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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088915/evaluation-of-microrna-stability-in-plasma-and-serum-from-healthy-dogs
#1
Lars Enelund, Lise Nikolic Nielsen, Susanna Cirera
BACKGROUND: Early and specific detection of cancer is of great importance for successful treatment of the disease. New biomarkers, like microRNAs, could improve treatment efficiency and survival ratio. In human medicine, deregulation of microRNA profiles in circulation has shown great potential as a new type of biomarker for cancer diagnostics. There are, however, few studies of circulating microRNAs in dogs. Extracellular circulating microRNAs have shown a high level of stability in human blood and other body fluids...
January 13, 2017: MicroRNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081183/circulating-cell-free-dna-in-dogs-with-mammary-tumors-short-and-long-fragments-and-integrity-index
#2
Giorgia Beffagna, Alessandro Sammarco, Chiara Bedin, Chiara Romualdi, Marta Mainenti, Antonio Mollo, Laura Cavicchioli, Silvia Ferro, Davide Trez, Raffaella De Maria, Donato Nitti, Andrea Saccani, Michelangelo Campanella, Marco Agostini, Valentina Zappulli
Circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) has been considered an interesting diagnostic/prognostic plasma biomarker in tumor-bearing subjects. In cancer patients, cfDNA can hypothetically derive from tumor necrosis/apoptosis, lysed circulating cells, and some yet unrevealed mechanisms of active release. This study aimed to preliminarily analyze cfDNA in dogs with canine mammary tumors (CMTs). Forty-four neoplastic, 17 non-neoplastic disease-bearing, and 15 healthy dogs were recruited. Necrosis and apoptosis were also assessed as potential source of cfDNA on 78 CMTs diagnosed from the 44 dogs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068294/canine-olfaction-as-an-alternative-to-analytical-instruments-for-disease-diagnosis-understanding-dog-personality-to-achieve-reproducible-results
#3
Klaus Hackner, Joachim Pleil
Recent literature has touted the use of canine olfaction as a diagnostic tool for identifying pre-clinical disease status, especially cancer and infection from biological media samples. Studies have shown a wide range of outcomes, ranging from almost perfect discrimination, all the way to essentially random results. This disparity is not likely to be a detection issue; dogs have been shown to have extremely sensitive noses as proven by their use for tracking, bomb detection and search and rescue. However, in contrast to analytical instruments, dogs are subject to boredom, fatigue, hunger and external distractions...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058543/genomic-profiling-of-canine-mast-cell-tumors-identifies-dna-copy-number-aberrations-associated-with-kit-mutations-and-high-histological-grade
#4
Hiroyuki Mochizuki, Rachael Thomas, Scott Moroff, Matthew Breen
Mast cell tumor (MCT) is the most common skin malignancy of domestic dogs and presents with a widely variable clinical behavior. Although activating KIT mutations are present in approximately 20% of canine MCTs, molecular etiology is largely unknown for the majority of this cancer. Characterization of genomic alterations in canine MCTs may identify genomic regions and/or genes responsible for their development and progression, facilitating the discovery of new therapeutic targets and improved clinical management of this heterogeneous cancer...
January 5, 2017: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048581/su-c-204-06-monte-carlo-dose-calculation-for-kilovoltage-x-ray-psoralen-activated-cancer-therapy-x-pact-preliminary-results
#5
S Mein, R Gunasingha, M Nolan, M Oldham, J Adamson
PURPOSE: X-PACT is an experimental cancer therapy where kV x-rays are used to photo-activate anti-cancer therapeutics through phosphor intermediaries (phosphors that absorb x-rays and re-radiate as UV light). Clinical trials in pet dogs are currently underway (NC State College of Veterinary Medicine) and an essential component is the ability to model the kV dose in these dogs. Here we report the commissioning and characterization of a Monte Carlo (MC) treatment planning simulation tool to calculate X-PACT radiation doses in canine trials...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042155/evaluation-of-toxicity-of-a-chronic-alternate-day-metronomic-cyclophosphamide-chemotherapy-protocol-in-dogs-with-naturally-occurring-cancer
#6
Arata Matsuyama, J Paul Woods, Anthony J Mutsaers
Sterile hemorrhagic cystitis (SHC) is an important complication of cyclophosphamide chemotherapy in dogs as it is reported in up to 23% of cases with various protocols. The current study reports toxicities of a protocol of metronomic cyclophosphamide, and identifies risk factors for development of adverse effects. A retrospective cohort study of dogs treated with metronomic cyclophosphamide at an intended dose of 25 mg/m(2) every other day was conducted. Fifty dogs were included with a median length of treatment of 90 days (range: 1 to 1305 days)...
January 2017: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028827/novel-application-for-electrochemotherapy-immersion-of-nasal-cavity-in-dog
#7
Daniela O H Suzuki, José A Berkenbrock, Krishna D de Oliveira, Jennifer O Freytag, Marcelo M M Rangel
Electrochemotherapy is a new modality of local cancer treatment that increases the delivery of chemotherapy drugs into tumor cells by applying intense electric fields. This novel electrochemotherapy application was applied as an adjuvant to surgery and eliminated intranasal tumors in dog. The treatment challenges are the surgery limitations due to anatomy and residual tumor in the bone cavity. Most of the tumoral mass on nasal cavity was surgically removed. The internal nasal cavity was immersed in liquid and bleomycin before applying electric field...
December 27, 2016: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018960/neighbourhood-greenspace-is-associated-with-a-slower-decline-in-physical-activity-in-older-adults-a-prospective-cohort-study
#8
Alice M Dalton, Nick Wareham, Simon Griffin, Andrew P Jones
Maintaining physical activity in later life is important for maintaining health and function. Activity outdoors, such as walking, jogging and cycling, may provide an accessible, sociable and practical solution, but maintaining outdoor mobility may be a challenge in later life. Providing green environments which are supportive of physical activity may facilitate this, yet research into how greenspace could be best used is inconclusive. This study evaluates the role of greenspace in protecting against decline in physical activity over time in older adults...
December 2016: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013349/pharmacology-and-toxicology-of-the-novel-investigational-agent-cantrixil-trx-e-002-1
#9
REVIEW
Muhammad Wasif Saif, Andrew Heaton, Kimberley Lilischkis, James Garner, David M Brown
PURPOSE: Recurrent, chemo-resistant ovarian cancer is thought to be due to a subgroup of slow-growing, drug-resistant cancer cells with stem-like properties and a high capacity for tumour repair. Cantrixil targets this sub-population of cells and is being developed as an intraperitoneal therapy to be used as first-line therapy in combination with carboplatin for epithelial ovarian cancer. The studies presented here justify further development. METHODS: A GLP dog CV study using a 4 × 4 Latin Square Crossover study was conducted using telemetric ECG recordings from dogs post IP administration to assess for cardiac abnormalities...
December 24, 2016: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009075/assessment-of-sentinel-lymph-node-metastasis-in-canine-mammary-gland-tumors-using-computed-tomographic-indirect-lymphography
#10
Christina Soultani, Michail N Patsikas, Maria Karayannopoulou, Samuel Jakovljevic, Ioannis Chryssogonidis, Lysimachos Papazoglou, Nikolaos Papaioannou, Paraskevi Papadopoulou, Kyriaki Pavlidou, Georgia M Ilia, Dimitrios G Kaitzis, Tatiana M Ilia
In the staging process of the breast cancer, demonstrating metastasis of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) has an important prognostic value, in both humans and animals. The aim of this prospective case-control study was to determine the diagnostic value of computed tomographic indirect lymphography (CT-LG) for detecting SLN metastasis in dogs with mammary cancer. Thirty-three female dogs with tumors in the abdominal and inguinal mammary glands were prospectively selected and subjected to CT-LG, 1 and 5 min after injection of 1 ml of contrast agent (iopamidol) in the subareolar tissue of the neoplastic and the contralateral normal mammary glands...
December 23, 2016: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993142/identification-and-characterization-of-cancer-stem-cells-in-canine-mammary-tumors
#11
REVIEW
Agata Rybicka, Magdalena Król
Cancer stem cells (CSC) represent a small subpopulation of cells in malignant tumors that possess the unique ability to self-renew, differentiate and resist chemo- and radiotherapy. These cells have been postulated to be the basis for some of the difficulties in treating cancer, and therefore, numerous approaches have been developed to specifically target and eliminate CSC in diverse types of cancer, including breast cancer. Spontaneously occurring mammary tumors in canines share clinical and molecular similarities with the human counterpart, making the dog a potentially powerful model for the study of human breast cancer and clinical trials...
December 19, 2016: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992363/germ-cell-specific-sustained-activation-of-wnt-signalling-perturbs-spermatogenesis-in-aged-mice-possibly-through-non-coding-rnas
#12
Manish Kumar, Joshua Atkins, Murray Cairns, Ayesha Ali, Pradeep S Tanwar
Dysregulated Wnt signalling is associated with human infertility and testicular cancer. However, the role of Wnt signalling in male germ cells remains poorly understood. In this study, we first confirmed the activity of Wnt signalling in mouse, dog and human testes. To determine the physiological importance of the Wnt pathway, we developed a mouse model with germ cell-specific constitutive activation of βcatenin. In young mutants, similar to controls, germ cell development was normal. However, with age, mutant testes showed defective spermatogenesis, progressive germ cell loss, and flawed meiotic entry of spermatogonial cells...
December 15, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925097/assisted-therapy-with-dogs-in-pediatric-oncology-relatives-and-nurses-perceptions
#13
Rebeca Lima Moreira, Fabiane do Amaral Gubert, Leidiane Minervina Moraes de Sabino, Jéssica Lima Benevides, Marcela Ariadne Braga Gomes Tomé, Mariana Cavalcante Martins, Mychelangela de Assis Brito
Objective: to understand the perception of nursing staff professionals and legal guardians of children and adolescents with cancer regarding Assisted Therapy with dogs. Method: qualitative study based on participant observation conducted with 16 participants in a reference hospital of child cancer. We applied an in-depth interview and interpreted the data according to a content analysis technique. Results: the practice is admittedly beneficial to participants despite the fact they do not understand its true objectives and therapeutic applications...
November 2016: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912752/a-comparison-of-microrna-expression-profiles-from-splenic-hemangiosarcoma-splenic-nodular-hyperplasia-and-normal-spleens-of-dogs
#14
Janet A Grimes, Nripesh Prasad, Shawn Levy, Russell Cattley, Stephanie Lindley, Harry W Boothe, Ralph A Henderson, Bruce F Smith
BACKGROUND: Splenic masses are common in older dogs; yet diagnosis preceding splenectomy and histopathology remains elusive. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, non-coding RNAs that play a role in post-transcriptional regulation, and differential expression of miRNAs between normal and tumor tissue has been used to diagnose neoplastic diseases. The objective of this study was to determine differential expression of miRNAs by use of RNA-sequencing in canine spleens that were histologically confirmed as hemangiosarcoma, nodular hyperplasia, or normal...
December 3, 2016: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911942/persistent-morbillivirus-infection-leads-to-altered-cortactin-distribution-in-histiocytic-sarcoma-cells-with-decreased-cellular-migration-capacity
#15
Vanessa Maria Pfankuche, Mohamed Sayed-Ahmed, Vanessa Bono Contioso, Ingo Spitzbarth, Karl Rohn, Reiner Ulrich, Ulrich Deschl, Arno Kalkuhl, Wolfgang Baumgärtner, Christina Puff
Histiocytic sarcomas represent rare but fatal neoplasms in humans. Based on the absence of a commercially available human histiocytic sarcoma cell line the frequently affected dog displays a suitable translational model. Canine distemper virus, closely related to measles virus, is a highly promising candidate for oncolytic virotherapy. Therapeutic failures in patients are mostly associated with tumour invasion and metastasis often induced by misdirected cytoskeletal protein activities. Thus, the impact of persistent canine distemper virus infection on the cytoskeletal protein cortactin, which is frequently overexpressed in human cancers with poor prognosis, was investigated in vitro in a canine histiocytic sarcoma cell line (DH82)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906156/biomimetic-sniffing-improves-the-detection-performance-of-a-3d-printed-nose-of-a-dog-and-a-commercial-trace-vapor-detector
#16
Matthew E Staymates, William A MacCrehan, Jessica L Staymates, Roderick R Kunz, Thomas Mendum, Ta-Hsuan Ong, Geoffrey Geurtsen, Greg J Gillen, Brent A Craven
Unlike current chemical trace detection technology, dogs actively sniff to acquire an odor sample. Flow visualization experiments with an anatomically-similar 3D printed dog's nose revealed the external aerodynamics during canine sniffing, where ventral-laterally expired air jets entrain odorant-laden air toward the nose, thereby extending the "aerodynamic reach" for inspiration of otherwise inaccessible odors. Chemical sampling and detection experiments quantified two modes of operation with the artificial nose-active sniffing and continuous inspiration-and demonstrated an increase in odorant detection by a factor of up to 18 for active sniffing...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893789/characterization-of-the-canine-mhc-class-i-dla-88-50101-peptide-binding-motif-as-a-prerequisite-for-canine-t-cell-immunotherapy
#17
Sharon M Barth, Christian M Schreitmüller, Franziska Proehl, Kathrin Oehl, Leonie M Lumpp, Daniel J Kowalewski, Moreno Di Marco, Theo Sturm, Linus Backert, Heiko Schuster, Stefan Stevanović, Hans-Georg Rammensee, Oliver Planz
There are limitations in pre-clinical settings using mice as a basis for clinical development in humans. In cancer, similarities exist between humans and dogs; thus, the dog patient can be a link in the transition from laboratory research on mouse models to clinical trials in humans. Knowledge of the peptides presented on MHC molecules is fundamental for the development of highly specific T cell-based immunotherapies. This information is available for human MHC molecules but is absent for the canine MHC. In the present study, we characterized the binding motif of dog leukocyte antigen (DLA) class I allele DLA-88*50101, using human C1R and K562 transfected cells expressing the DLA-88*50101 heavy chain...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890405/platelets-inhibit-migration-of-canine-osteosarcoma-cells
#18
S C Bulla, P R Badial, R C Silva, K Lunsford, C Bulla
The interaction between platelets and tumour cells is important for tumour growth and metastasis. Thrombocytopenia or antiplatelet treatment negatively impact on cancer metastasis, demonstrating potentially important roles for platelets in tumour progression. To our knowledge, there is no information regarding the role of platelets in cancer progression in dogs. This study was designed to test whether canine platelets affected the migratory behaviour of three canine osteosarcoma cell lines and to give insights of molecular mechanisms...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886411/dog-ownership-and-physical-activity-among-breast-prostate-and-colorectal-cancer-survivors
#19
Cynthia C Forbes, Chris M Blanchard, W Kerry Mummery, Kerry S Courneya
BACKGROUND: Dog ownership has been associated with higher rates of physical activity (PA) in several populations but no study to date has focused on cancer survivors. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between dog ownership and PA among cancer survivors; and to examine correlates of dog ownership. METHODS: A stratified random sample of 2062 breast (BCS), prostate (PCS), and colorectal cancer survivors (CRCS) was mailed a questionnaire assessing PA, social-cognitive, dog ownership, demographic, and medical variables...
November 25, 2016: Psycho-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879443/skeletal-metastasis-of-canine-urothelial-carcinoma-pathologic-and-computed-tomographic-features
#20
V A Charney, M A Miller, H G Heng, H Y Weng, D W Knapp
Invasive urothelial (transitional cell) carcinoma (UC) is the most common cancer in the canine urinary tract. Prolonged survival of dogs with UC due to better management of the primary tumor and prevention of urethral obstruction might have contributed to an apparent increase in distant metastasis. Metastasis to bone is particularly concerning because the ensuing pain often leads to euthanasia; however, little is known of the frequency, site, or nature of UC skeletal metastasis. In a retrospective analysis, 17 (9%) of 188 canine UC cases had histologically confirmed skeletal metastasis, mainly to the vertebrae...
November 22, 2016: Veterinary Pathology
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