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dog cancer

Wenge Chen, Yunlong Cheng, Jianzhong Chen, Jiahang Chen, Kai Jiang, Yuyang Zhou, Lee Jia
Mifepristone (RU486) is developed originally as a contraceptive used by hundreds of millions of women world-wide, and also reported as a safe and long-term psychotic depressant, or as a cancer chemotherapeutic agent used by both sexes. In our preliminary study aimed at developing mifepristone as a cancer metastatic chemopreventive, we coincidentally observed that blood mifepristone concentrations in female rats seem to be higher than those in male ones post administration. To substantiate if the pharmacokinetic differences between sexes exist, we established a fast UPLC-MS/MS method to determine mifepristone concentrations in plasma, and analyzed blood concentrations of mifepristone over time in rats and dogs of both sexes...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Xóchitl Zambrano-Estrada, Brianda Landaverde-Quiroz, Andrés A Dueñas-Bocanegra, Marco A De Paz-Campos, Gerardo Hernández-Alberto, Benjamín Solorio-Perusquia, Manuel Trejo-Mandujano, Laura Pérez-Guerrero, Evangelina Delgado-González, Brenda Anguiano, Carmen Aceves
BACKGROUND: Mammary cancer has a high incidence in canines and is an excellent model of spontaneous carcinogenesis. Molecular iodine (I2 ) exerts antineoplastic effects on different cancer cells activating re-differentiation pathways. In co-administration with anthracyclines, I2 impairs chemoresistance installation and prevents the severity of side effects generated by these antineoplastic drugs. This study is a random and double-blind protocol that analyzes the impact of I2 (10 mg/day) in two administration schemes of Doxorubicin (DOX; 30 mg/m2) in 27 canine patients with cancer of the mammary gland...
March 12, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Priscila E Kobayashi, Carlos E Fonseca-Alves, Luis G Rivera-Calderón, Márcio Carvalho, Hellen Kuasne, Silvia R Rogatto, Renée Laufer-Amorim
Prostate cancer is a heterogeneous disease with high levels of clinical and gene heterogeneity, consequently offering several targets for therapy. Dogs with naturally occurring prostate cancer are useful models for molecular investigations and studying new treatment efficacy. Three genes and proteins associated with the WNT pathway (β-catenin, APC and E-cadherin) and Caveolin-1 (CAV-1) were evaluated in canine pre-neoplastic proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA), prostate cancer and metastatic disease. The APC gene methylation status was also investigated...
March 5, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Wasila Mansouri, Samuel B Fordyce, Matthew Wu, David Jones, Douglas Cohn, Qishan Lin, Paul Feustel, Tanuj Sharma, James A Bennett, Thomas T Andersen
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety profile of AFPep, a 9-amino acid cyclic peptide prior to its entry into pre-clinical toxicology analyses en route to clinical trials. METHODS: AFPep was assessed for anti-estrogenic activity in a mouse uterine growth assay and for breast cancer therapeutic efficacy in a human tumor xenograft model in mice. AFPep was assessed for tolerability in a variety of in vivo models, notably including assessment for effects on rat liver and human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines and xenografts...
March 5, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
T Maués, K B El-Jaick, F B Costa, G E F Araujo, M V G Soares, A S Moreira, M L G Ferreira, A M R Ferreira
The canine BRCA2 is a tumor supressor gene which encodes the BRCA2 protein, involved in DNA repair through interaction with the RAD51 recombinase. This process is mediated by eigth BRC repeats that are encoded by BRCA2 exon 11. Two variants corresponding to human mutations in human BRC3 repeat have been reported in canine BRC3 repeat. In addition, other variants have also been described in canine BRCA2 exon 11. Considering the importance of polymorphisms in human BRCA2 to breast cancer development, this study aimed to investigate the frequency of variants in BRCA2 exon 11 in 48 blood and tissue DNA samples from bitches with canine mammary tumors (CMT), as well as, to analyze tumor stage and histopathological features...
March 6, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
H Ballestero Fêo, L Montoya Flórez, R S Yamatogi, A Prado Duzanski, J P Araújo, R A Oliveira, N S Rocha
The canine transmissible venereal tumour (CTVT) is a transmissible cancer that is spread naturally between dogs, with the ability to develop and evade the immune system, despite strict immune surveillance of the host. Furthermore, molecular signalling between cells of the immune system and the tumour microenvironment appear to influence the behaviour and development of the tumour. Thus, this study aimed to quantify the expression of genes related to the immune system such as IL-6, IFN-γ, and TGF-β, as well as angiogenic factors (VEGF, CXCR4), in CTVT cells in vivo and in vitro (primary culture), correlating with the clinical response of the animals treated with vincristine...
March 5, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
B Ranganathan, M Milovancev, H Leeper, K L Townsend, S Bracha, K Curran
The objective of this prospective study was to evaluate agreement and reliability of calliper-based measurements of locally invasive subcutaneous malignant tumours in dogs. Four raters measured the longest diameter of 12 subcutaneous tumours (7 soft tissue sarcomas and 5 mast cell tumours) from 11 client-owned dogs during 3 randomized, blinded measurement trials, both pre- and post-sedation. Inter- and intra-rater reliability was evaluated using intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and agreement was evaluated using Bland-Altman plots...
March 1, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
Jane Dobson, Genilson Fernandes de Queiroz, Jon P Golding
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an evolving method of treating superficial tumours that is non-invasive and carries minimal risk of toxicity. It combines tumour-selective photosensitiser dyes, tissue oxygen and targeted illumination to generate cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) within the tumour. In addition to directly acting on tumour cells, PDT damages and restricts tumour microvasculature, and causes a local inflammatory response that stimulates an immune response against the tumour. Unlike surgery or radiotherapy, the surrounding extracellular matrix is unaffected by PDT; thus, tissue healing is excellent and PDT seldom causes scars...
March 2018: Veterinary Journal
Hannah M Stoveken, Scott D Larsen, Alan V Smrcka, Gregory G Tall
Adhesion G protein-coupled receptors (aGPCRs) have emerged as potential therapeutic targets in multiple cancers and in neurological diseases. However, there are few modulatory compounds that act on these receptors. The majority of aGPCRs are orphans and a general activation mechanism has only recently been defined: aGPCRs are activated by a tethered agonist. aGPCRs constitutively cleave themselves during biosynthesis to generated two-part receptors comprised of an extracellular domain (ECD) and a 7-transmembrane spanning domain (7TM)...
February 23, 2018: Molecular Pharmacology
Hans Klingemann
A number of excellent reviews on the potential of canine cancer immunotherapy are available, but many extrapolate from observations in humans when in fact only very few immunotherapies have been developed for canines that have shown efficacy in well-designed studies. Pharmaceutical and biotech companies are aware that the market for more expensive immunotherapies in canines is limited resulting in limited funding for clinical trials. However, dogs and other pets deserve access to this new form of cancer therapy...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Yongwei Li, Zhengfei Shan, Bin Yang, Diandong Yang, Changping Men, Yuanshan Cui, Jitao Wu
AIMS: Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs), a source of mesenchymal stem cells, are able to differentiate into numerous cell lineages, including epithelial and smooth muscle cells. The use of ADSCs in tissue engineering technology has become the most promising therapeutic approach for urethral reconstruction. This study aimed to explore the effect of lncRNA highly upregulated in liver cancer (HULC) on the induction of ADSCs to differentiate into epithelial and smooth-muscle-like cells. METHODS: ADSCs were isolated from a male dog, and the expression of HULC in ADSCs was overexpressed by transfection with HULC expressing vector lentivirus...
January 2, 2018: Die Pharmazie
(no author information available yet)
The Jackson Laboratory recently launched the Tallwood Canine Cancer Research Initiative, in which tumor samples from dogs will be collected to create patient-derived xenografts in mice. These models, and their accompanying genome sequences, can then be shared with researchers around the world. The initiative's goal is to learn more about the biology of human cancers through comparative genomic analyses.
February 13, 2018: Cancer Discovery
In-Seok Seo, Hwan-Gon Lee, Bonkon Koo, Chin Su Koh, Hae-Yong Park, Changkyun Im, Hyung-Cheul Shin
Although several studies have been performed to detect cancer using canine olfaction, none have investigated whether canine olfaction trained to the specific odor of one cancer is able to detect odor related to other unfamiliar cancers. To resolve this issue, we employed breast and colorectal cancer in vitro, and investigated whether trained dogs to odor related to metabolic waste from breast cancer are able to detect it from colorectal cancer, and vice versa. The culture liquid samples used in the cultivation of cancerous cells (4T1 and CT26) were employed as an experimental group...
2018: PloS One
Heiko S Schadt, Armin Wolf, Joerg Andreas Mahl, Kuno Wuersch, Philippe Couttet, Marianne Schwald, Audrey Fischer, Mathilde Lienard, Corinne Emotte, Chi-Hse Teng, Elizabeth Skuba, Terrilyn A Richardson, Luigi Manenti, Andreas Weiss, Diana Graus Porta, Robin A Fairhurst, Gerd A Kullak-Ublick, Salah-Dine Chibout, Francois Pognan, William Kluwe, Jacqueline Kinyamu-Akunda
The FGF19-FGFR4-βKlotho (KLB) pathway plays an important role in the regulation of bile acid (BA) homeostasis. Aberrant activation of this pathway has been described in the development and progression of a subset of liver cancers including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), establishing FGFR4 as an attractive therapeutic target for such solid tumors. FGF401 is a highly selective FGFR4 kinase inhibitor being developed for HCC, currently in Phase I/II clinical studies. In preclinical studies in mice and dogs, oral administration of FGF401 led to induction of Cyp7a1, elevation of its peripheral marker 7alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (C4), increased BA pool size, decreased serum cholesterol and diarrhea in dogs...
February 8, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
J Yamazaki, J Jelinek, S Hisamoto, A Tsukamoto, M Inaba
DNA methylation is the conversion of cytosine to 5-methylcytosine, leading to changes in the interactions between DNA and proteins. Methylation of cytosine-guanine (CpG) islands (CGIs) is associated with gene expression silencing of the involved promoter. Although studies focussing on global changes or a few single loci in DNA methylation have been performed in dogs with certain diseases, genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation is required to prospectively identify specific regions with DNA methylation change...
January 2018: Veterinary Journal
Takayuki Mineshige, Kikumi Ogihara, Junichi Kamiie, Go Sugahara, James Ken Chambers, Kazuyuki Uchida, Hiroo Madarame, Kinji Shirota
Canine squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) shows highly invasive and locally destructive growth. In animal models and human cancer cases, periostin plays a critical role in the enhancement of cancer growth; however, the mechanism of involvement in canine cancers remains unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the involvement of periostin in the pathophysiology of SCC in dogs. We examined the localization of periostin and periostin-producing cells in 20 SCC and three squamous papilloma specimens. Furthermore, we focused on transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, which was assumed to be an inducing factor of periostin, using culture cells...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Richard deShazo, McKenzie Johnson, Ike Eriator, Kathryn Rodenmeyer
Epidemics of opioid use are old news in the United States, but an epidemic that kills over 200,000 Americans is not. A multiplicity of intertwined factors have brought us to this place. From 30,000 feet, it is the story of good intentions gone bad, a drug industry gone rogue, and government watch dog agencies gone to sleep. At ground level, it is the story of physicians unfamiliar with addictive drugs and drug addiction, new long acting opioids deceptively marketed, cheap black tar heroin, encouragement to use opioids for chronic non-cancer pain by professional organizations with conflicts of interest and without science, a culture intolerant to pain and tolerant to drug use, and the greedy response of the pharmaceutical industry and drug cartels to an expanding market opportunity...
January 31, 2018: American Journal of Medicine
Michael S Kent, Jenna H Burton, Gillian Dank, Danika L Bannasch, Robert B Rebhun
Golden retriever dogs have been reported to have an increased prevalence of cancer compared to other breeds. There is also controversy over the effect spay or neuter status might have on longevity and the risk for developing cancer. The electronic medical records system at an academic center was searched for all dogs who had a necropsy exam from 1989-2016. 9,677 canine necropsy examinations were completed of which 655 were golden retrievers. Age was known for 652 with a median age of death 9.15 years. 424 of the 652 (65...
2018: PloS One
Matthew R Sapio, John K Neubert, Danielle M LaPaglia, Dragan Maric, Jason M Keller, Stephen J Raithel, Eric L Rohrs, Ethan M Anderson, John A Butman, Robert M Caudle, Dorothy C Brown, John D Heiss, Andrew J Mannes, Michael J Iadarola
Transient vanilloid potential 1 (TRPV1) agonists are emerging as highly efficacious non-opioid analgesics in preclinical studies. These drugs selectively lesion TRPV1+ primary sensory afferents, which are responsible for the transmission of many noxious stimulus modalities. Resiniferatoxin (RTX) is a very potent and selective TRPV1 agonist and is a promising candidate for treating many types of pain. Recent work establishing intrathecal application of RTX for the treatment of pain resulting from advanced cancer has demonstrated profound analgesia in client-owned dogs with osteosarcoma...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Ali I Musani, Julia K Veir, Zheng Huang, Tim Lei, Steve Groshong, Deanna Worley
OBJECTIVE: In the setting of lung cancer, photodynamic therapy (PDT) is typically used to treat centrally located endobronchial tumors. The development of navigational bronchoscopy has opened the potential for using PDT to treat peripheral lung tumors. However, there is limited information about the feasibility of this approach for treating peripheral lung cancers, and about its effects on surrounding healthy lung tissue. We studied the use of PDT delivered by electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopy to treat peripheral lung cancer in dogs...
February 5, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
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