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Abdominal Obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229523/pathophysiology-of-fecal-incontinence-in-obese-patients-a-prospective-case-matched-study-of-201-patients
#1
C Brochard, A Vénara, A Bodère, A Ropert, G Bouguen, L Siproudhis
BACKGROUND: Obesity is an emerging risk factor for fecal incontinence (FI). The aim of this study was to characterize pathophysiologic mechanisms of FI in obese patients compared with non-obese patients in a prospective case-matched study. METHODS: The general characteristics and data of the anorectal manometry and endosonography of patients who were evaluated for FI at a single institution from 2005 to 2015 were prospectively assessed. Fecal incontinence was defined by a Cleveland Clinic Incontinence Score (CCIS) >4...
February 23, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226343/-diagnosis-and-risk-assessment-of-postoperative-complications-of-gastric-cancer-in-japan-and-korea
#2
Xiang Hu, Chi Zhang
Radical surgery of gastric cancer (D2 lymph node dissection) as the standard operation is widely used in clinical practice and satisfactory prognosis can be obtained in patients who receive radical gastrectomy. But surgical invasion can cause high morbidity of complications and mortality. The data of large-scale evidence-based medical clinical trials and large databases in Japan and Korea showed that anastomotic leakage, pancreatic leakage and abdominal abscess were the most common complications after gastrectomy, and the morbidity of complication was about 20% and mortality was about 1%...
February 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225880/the-role-of-oxidative-stress-on-the-pathophysiology-of-metabolic-syndrome
#3
Fabiane Valentini Francisqueti, Lidiana Camargo Talon Chiaverini, Klinsmann Carolo Dos Santos, Igor Otávio Minatel, Carolina Berchieri Ronchi, Artur Junio Togneri Ferron, Ana Lúcia A Ferreira, Camila Renata Corrêa
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has a high prevalence around the world. Considering the components used to classify MetS, it is clear that it is closely related to obesity. These two conditions begin with an increase in abdominal adipose tissue, which is metabolically more active, containing a greater amount of resident macrophages compared to other fat deposits. Abdominal adiposity promotes inflammation and oxidative stress, which are precursors of various complications involving MetS components, namely insulin resistance, hypertension and hyperlipidemia...
January 1, 2017: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225503/association-of-serum-ferritin-with-insulin-resistance-abdominal-obesity-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-korean-adolescent-and-adults-the-korean-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-2008-to-2011
#4
Young Suk Shim, Min Jae Kang, Yeon Jeong Oh, Joon Woo Baek, Seung Yang, Il Tae Hwang
This study aimed to evaluate the associations of serum ferritin with insulin resistance indices, body fat mass/percentage, and all the components of metabolic syndrome (MetS), as well as the risk for MetS according to serum ferritin levels in Korean adolescents and adults.A total of 15,963 Korean males and females aged 16 to 80 years were analyzed using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005 to 2011.The median serum ferritin concentration was 98.82 ng/mL for males and 38...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224127/early-diagnosis-and-surgical-treatment-for-necrotizing-fasciitis-a-multicenter-study
#5
Evangelos P Misiakos, George Bagias, Iordanis Papadopoulos, Nickolaos Danias, Paul Patapis, Nickolaos Machairas, Theodore Karatzas, Nickolaos Arkadopoulos, Konstantinos Toutouzas, Nickolaos Alexakis, Manousos N Konstantoulakis, George Zografos, Vasilis Smyrniotis, Gregory Kouraklis, Anastasios Machairas
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is a group of relatively rare infections, usually caused by two or more pathogens. It affects the skin and subcutaneous tissues of lower and upper limbs, perineal area (Fournier's gangrene), and the abdominal wall. Early diagnosis and aggressive surgical management are of high significance for the management of this potentially lethal disease. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study in patients who presented, during the last decade, at four University Surgical Departments in the area of Athens, Greece, with an admission diagnosis of NF...
2017: Frontiers in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222414/urinary-steroid-metabolites-in-a-case-of-florid-ectopic-cushing-s-syndrome-and-clinical-correlations
#6
Angelos Kyriacou, Karolina G Stepien, Basil Issa
A 51-year old woman was admitted with multiple cerebral, pulmonary and intra-abdominal abscesses. The combination of apparent immunosuppression, obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypokalaemia, osteoporotic fractures and bilateral shoulder avascular necrosis led to a clinical diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome (CS). This was biochemically confirmed as follows: midnight serum cortisol 4275 nmol/L (60-250), non-suppressed overnight dexamethasone suppression test, raised salivary cortisol 716 nmol/L (5-46) and ACTH 639 ng/L (0-46)...
October 2016: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222101/costs-and-effects-of-a-state-wide-health-promotion-program-in-primary-schools-in-germany-the-baden-w%C3%A3-rttemberg-study-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Dorothea Kesztyüs, Romy Lauer, Tibor Kesztyüs, Reinhold Kilian, Jürgen M Steinacker
AIM: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the state-wide implementation of the health promotion program "Join the Healthy Boat" in primary schools in Germany. METHODS: Cluster-randomized intervention trial with wait-list control group. Anthropometric data of 1733 participating children (7.1 ± 0.6 years) were taken by trained staff before and after a one year intervention period in the academic year 2010/11. Parents provided information about the health status, and the health behaviour of their children and themselves, parental anthropometrics, and socio-economic background variables...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220551/association-between-sleep-duration-fat-mass-lean-mass-and-obesity-in-korean-adults-the-fourth-and-fifth-korea-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-surveys
#8
Kyuwoong Kim, Doosup Shin, Go-Un Jung, Donghoon Lee, Sang Min Park
This study investigated the association between sleep duration, fat mass, lean mass and obesity. Participants of this cross-sectional study were 16 905 adults included into the 4th and 5th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Sleep duration was assessed by self-reported survey and categorized into ≤ 5, 6, 7, 8 and ≥ 9 h per day. The group reporting 7 h of sleep per day (comprised of those sleeping 7-8 h per day) was used as the reference group. Body composition was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219819/laparoscopic-ventral-hernia-repair-with-composite-mesh-analysis-of-risk-factors-for-recurrence-in-185-patients-with-5-years-follow-up
#9
Mario Nardi, Paolo Millo, Riccardo Brachet Contul, Riccardo Lorusso, Antonella Usai, Manuela Grivon, Fabio Persico, Elisa Ponte, Paolo Bocchia, Salvatore Razzi
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic ventral hernia repair is widely used although its clinical indications are often debated. The aim of this study is to describe our surgical experience in order to establish the safety, efficacy, feasibility of laparoscopic ventral hernia repair and to identify the factors that influence the risk of recurrence in a group of patients treated with only one type of prosthetic mesh and by the same surgical team. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between January 2007 and December 2016, 512 patients were admitted to the General and Urgent Surgery Unit, with diagnosis of ventral hernia...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219624/the-effects-of-body-mass-index-on-complications-and-mortality-after-emergency-abdominal-operations-the-obesity-paradox
#10
Elizabeth R Benjamin, Evren Dilektasli, Tobias Haltmeier, Elizabeth Beale, Kenji Inaba, Demetrios Demetriades
BACKGROUND: Recent literature suggests that obesity is protective in critically illness. This study addresses the effect of BMI on outcomes after emergency abdominal surgery (EAS). METHODS: Retrospective, ACS-NSQIP analysis. All patients that underwent EAS were included. The study population was divided into five groups based on BMI; regression models were used to evaluate the role of obesity in morbidity and mortality. RESULTS: 101,078 patients underwent EAS; morbidity and mortality were 19...
February 13, 2017: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218795/defensive-coping-and-essential-amino-acid-markers-as-possible-predictors-for-structural-vascular-disease-in-an-african-and-caucasian-male-cohort-the-sabpa-study
#11
Marisa Möller, Leoné Malan, Martin Magnusson, Carina M C Mels, Nico T Malan
Defensive coping (DefS), oxidative stress, inflammation, and related amino acids (phenylalanine [Phe] and tyrosine [Tyr]) have been implicated in cardiovascular disease. This study assessed whether inflammation, oxidative stress, changes in essential amino acids, and altered coping strategies are correlated with subclinical vascular changes in African (n = 82) and Caucasian (n = 100) men from the Sympathetic Activity and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Africans (SABPA) study. The Coping Strategy Indicator questionnaire identified DefS participants...
February 20, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217266/methodology-and-early-findings-of-the-fifth-survey-of-childhood-and-adolescence-surveillance-and-prevention-of-adult-noncommunicable-disease-the-caspian-v-study
#12
Mohammad Esmaeil Motlagh, Hasan Ziaodini, Mostafa Qorbani, Majzoubeh Taheri, Tahereh Aminaei, Azam Goodarzi, Asal Ataie-Jafari, Fatemeh Rezaei, Zeinab Ahadi, Gita Shafiee, Ali Shahsavari, Ramin Heshmat, Roya Kelishadi
BACKGROUND: This paper presents the methodology and early findings of the fifth survey of a school-based surveillance program in Iran. METHODS: This nationwide study was conducted in 2015 as the fifth survey of a surveillance program entitled "Childhood and Adolescence Surveillance and PreventIon of Adult Non- communicable disease" (CASPIAN-V) study. The protocol was mainly based on the World Health Organization-Global School student Health Survey. We studied 14400 students, aged 7-18 years, and their parents living in 30 provinces in Iran...
2017: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215162/gut-brain-axis-role-of-lipids-in-the-regulation-of-inflammation-pain-and-cns-diseases
#13
Roberto Russo, Claudia Cristiano, Carmen Avagliano, Carmen De Caro, Giovanna La Rana, Giuseppina Mattace Raso, Roberto Berni Canani, Rosaria Meli, Antonio Calignano
The human gut is a composite anaerobic environment with a large, diverse and dynamic enteric microbiota, represented by more than 100 trillion microorganisms, including at least 1000 distinct species. The discovery that a different microbial composition can influence behavior and cognition, and in turn the nervous system can indirectly influence enteric microbiota composition, has significantly contributed to establish the well-accepted concept of gut-brain axis. This hypothesis is supported by several evidence showing mutual mechanisms, which involve the vague nerve, the immune system, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis modulation and the bacteria-derived metabolites...
February 16, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214526/recent-advances-in-human-genetics-and-epigenetics-of-adiposity-pathway-to-precision-medicine
#14
Tove Fall, Michael Mendelson, Elizabeth K Speliotes
Obesity is a heritable trait that contributes to substantial global morbidity and mortality. Here, we summarize findings from the last decade of genetic and epigenetic research focused on unravelling the underpinnings of adiposity. More than 140 genetic regions are now known to influence adiposity traits. The genetics of general adiposity, as measured by body mass index, and that of abdominal obesity, as measured by waist to hip ratio, have distinct biological backgrounds. Expression of genes associated with general adiposity are enriched in the nervous system...
February 15, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213060/prediction-of-cesarean-delivery-in-the-term-nulliparous-woman-results-from-the-prospective-multi-center-genesis-study
#15
Naomi Burke, Gerard Burke, Fionnuala Breathnach, Fionnuala Mcauliffe, John J Morrison, Michael Turner, Samina Dornan, John R Higgins, Amanda Cotter, Michael Geary, Peter Mcparland, Sean Daly, Fiona Cody, Pat Dicker, Elizabeth Tully, Fergal D Malone
BACKGROUND: In contemporary practice many nulliparous women require intervention during childbirth such as operative vaginal delivery or Cesarean delivery (CD). Despite the knowledge that the rising CD rate is associated with increasing maternal age, obesity and larger infant birthweight, we lack a reliable method to predict the requirement for such potentially hazardous obstetric procedures during labor and delivery. This issue is important as there are higher rates of morbidity and mortality associated with unplanned CD performed in labor compared to scheduled Cesarean deliveries...
February 14, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211165/a-disease-specific-quality-of-life-instrument-for-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-cldq-nafld
#16
Zobair M Younossi, Maria Stepanova, Linda Henry, Andrei Racila, Brian Lam, Huong T Pham, Sharon Hunt
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are the most common causes of chronic liver disease with known negative impact on patients' health-related quality of life (HRQL). Our aim was to validate a disease-specific HRQL instrument useful for efficacy trials involving patients with NAFLD and NASH. METHODS: From a long item selection questionnaire, we selected relevant items which, by factor analysis, were grouped into domains constituting CLDQ-NAFLD...
February 17, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210748/risk-factors-associated-with-abdominal-obesity-in-suburban-adolescents-from-a-malaysian-district
#17
Wai Fong Chew, Pooi Pooi Leong, Sook Fan Yap, A Malik Yasmin, Kong Bung Choo, Gary Kim Kuan Low, Nem Yun Boo
INTRODUCTION: We aimed to determine the risk factors associated with abdominal obesity (AO) in suburban adolescents. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included adolescents aged 15-17 years from five randomly selected secondary schools in the Hulu Langat district of Selangor State, Malaysia. Waist circumference (WC) was measured at the midpoint between the lower margin of last palpable rib and the top of iliac crest. Information on sociodemographic data, dietary habits, physical activity levels and duration of sleep was obtained via interviewer-administered questionnaires...
February 17, 2017: Singapore Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210619/a-useful-tool-as-a-medical-checkup-in-a-general-population-bioelectrical-impedance-analysis
#18
Mika Enomoto, Hisashi Adachi, Ako Fukami, Eita Kumagai, Sachiko Nakamura, Yume Nohara, Shoko Kono, Erika Nakao, Nagisa Morikawa, Tomoko Tsuru, Akiko Sakaue, Yoshihiro Fukumoto
Accumulation of visceral fat leads to metabolic syndrome and increases risks of cerebro-cardiovascular diseases, which should be recognized and improved at the early stage in general population. Accurate measurement of visceral fat area (VFA) is commonly performed by the abdominal cross-sectional image measured by computed tomography scan, which is, however, limited due to the radiation exposure. The bioelectrical impedance analysis (OMRON, HDS-2000 DUALSCAN(R)) has been recently developed to measure VFA, which is more easily accessible modality...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209386/dietary-therapy-in-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction-and-or-left-ventricular-diastolic-dysfunction-in-patients-with-metabolic-syndrome
#19
REVIEW
Helene von Bibra, Alexander Ströhle, Martin St John Sutton, Nicolai Worm
BACKGROUND: Heart failure is an ongoing epidemic of left ventricular (LV) dilatation and/or dysfunction due to the increasing prevalence of predisposing risk factors such as age, physical inactivity, (abdominal) obesity, and type-2-diabetes. Approximately half of these patients have diastolic heart failure (HFpEF). The prognosis of HFpEF is comparable to that of systolic heart failure, but without any known effective treatment. DIASTOLIC DYSFUNCTION: A biomathematically corrected diagnostic approach is presented that quantifies diastolic dysfunction via the predominant age dependency of LV diastolic function and unmasks (metabolic) risk factors, that are independent of age and, therefore, potential targets for therapy...
January 5, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209058/rare-sugar-syrup-containing-d-allulose-but-not-high-fructose-corn-syrup-maintains-glucose-tolerance-and-insulin-sensitivity-partly-via-hepatic-glucokinase-translocation-in-wistar-rats
#20
Tomoya Shintani, Takako Yamada, Noriko Hayashi, Tetsuo Iida, Yasuo Nagata, Nobuaki Ozaki, Yukiyasu Toyoda
Ingestion of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is associated with the risk of both diabetes and obesity. Rare sugar syrup (RSS) has been developed by alkaline isomerization of HFCS and has anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects. However, the influence of RSS on glucose metabolism has not been explored. We investigated whether long-term administration of RSS maintains glucose tolerance and whether the underlying mechanism involves hepatic glucokinase translocation. Wistar rats were administered water, RSS, or HFCS in drinking water for 10 weeks, and then evaluated for glucose tolerance, insulin tolerance, liver glycogen content, and subcellular distribution of liver glucokinase...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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