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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549201/cytogenetic-aspects-of-a-canine-breast-carcinosarcoma-a-case-report
#1
C S D Morais, P R A M Affonso, J A Bitencourt, A A Wenceslau
This study searched a rare and aggressive type of cancer in dogs and humans, the breast carcinosarcoma. Both clinical and pathological traits of mammary carcinosarcomas in dogs are similar to humans, such as infrequent occurrence, fast tumor growth, and unfavorable prognosis when compared to carcinomas. Other possible alterations include chromosomal abnormalities that can be useful for the identification of tumoral cells and diagnosis. The aim of this study was to compare the chromosomal features of peripheral lymphocytes and tumor cells in a mammary carcinosarcoma of a 14-year-old female Poodle...
May 25, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543945/indirect-computed-tomography-lymphangiography-with-aqueous-contrast-for-evaluation-of-sentinel-lymph-nodes-in-dogs-with-tumors-of-the-head
#2
Janet A Grimes, Scott A Secrest, Nicole C Northrup, Corey F Saba, Chad W Schmiedt
Sentinel lymph node evaluation is widely used in human medicine to evaluate the first lymph node(s) to which a tumor drains. Sentinel lymph node biopsy allows avoidance of extensive lymphadenectomies in cases where the sentinel lymph node is negative for metastasis, thereby reducing patient morbidity. It has been shown that regional lymph nodes are not always the sentinel lymph node, thus identification and sampling of sentinel lymph nodes allows for more accurate staging, which is critical for treatment and prognostication in dogs with cancer...
May 21, 2017: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540728/sulfonation-disposition-of-acacetin-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#3
Qisong Zhang, Lijun Zhu, Xia Gong, Yanjiao Ruan, Jia Yu, Huangyu Jiang, Ying Wang, Xiaoxiao Qi, Linlin Lu, Zhong Qiu Liu
Acacetin, an important component of acacia honey, exerts extensive therapeutic effects on many cancers. However, sulfonation disposition of acacetin has rarely been reported. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the sulfonation disposition of acacetin systematically. Results showed that acacetin-7-sulfate was the main metabolite mediated primarily by sulfotransferases (SULT) 1A1. Dog liver S9 presented the highest formation rate of acacetin-7-sulfate. Compared with that in wild-type Friend Virus B (FVB) mice, plasma exposure of acacetin-7-sulfate decreased significantly in multiple drug resistance protein 1 knockout (Mrp1-/-) mice, while increased evidently in breast cancer resistance protein knockout (Bcrp-/-) mice...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531107/analysis-of-gene-expression-signatures-in-cancer-associated-stroma-from-canine-mammary-tumours-reveals-molecular-homology-to-human-breast-carcinomas
#4
Julia Ettlin, Elena Clementi, Parisa Amini, Alexandra Malbon, Enni Markkanen
Cancer-associated stroma (CAS) plays a key role in cancer initiation and progression. Spontaneously occurring canine mammary carcinomas are viewed as excellent models of human breast carcinomas. Considering the importance of CAS for human cancer, it likely plays a central role in canine tumours as well. So far, however, canine CAS lacks characterisation, and it remains unclear whether the biology between CAS from canine and human tumours is comparable. In this proof-of-principle study, using laser-capture microdissection, we isolated CAS and normal stroma from 13 formalin-fixed paraffin embedded canine simple mammary carcinomas and analysed the expression of seven known human CAS markers by RT-qPCR (Reverse Transcription quantitative PCR) and validated some targets by immunohistochemistry...
May 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512868/metastasis-associated-microrna-expression-in-canine-uveal-melanoma
#5
M P Starkey, L Compston-Garnett, P Malho, K Dunn, R Dubielzig
BACKGROUND: Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary intraocular tumour in dogs. There is no effective means of predicting whether a tumour will metastasize. microRNA (miRNA) metastasis signatures have been identified for several human cancers, including UM. AIMS: In this study we investigated whether metastasizing and non-metastasizing canine UMs can be distinguished by miRNA expression levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS: miRNA microarray profiling was used to compare miRNA expression in 8 metastasizing and 12 non-metastasizing formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) primary UM biopsies...
May 17, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505386/c-d-box-snornas-form-methylating-and-non-methylating-ribonucleoprotein-complexes-old-dogs-show-new-tricks
#6
REVIEW
Marina Falaleeva, Justin R Welden, Marilyn J Duncan, Stefan Stamm
C/D box snoRNAs (SNORDs) are an abundantly expressed class of short, non-coding RNAs that have been long known to perform 2'-O-methylation of rRNAs. However, approximately half of human SNORDs have no predictable rRNA targets, and numerous SNORDs have been associated with diseases that show no defects in rRNAs, among them Prader-Willi syndrome, Duplication 15q syndrome and cancer. This apparent discrepancy has been addressed by recent studies showing that SNORDs can act to regulate pre-mRNA alternative splicing, mRNA abundance, activate enzymes, and be processed into shorter ncRNAs resembling miRNAs and piRNAs...
June 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505195/dose-escalation-study-to-evaluate-safety-tolerability-and-efficacy-of-intravenous-etoposide-phosphate-administration-in-27-dogs-with-multicentric-lymphoma
#7
Pierre Boyé, François Serres, Laurent Marescaux, Juliette Hordeaux, Emmanuel Bouchaert, Bruno Gomes, Dominique Tierny
Comparative oncology has shown that naturally occurring canine cancers are of valuable and translatable interest for the understanding of human cancer biology and the characterization of new therapies. This work was part of a comparative oncology project assessing a new, clinical-stage topoisomerase II inhibitor and comparing it with etoposide in dogs with spontaneous lymphoma with the objective to translate findings from dogs to humans. Etoposide is a topoisomerase II inhibitor widely used in various humans' solid and hematopoietic cancer, but little data is available concerning its potential antitumor efficacy in dogs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503759/evaluation-of-weight-change-during-carboplatin-therapy-in-dogs-with-appendicular-osteosarcoma
#8
A L Story, S E Boston, J J Kilkenny, A Singh, J P Woods, W T N Culp, K A Skorupski, X Lu
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of cancer cachexia in veterinary medicine has not been studied widely, and as of yet, no definitive diagnostic criteria effectively assess this syndrome in veterinary patients. OBJECTIVES: (1) To determine the patterns of weight change in dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma treated with amputation and single-agent carboplatin during the course of adjuvant chemotherapy; and (2) to determine whether postoperative weight change is a negative prognostic indicator for survival time in dogs with osteosarcoma...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496035/alleviating-effects-of-artificial-tear-instillation-on-s-1-induced-ocular-toxicity-in-dogs
#9
Shohei Kanie, Mitsuhiro Fujieda, Tomoaki Hitotsumachi, Satoshi Suzuki, Fumio Morita, Kazuo Hakoi, Hirofumi Yasui
S-1 is an anticancer agent that consists of tegafur, gimeracil, and oteracil potassium at a molar ratio of 1:0.4:1. S-1 is used to treat metastatic and resectable gastric cancer. However, the extensive use of S-1 in clinical practice results in watery eyes, a serious clinical problem, which worsens patients' quality of life. Although repeated instillation of artificial tears is recommended, therapy or prophylaxis against S-1-induced ocular toxicity has not been established. In the present study, we evaluated the alleviating effects of repeated artificial tear instillation on S-1-induced ocular toxicity in dogs...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487862/naturally-occurring-canine-invasive-urinary-bladder-cancer-a-complementary-animal-model-to-improve-the-success-rate-in-human-clinical-trials-of-new-cancer-drugs
#10
REVIEW
Christopher M Fulkerson, Deepika Dhawan, Timothy L Ratliff, Noah M Hahn, Deborah W Knapp
Genomic analyses are defining numerous new targets for cancer therapy. Therapies aimed at specific genetic and epigenetic targets in cancer cells as well as expanded development of immunotherapies are placing increased demands on animal models. Traditional experimental models do not possess the collective features (cancer heterogeneity, molecular complexity, invasion, metastasis, and immune cell response) critical to predict success or failure of emerging therapies in humans. There is growing evidence, however, that dogs with specific forms of naturally occurring cancer can serve as highly relevant animal models to complement traditional models...
2017: International Journal of Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480569/expression-and-targeting-of-transcription-factor-atf5-in-dog-gliomas
#11
D York, C D Sproul, N Chikere, P J Dickinson, J M Angelastro
BACKGROUND: Activating transcription factor 5 (ATF5) is a transcription factor that is highly expressed in undifferentiated neural progenitor/stem cells as well as a variety of human cancers including gliomas. AIMS: In this study, we examined the expression and localization of ATF5 protein in canine gliomas, and targeting of ATF5 function in canine glioma cell lines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Paraffin-embedded canine brain glioma tissue sections and western blots of tumours and glioma cells were immunoassayed with anti-ATF5 antibody...
May 8, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460795/obesity-and-associated-comorbidities-in-people-and-companion-animals-a-one-health-perspective
#12
REVIEW
M Chandler, S Cunningham, E M Lund, C Khanna, R Naramore, A Patel, M J Day
This article reviews the biology, prevalence and risks for obesity in people and companion dogs and cats, and explores the links between obesity and diabetes mellitus and cancer across these species. Obesity is a major healthcare problem in both human and veterinary medicine and there is an increasing prevalence of obesity in people and pets. In people and animals, obesity is a complex disorder involving diet, level of physical activity, behavioural factors, socioeconomic factors, environment exposures, genetics, metabolism and the microbiome...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451590/molecular-signaling-of-progesterone-growth-hormone-wnt-and-her-in-mammary-glands-of-dogs-rodents-and-humans-new-treatment-target-identification
#13
REVIEW
Elpetra P M Timmermans-Sprang, Ana Gracanin, Jan A Mol
Mammary tumors are the most common form of neoplasia in the bitch. Female dogs are protected when they are spayed before the first estrus cycle, but this effect readily disappears and is already absent when dogs are spayed after the second heat. As the ovaries are removed during spaying, ovarian steroids are assumed to play an essential role in tumor development. The sensitivity toward tumor development is already present during early life, which may be caused by early mutations in stem cells during the first estrus cycles...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449818/canine-mixed-mammary-tumour-as-a-model-for-human-breast-cancer-with-osseous-metaplasia
#14
E S Saad, K M Milley, A A Al-Khan, J S Nimmo, B Bacci, M Tayebi, M J Day, S J Richardson, J A Danks
Canine mixed mammary tumours (CMMTs) and human metaplastic breast carcinomas (HMBCs) share several histopathological features and risk factors. In both species, these tumours display epithelial and stromal components. HMBCs are rare malignant tumours, but CMMTs are one of the most common mammary tumours in dogs and are more often benign than malignant. In this study, benign (n = 88) and malignant (n = 13) CMMTs were characterized using specific antibodies against oestrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, cytokeratin 5/6, cytokeratin AE1/AE3, vimentin, Ki67, E-cadherin and p63...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423030/molecular-characterization-of-cryptosporidium-and-giardia-from-the-tasmanian-devil-sarcophilus-harrisii
#15
Liana F Wait, Samantha Fox, Sarah Peck, Michelle L Power
The Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) is a carnivorous marsupial found only in the wild in Tasmania, Australia. Tasmanian devils are classified as endangered and are currently threatened by devil facial tumour disease, a lethal transmissible cancer that has decimated the wild population in Tasmania. To prevent extinction of Tasmanian devils, conservation management was implemented in 2003 under the Save the Tasmanian Devil Program. This study aimed to assess if conservation management was altering the interactions between Tasmanian devils and their parasites...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419683/geographical-differences-in-survival-of-dogs-with-non-hodgkin-lymphoma-treated-with-a-chop-based-chemotherapy-protocol
#16
H Wilson-Robles, C M Budke, T Miller, N Dervisis, A Novosad, Z Wright, D H Thamm, K Vickery, K Burgess, M Childress, J Lori, C Saba, S Rau, M Silver, G Post, K Reeds, S Gillings, S Schleis, T Stein, B Brugmann, C DeRegis, O Smrkovski, J Lawrence, T Laver
BACKGROUND: In humans geographical differences in the incidence and presentation of various cancers have been reported. However, much of this information has not been collected in veterinary oncology. AIM: The purpose of this study was to determine if a geographic difference in progression free survival exists for dogs with lymphoma treated within the US. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medical records of 775 cases of canine lymphoma from 3 US regions (west, south and north), treated with CHOP chemotherapy, were retrospectively evaluated...
April 17, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418845/preclinical-development-of-g1t38-a-novel-potent-and-selective-inhibitor-of-cyclin-dependent-kinases-4-6-for-use-as-an-oral-antineoplastic-in-patients-with-cdk4-6-sensitive-tumors
#17
John E Bisi, Jessica A Sorrentino, Jamie L Jordan, David D Darr, Patrick J Roberts, Francis X Tavares, Jay C Strum
Inhibition of the p16INK4a/cyclin D/CDK4/6/RB pathway is an effective therapeutic strategy for the treatment of estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer. Although efficacious, current treatment regimens require a dosing holiday due to severe neutropenia potentially leading to an increased risk of infections, as well as tumor regrowth and emergence of drug resistance. Therefore, a next generation CDK4/6 inhibitor that can inhibit proliferation of CDK4/6-dependent tumors while minimizing neutropenia could reduce both the need for treatment holidays and the risk of inducing drug resistance...
March 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413049/evaluation-of-blood-t-lymphocyte-subpopulations-involved-in-host-cellular-immunity-in-dogs-with-mammary-cancer
#18
Maria Karayannopoulou, Tilemachos Anagnostou, Apostolia Margariti, Charalampos Kostakis, Maria Kritsepi-Konstantinou, Dimitra Psalla, Ioannis Savvas
Cancer-bearing patients are often immunosuppressed. In dogs with mammary or other cancers, various alterations in blood cell populations involved in host cellular immunity have been reported; among these cell populations some T-lymphocyte subsets play an important role against cancer. The purpose of the present study was to investigate any alterations in circulating T-lymphocyte subpopulations involved in cellular immunity in bitches with mammary cancer, in comparison to age-matched healthy intact bitches. Twenty eight dogs with mammary cancer and 14 control dogs were included in this study...
April 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402146/long-term-floating-control-released-intravesical-preparation-of-5-fluorouracil-for-the-local-treatment-of-bladder-cancer
#19
Li Hong Wang, Shang Lei, Shan Dong Yuan, Xin Che
In order to overcome the low compliance due to the frequent bladder perfusion of anti-cancer drugs in the treatment of bladder cancer, a long-term control-release of the anticancer drug in the bladder, the floating intravesical preparation was developed. 5-fluorouracil was used as model drug. The floating preparations were prepared by tableting (mini-tablets) and melting (mini-pellets) method. The proportion of 5-fluorouracil and glyceryl tristearate (GTS) was altered among formulations. Dissolution test, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to investigate the in vitro properties of the formulations...
April 12, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388548/safety-and-efficacy-of-p62-dna-vaccine-elenagen-in-a-first-in-human-trial-in-patients-with-advanced-solid-tumors
#20
Dmitry M Ponomarenko, Irina D Klimova, Yulia A Chapygina, Viktoria V Dvornichenko, Natalia V Zhukova, Rashida V Orlova, Georgy M Manikhas, Alexandr V Zyryanov, Lilya A Burkhanova, Irina I Badrtdinova, Basile N Oshchepkov, Elena V Filippova, Sergei V Orlov, Sergei I Kolesnikov, Albert A Sufianov, Svetlana R Baum, Olga Y Zaitzeva, Andrey B Komissarov, Mikhail P Grudinin, Oleg I Kiselev, Anatoly F Tsyb, Franco Venanzi, Vita Shcherbinina, Andrey Chursov, Vladimir L Gabai, Alexander M Shneider
Elenagen is a plasmid encoding p62/SQSTM1, the first DNA vaccine possessing two mutually complementing mechanisms of action: it elicits immune response against p62 and mitigates systemic chronic inflammation. Previously, Elenagen demonstrated anti-tumor efficacy and safety in rodent tumor models and spontaneous tumors in dogs. This multicenter I/IIa trial evaluated safety and clinical activity of Elenagen in patients with advanced solid tumors. Fifteen patients were treated with escalating doses of Elenagen (1- 5 mg per doses, 5 times weekly) and additional 12 patients received 1 mg dose...
March 25, 2017: Oncotarget
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