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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423030/molecular-characterization-of-cryptosporidium-and-giardia-from-the-tasmanian-devil-sarcophilus-harrisii
#1
Liana F Wait, Samantha Fox, Sarah Peck, Michelle L Power
The Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) is a carnivorous marsupial found only in the wild in Tasmania, Australia. Tasmanian devils are classified as endangered and are currently threatened by devil facial tumour disease, a lethal transmissible cancer that has decimated the wild population in Tasmania. To prevent extinction of Tasmanian devils, conservation management was implemented in 2003 under the Save the Tasmanian Devil Program. This study aimed to assess if conservation management was altering the interactions between Tasmanian devils and their parasites...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419683/geographical-differences-in-survival-of-dogs-with-non-hodgkin-lymphoma-treated-with-a-chop-based-chemotherapy-protocol
#2
H Wilson-Robles, C M Budke, T Miller, N Dervisis, A Novosad, Z Wright, D H Thamm, K Vickery, K Burgess, M Childress, J Lori, C Saba, S Rau, M Silver, G Post, K Reeds, S Gillings, S Schleis, T Stein, B Brugmann, C DeRegis, O Smrkovski, J Lawrence, T Laver
BACKGROUND: In humans geographical differences in the incidence and presentation of various cancers have been reported. However, much of this information has not been collected in veterinary oncology. AIM: The purpose of this study was to determine if a geographic difference in progression free survival exists for dogs with lymphoma treated within the US. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medical records of 775 cases of canine lymphoma from 3 US regions (west, south and north), treated with CHOP chemotherapy, were retrospectively evaluated...
April 17, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418845/preclinical-development-of-g1t38-a-novel-potent-and-selective-inhibitor-of-cyclin-dependent-kinases-4-6-for-use-as-an-oral-antineoplastic-in-patients-with-cdk4-6-sensitive-tumors
#3
John E Bisi, Jessica A Sorrentino, Jamie L Jordan, David D Darr, Patrick J Roberts, Francis X Tavares, Jay C Strum
Inhibition of the p16INK4a/cyclin D/CDK4/6/RB pathway is an effective therapeutic strategy for the treatment of estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer. Although efficacious, current treatment regimens require a dosing holiday due to severe neutropenia potentially leading to an increased risk of infections, as well as tumor regrowth and emergence of drug resistance. Therefore, a next generation CDK4/6 inhibitor that can inhibit proliferation of CDK4/6-dependent tumors while minimizing neutropenia could reduce both the need for treatment holidays and the risk of inducing drug resistance...
March 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413049/evaluation-of-blood-t-lymphocyte-subpopulations-involved-in-host-cellular-immunity-in-dogs-with-mammary-cancer
#4
Maria Karayannopoulou, Tilemachos Anagnostou, Apostolia Margariti, Charalampos Kostakis, Maria Kritsepi-Konstantinou, Dimitra Psalla, Ioannis Savvas
Cancer-bearing patients are often immunosuppressed. In dogs with mammary or other cancers, various alterations in blood cell populations involved in host cellular immunity have been reported; among these cell populations some T-lymphocyte subsets play an important role against cancer. The purpose of the present study was to investigate any alterations in circulating T-lymphocyte subpopulations involved in cellular immunity in bitches with mammary cancer, in comparison to age-matched healthy intact bitches. Twenty eight dogs with mammary cancer and 14 control dogs were included in this study...
April 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402146/long-term-floating-control-released-intravesical-preparation-of-5-fluorouracil-for-the-local-treatment-of-bladder-cancer
#5
Li Hong Wang, Shang Lei, Shan Dong Yuan, Xin Che
In order to overcome the low compliance due to the frequent bladder perfusion of anti-cancer drugs in the treatment of bladder cancer, a long-term control-release of the anticancer drug in the bladder, the floating intravesical preparation was developed. 5-fluorouracil was used as model drug. The floating preparations were prepared by tableting (mini-tablets) and melting (mini-pellets) method. The proportion of 5-fluorouracil and glyceryl tristearate (GTS) was altered among formulations. Dissolution test, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to investigate the in vitro properties of the formulations...
April 12, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388548/safety-and-efficacy-of-p62-dna-vaccine-elenagen-in-a-first-in-human-trial-in-patients-with-advanced-solid-tumors
#6
Dmitry M Ponomarenko, Irina D Klimova, Yulia A Chapygina, Viktoria V Dvornichenko, Natalia V Zhukova, Rashida V Orlova, Georgy M Manikhas, Alexandr V Zyryanov, Lilya A Burkhanova, Irina I Badrtdinova, Basile N Oshchepkov, Elena V Filippova, Sergei V Orlov, Sergei I Kolesnikov, Albert A Sufianov, Svetlana R Baum, Olga Y Zaitzeva, Andrey B Komissarov, Mikhail P Grudinin, Oleg I Kiselev, Anatoly F Tsyb, Franco Venanzi, Vita Shcherbinina, Andrey Chursov, Vladimir L Gabai, Alexander M Shneider
Elenagen is a plasmid encoding p62/SQSTM1, the first DNA vaccine possessing two mutually complementing mechanisms of action: it elicits immune response against p62 and mitigates systemic chronic inflammation. Previously, Elenagen demonstrated anti-tumor efficacy and safety in rodent tumor models and spontaneous tumors in dogs. This multicenter I/IIa trial evaluated safety and clinical activity of Elenagen in patients with advanced solid tumors. Fifteen patients were treated with escalating doses of Elenagen (1- 5 mg per doses, 5 times weekly) and additional 12 patients received 1 mg dose...
March 25, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371355/bosutinib-an-src-inhibitor-induces-caspase-independent-cell-death-associated-with-permeabilization-of-lysosomal-membranes-in-melanoma-cells
#7
S Noguchi, S Shibutani, K Fukushima, T Mori, M Igase, T Mizuno
BACKGROUND: SRC kinase (SRC proto-oncogene, non-receptor tyrosine kinase) is a promising target for the treatment of solid cancers including human melanoma. Bosutinib (Bosu), a SRC inhibitor, has already been applied to the treatment of human chronic myelogenous leukemia and also has been assessed its safety in dogs. AIM: The aim of this study was to clarify a novel anti-tumour mechanism of Bosu in canine and human melanoma cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The canine and human melanoma cells were treated with Bosu and its effects were evaluated by the cell viability, the protein expression levels such as caspase-3 and LC3, Annexin V/Propidium iodide staining, and confocal immunostaining...
March 28, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370296/validation-of-a-multiplexed-gene-signature-assay-for-diagnosis-of-canine-cancers-from-formalin-fixed-paraffin-embedded-tissues
#8
B Davis, M Schwartz, D Duchemin, J Carl Barrett, G Post
BACKGROUND: Use of molecular-based diagnostics for companion animals is impeded by availability of technology platforms, tissue acquisition requirements, and species-specific reagents. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To validate a quantitative nuclease protection assay (qNPA) to simultaneously measure RNA expression of multiple genes in archived formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumors from dogs. ANIMALS: All tumor biopsy samples were collected retrospectively from surgical biopsies and in the care of veterinarians...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348800/pasteurella-multocida-urinary-tract-infection-in-a-patient-with-cervical-cancer
#9
Manmeet B Singh, Amanda T Harrington
Introduction. Infections caused by Pasteurella species are commonly associated with contact with dogs and cats, typically involving bites and scratches, but casual contact with household pets can also be a risk factor. Urinary tract infection (UTI) caused by Pasteurella species is rare and a significant majority of cases have some known risk factor associated with an underlying chronic illness or structural and/or functional urological abnormality. Case presentation. Here, we present a case of a UTI due to Pasteurella multocida in a patient with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix who also had a household cat...
January 2017: JMM Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321811/interleukin-2-old-and-new-approaches-to-enhance-immune-therapeutic-efficacy
#10
Pooja Dhupkar, Nancy Gordon
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a very well-known cytokine that has been studied for the past 35 years. It plays a major role in the growth and proliferation of many immune cells such NK and T cells. It is an important immunotherapy cytokine for the treatment of various diseases including cancer. Systemic delivery of IL-2 has shown clinical benefit in renal cell carcinoma and melanoma patients. However, its use has been limited by the numerous toxicities encountered with the systemic delivery. Intravenous IL-2 causes the well-known "capillary leak syndrome," or the leakage of fluid from the circulatory system to the interstitial space resulting in hypotension (low blood pressure), edema, and dyspnea that can lead to circulatory shock and eventually cardiopulmonary collapse and multiple organ failure...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321175/evidence-that-lifelong-low-dose-rates-of-ionizing-radiation-increase-lifespan-in-long-and-short-lived-dogs
#11
Jerry M Cuttler, Ludwig E Feinendegen, Yehoshua Socol
After the 1956 radiation scare to stop weapons testing, studies focused on cancer induction by low-level radiation. Concern has shifted to protecting "radiation-sensitive individuals." Since longevity is a measure of health impact, this analysis reexamined data to compare the effect of dose rate on the lifespans of short-lived (5% and 10% mortality) dogs and on the lifespans of dogs at 50% mortality. The data came from 2 large-scale studies. One exposed 10 groups to different γ dose rates; the other exposed 8 groups to different lung burdens of plutonium...
January 2017: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317239/the-use-of-low-dose-metronomic-chemotherapy-in-dogs-insight-into-a-modern-cancer-field
#12
REVIEW
T B Gaspar, J Henriques, L Marconato, F L Queiroga
The era of chemotherapy, which started in the middle of the last century, has been ruled by the routine use of dose-intense protocols, based on the "maximum-tolerated dose" concept. By promoting a balance between patient's quality of life and the goal of rapidly killing as many tumour cells as possible, these protocols still play a prominent role in veterinary oncology. However, with the opening of a new millennium, metronomic chemotherapy (MC) started to be considered a possible alternative to traditional dose-intense chemotherapy...
March 20, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274094/calculation-of-a-first-in-man-dose-of-7-o-succinyl-macrolactin-a-based-on-allometric-scaling-of-data-from-mice-rats-and-dogs
#13
Keumhan Noh, Wonku Kang
7-O-succinyl macrolactin A (SMA) exerts several pharmacological effects including anti-bacterial, anti-inflammation, and anticancer activities. Recently, SMA has been extensively evaluated as an anti-cancer drug. Thus, the objectives of the present study were to characterise the pharmacokinetics of SMA via both non-compartmental and compartmental analysis in mice, rats, and dogs, and to derive an appropriate first-in-man dose based on allometric scaling of the animal data. The time courses of plasma SMA concentrations after intravenous administration to rats and dogs were analysed retrospectively, as were data collected after intraperitoneal SMA injection in mice...
March 10, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272340/factors-which-influence-owners-when-deciding-to-use-chemotherapy-in-terminally-ill-pets
#14
Jane Williams, Catherine Phillips, Hollie Marie Byrd
Chemotherapy is a commonly integrated treatment option within human and animal oncology regimes. Limited research has investigated pet owners' treatment decision-making in animals diagnosed with malignant neoplasia. Dog and cat owners were asked to complete an online questionnaire to elucidate factors which are key to the decision making process. Seventy-eight respondents completed the questionnaire in full. Fifty-eight percent of pet owners would not elect to treat pets with chemotherapy due to the negative impact of the associated side effects...
March 7, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263385/intraoperative-near-infrared-fluorescence-imaging-targeting-folate-receptors-identifies-lung-cancer-in-a-large-animal-model
#15
Jane J Keating, Jeffrey J Runge, Sunil Singhal, Sarah Nims, Ollin Venegas, Amy C Durham, Gary Swain, Shuming Nie, Philip S Low, David E Holt
BACKGROUND: Complete tumor resection is the most important predictor of patient survival with non-small cell lung cancer. Methods for intraoperative margin assessment after lung cancer excision are lacking. This study evaluated near-infrared (NIR) intraoperative imaging with a folate-targeted molecular contrast agent (OTL0038) for the localization of primary lung adenocarcinomas, lymph node sampling, and margin assessment. METHODS: Ten dogs with lung cancer underwent either video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery or open thoracotomy and tumor excision after an intravenous injection of OTL0038...
May 15, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247415/novel-monoclonal-antibodies-recognizing-human-prostate-specific-membrane-antigen-psma-as-research-and-theranostic-tools
#16
Zora Nováková, Catherine A Foss, Benjamin T Copeland, Volker Morath, Petra Baranová, Barbora Havlínová, Arne Skerra, Martin G Pomper, Cyril Barinka
BACKGROUND: Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a validated target for the imaging and therapy of prostate cancer. Here, we report the detailed characterization of four novel murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) recognizing human PSMA as well as PSMA orthologs from different species. METHODS: Performance of purified mAbs was assayed using a comprehensive panel of in vitro experimental setups including Western blotting, immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, ELISA, flow cytometry, and surface-plasmon resonance...
March 1, 2017: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243682/an-allometric-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamics-model-for-bi-893923-a-novel-igf-1-receptor-inhibitor
#17
Melanie I Titze, Otmar Schaaf, Marco H Hofmann, Michael P Sanderson, Stephan K Zahn, Jens Quant, Thorsten Lehr
PURPOSE: BI 893923 is a novel IGF1R/INSR inhibitor with promising anti-tumor efficacy. Dose-limiting hyperglycemia has been observed for other IGF1R/INSR inhibitors in clinical trials. To counterbalance anti-tumor efficacy with the risk of hyperglycemia and to determine the therapeutic window, we aimed to develop a translational pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics model for BI 893923. This aimed to translate pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics from animals to humans by an allometrically scaled semi-mechanistic model...
February 27, 2017: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222142/evaluation-of-18-f-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose-fdg-positron-emission-tomography-computed-tomography-pet-ct-as-a-staging-and-monitoring-tool-for-dogs-with-stage-2-splenic-hemangiosarcoma-a-pilot-study
#18
Antonella Borgatti, Amber L Winter, Kathleen Stuebner, Ruth Scott, Christopher P Ober, Kari L Anderson, Daniel A Feeney, Daniel A Vallera, Joseph S Koopmeiners, Jaime F Modiano, Jerry Froelich
Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography (PET-CT) is routinely used for staging and monitoring of human cancer patients and is becoming increasingly available in veterinary medicine. In this study, 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (18FDG)-PET-CT was used in dogs with naturally occurring splenic hemangiosarcoma (HSA) to assess its utility as a staging and monitoring modality as compared to standard radiography and ultrasonography. Nine dogs with stage-2 HSA underwent 18FDG-PET-CT following splenectomy and prior to commencement of chemotherapy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215146/molecular-characterization-and-in-silico-analysis-of-the-tissue-inhibitor-of-metalloproteinases-3-timp-3-gene-of-canine-mammary-tumor
#19
Pavan Kumar Yadav, Brijesh Singh Yadav, Padma Nibash Panigrahi, Vijay Tripathi, Navaneet Chaturvedi, Meena Kataria
BACKGROUND: Mammary tumors are the second most common tumors (after skin tumors) in female dogs (Canis lupus familiaris). Tissue Inhibitor of Metlloproteinases-3 (TIMP-3) is a matrix associated endogenous inhibitor of Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs). Cancer metastasis occurs as a result of imbalance between MMPs and TIMPs. TIMP-3 is involved significantly in regulation of MMPs as well as progression of canine mammary tumor. OBJECTIVE: The present study was conducted to identify the structural and functional relationship between TIMP-3 and MMP which can aid in identifying the role of these proteins in canine mammary tumor...
February 17, 2017: Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205368/cancer-as-a-contagious-disease
#20
REVIEW
H V Siddle
Contagious cancers are malignant cells that are physically transferred between individuals as a natural allograft, forming new clonal tumours. These cancers are highly unusual, but have emerged in 2 mammalian species, the dog and the Tasmanian devil, as well as 4 species of bivalve. The transfer of malignant cells in mammals should initiate a robust immune response and although invertebrates have a less complex immune system, these species still have mechanisms that should prevent engraftment and protect against cellular parasitism...
April 2017: HLA
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