Yusha Xiao, Xu Dong, Zhisu Liu, Quanyan Liu
Emerging evidence suggests that small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) and their host genes (SNHGs) have malfunctioning roles in the development of human cancers. We globally investigated the molecular mechanisms by which snoRNA host gene 6 (SNHG6) promotes hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression using human tissues and cell lines. We found that SNHG6 is overexpressed in HCC tissues and in hepatoma cell lines and is closely associated with histologic grade, hepatitis B virus DNA, Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage and portal vein tumor thrombus in patients with HCC...
October 1, 2016: Cancer Letters
Stephan M Feller, Marc Lewitzky
Non-protein coding RNAs in different flavors (miRNAs, piRNAs, snoRNAs, lncRNAs, SHOT-RNAs), exosomes, large oncosomes, exoDNA and now tumor-educated platelets (TEPs) have emerged as crucial signal transmitting, transporting and regulating devices of cells in the last two decades. They are also establishing themselves increasingly in the realm of tumor research. We are currently witnessing a mushrooming of candidate entities for diagnostic and prognostic cancer detection and characterization tests that could have a major impact on how this diverse group of diseases is initially spotted and subsequently treated in the near future...
September 27, 2016: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
Maaz Hassan, Merlin G Butler
We report a 20 year follow up on a Caucasian female, now 26 years of age, with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) harboring an atypical 15q11-q13 submicroscopic deletion of 100-200 kb in size first detected in 1996 involving the imprinting center, SNRPN gene and surrounding region. PWS is a rare complex disorder caused by the loss of paternally expressed genes in the 15q11-q13 region. With high resolution chromosomal microarray and methylation - specific MLPA analysis, we updated the genetic findings on our patient and found a 209,819bp deletion including the SNURF-SNRPN gene complex which includes the imprinting center and the SNORD116 region...
September 19, 2016: European Journal of Medical Genetics
Robert Willem van Nues, Nicholas James Watkins
Eukaryotic box C/D small nucleolar (sno)RNPs catalyse the site-specific 2'-O-methylation of ribosomal RNA. The RNA component (snoRNA) contains guide regions that base-pair with the target site to select the single nucleotide to be modified. The terminal C/D and internal C'/D' motifs in the snoRNA, adjacent to the guide region, function as binding sites for the snoRNP proteins including the enzymatic subunit fibrillarin/Nop1. Four yeast snoRNAs are unusual in that they are predicted to methylate two nucleotides in a single target region...
September 19, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Dmytro Ustianenko, Josef Pasulka, Zuzana Feketova, Lukas Bednarik, Dagmar Zigackova, Andrea Fortova, Mihaela Zavolan, Stepanka Vanacova
Uridylation of various cellular RNA species at the 3' end has been generally linked to RNA degradation. In mammals, uridylated pre-let-7 miRNAs and mRNAs are targeted by the 3' to 5' exoribonuclease DIS3L2. Mutations in DIS3L2 have been associated with Perlman syndrome and with Wilms tumor susceptibility. Using in vivo cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (CLIP) method, we discovered the DIS3L2-dependent cytoplasmic uridylome of human cells. We found a broad spectrum of uridylated RNAs including rRNAs, snRNAs, snoRNAs, tRNAs, vault, 7SL, Y RNAs, mRNAs, lncRNAs, and transcripts from pseudogenes...
September 19, 2016: EMBO Journal
Preethi Krishnan, Sunita Ghosh, Bo Wang, Mieke Heyns, Kathryn Graham, John R Mackey, Olga Kovalchuk, Sambasivarao Damaraju
One of the most abundant, yet least explored, classes of RNA is the small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs), which are well known for their involvement in post-transcriptional modifications of other RNAs. Although snoRNAs were only considered to perform housekeeping functions for a long time, recent studies have highlighted their importance as regulators of gene expression and as diagnostic/prognostic markers. However, the prognostic potential of these RNAs has not been interrogated for breast cancer (BC). The objective of the current study was to identify snoRNAs as prognostic markers for BC...
2016: PloS One
Danny Incarnato, Francesca Anselmi, Edoardo Morandi, Francesco Neri, Mara Maldotti, Stefania Rapelli, Caterina Parlato, Giulia Basile, Salvatore Oliviero
Functional characterization of the transcriptome requires tools for the systematic investigation of RNA post-transcriptional modifications. 2'-O-methylation (2'-OMe) of the ribose moiety is one of the most abundant post-transcriptional modifications of RNA, although its systematic analysis is difficult due to the lack of reliable high-throughput mapping methods. We describe here a novel high-throughput approach, named 2OMe-seq, that enables fast and accurate mapping at single-base resolution, and relative quantitation, of 2'-OMe modified residues...
September 9, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Kamilla Bąkowska-Żywicka, Marta Kasprzyk, Tomasz Twardowski
Recently, a number of ribosome-associated non-coding RNAs (rancRNAs) have been discovered in all three domains of life. In our previous studies, we have described several types of rancRNAs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, derived from many cellular RNAs, including mRNAs, rRNAs, tRNAs and snoRNAs. Here, we present the evidence that the tRNA fragments from simple eukaryotic organism S. cerevisiae directly bind to the ribosomes. Interestingly, rancRNA-tRFs in yeast are derived from both, 5'- and 3'-part of the tRNAs and both types of tRFs associate with the ribosomes in vitro The location of tRFs within the ribosomes is distinct from classical A- and P-tRNA binding sites...
September 2016: FEMS Yeast Research
Cristian A Velandia-Huerto, Adriaan A Gittenberger, Federico D Brown, Peter F Stadler, Clara I Bermúdez-Santana
BACKGROUND: The colonial ascidian Didemnum vexillum, sea carpet squirt, is not only a key marine organism to study morphological ancestral patterns of chordates evolution but it is also of great ecological importance due to its status as a major invasive species. Non-coding RNAs, in particular microRNAs (miRNAs), are important regulatory genes that impact development and environmental adaptation. Beyond miRNAs, not much in known about tunicate ncRNAs. RESULTS: We provide here a comprehensive homology-based annotation of non-coding RNAs in the recently sequenced genome of D...
2016: BMC Genomics
Yan Zhang, Chen Xu, Daolan Gu, Minjuan Wu, Binghao Yan, Zhenyu Xu, Yue Wang, Houqi Liu
Human umbilical cord blood derived mesenchymal stem cells (uMSC) are pluripotent cells that have been now considered as a promising candidate for various cell-based therapies. However, their limited in vitro proliferation ability and the gradual loss of pluripotency set barricades for further usages. Emerging evidence suggests that small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNA) are actively involved in cell proliferation especially in tumor cells, but their roles in stem cells are largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that H/ACA box small nucleolar RNA 7A (SNORA7A) is inversely correlated to the decreased proliferation rate during in vitro passaging of uMSC...
August 30, 2016: Stem Cells
Emma M Jenkinson, Mathieu P Rodero, Paul R Kasher, Carolina Uggenti, Anthony Oojageer, Laurence C Goosey, Yoann Rose, Christopher J Kershaw, Jill E Urquhart, Simon G Williams, Sanjeev S Bhaskar, James O'Sullivan, Gabriela M Baerlocher, Monika Haubitz, Geraldine Aubert, Kristin W Barañano, Angela J Barnicoat, Roberta Battini, Andrea Berger, Edward M Blair, Janice E Brunstrom-Hernandez, Johannes A Buckard, David M Cassiman, Rosaline Caumes, Duccio M Cordelli, Liesbeth M De Waele, Alexander J Fay, Patrick Ferreira, Nicholas A Fletcher, Alan E Fryer, Himanshu Goel, Cheryl A Hemingway, Marco Henneke, Imelda Hughes, Rosalind J Jefferson, Ram Kumar, Lieven Lagae, Pierre G Landrieu, Charles M Lourenço, Timothy J Malpas, Sarju G Mehta, Imke Metz, Sakkubai Naidu, Katrin Õunap, Axel Panzer, Prab Prabhakar, Gerardine Quaghebeur, Raphael Schiffmann, Elliott H Sherr, Kanaga R Sinnathuray, Calvin Soh, Helen S Stewart, John Stone, Hilde Van Esch, Christine E G Van Mol, Adeline Vanderver, Emma L Wakeling, Andrea Whitney, Graham D Pavitt, Sam Griffiths-Jones, Gillian I Rice, Patrick Revy, Marjo S van der Knaap, John H Livingston, Raymond T O'Keefe, Yanick J Crow
Although ribosomes are ubiquitous and essential for life, recent data indicate that monogenic causes of ribosomal dysfunction can confer a remarkable degree of specificity in terms of human disease phenotype. Box C/D small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) are evolutionarily conserved non-protein-coding RNAs involved in ribosome biogenesis. Here we show that biallelic mutations in the gene SNORD118, encoding the box C/D snoRNA U8, cause the cerebral microangiopathy leukoencephalopathy with calcifications and cysts (LCC), presenting at any age from early childhood to late adulthood...
October 2016: Nature Genetics
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