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Abdominal Obesity

So Yoon Han, Nan Hee Kim, Do Hoon Kim, Kyungdo Han, Seon Mee Kim
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of childhood obesity has significantly increased in Korea. This study aimed to use data from the 2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) to investigate the association between sodium (Na) intake and insulin resistance in children and adolescents with obesity. METHODS: The study population consisted of 578 adolescents aged 12-18 years who were enrolled in the 2010 KNHANES. Subjects were classified into the following four groups based on their body mass index (BMI) and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values: normal BMI and HOMA-IR (Group 1), normal BMI and ≥75% HOMA-IR (Group 2), ≥85% BMI and normal HOMA-IR (Group 3) and ≥85% BMI and ≥75% HOMA-IR (Group 4)...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
Maxine P Bonham, Gloria K W Leung, Rochelle Davis, Tracey L Sletten, Chiara Murgia, Morag J Young, Nina Eikelis, Elisabeth A Lambert, Catherine E Huggins
INTRODUCTION: Shift work is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Shift workers who are awake overnight and sleep during the day are misaligned with their body's endogenous circadian rhythm. Eating at night contributes to this increased risk of CVD by forcing the body to actively break down and process nutrients at night. This pilot study aims to determine whether altering meal timing overnight, in a shift working population, will impact favourably on modifiable risk factors for CVD (postprandial bplasma lipids and glucose concentration)...
March 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Ana Henriques, Vânia Teixeira, Hugo Fv Cardoso, Ana Azevedo
OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively investigate the association between short stature and increased sitting height ratio (SHR) - indicators of stunting - and obesity markers in adults. DESIGN: Cross-sectional evaluation of the EPIPorto cohort. Weight, height, sitting height and waist circumference were measured. Obesity was assessed for men and women through BMI and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). Short stature (women, <152 cm; men, <164 cm) and high SHR (women, ≥54·05 %; men, ≥53·25 %) were taken as stunting measures...
March 15, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
Erika Aparecida Silveira, Liana Lima Vieira, Jacqueline Danesio de Souza
Rapid population aging and abdominal obesity (AO) are worldwide public health problems among the elderly and have been insufficiently investigated. This article sets out to identify the prevalence of AO among the elderly, its association with different morbidities, sociodemographic variables, and lifestyle according to sex. It is a cross-sectional study with a representative sample of elderly people resident in Goiânia, Brazil. Home visits were conducted to measure weight, height, waist circumference (WC), blood pressure, and to fill out a standardized form...
March 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Frederik Berrevoet
Management of a patient with an open abdomen is difficult, and the primary closure of the fascial edges is essential to obtain the best patient outcome, regardless of the initial etiology of the open abdomen. The use of temporary abdominal closure devices is nowadays the gold standard to have the highest closure rates with mesh-mediated fascial traction as the proposed standard of care. However, the incidence of incisional hernias, although much more controlled than when leaving an abdomen open, is high and reaches up to 65%...
2018: Frontiers in Surgery
Daniel Bos, Arjola Bano, Albert Hofman, Tyler J VanderWeele, Maryam Kavousi, Oscar H Franco, Meike W Vernooij, Robin P Peeters, M Arfan Ikram, Layal Chaker
Background: The underlying mechanism of the association between thyroid function and atrial fibrillation (AF) is poorly understood, but epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) could be a promising mediator. Methods: In the 1995 participants (mean age 64.5 years) from the population-based Rotterdam Study, we measured thyroid function (thyroid-stimulating hormone, free thyroxine [FT4]) and performed computed tomography to quantify EAT volumes. All participants were followed for the occurrence of AF...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
Mengmeng Huang, Pan Zhuang, Jingjing Jiao, Jun Wang, Yu Zhang
Exposure to chemical contaminants is considered as one of risk factors to the current epidemic of obesity. Acrylamide (AA) is a ubiquitous chemical contaminant in environmental waste, mainstream cigarette smoke and carbohydrate-rich foods, and widely used in industrial manufacturers and cosmetics. Few studies have highlighted the association of daily exposure to AA with obesity-related outcomes. We analyzed data from 8364 participants who aged 20-85years and were recruited in National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) 2003-2006...
March 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Steve Halligan, Sam G Parker, Andrew A Plumb, Alastair C J Windsor
Complex ventral hernia (CVH) describes large, anterior, ventral hernias. The incidence of CVH is rising rapidly due to increasing laparotomy rates in ever older, obese and co-morbid patients. Surgeons with a specific interest in CVH repair are now frequently referring these patients for imaging, normally computed tomography scanning. This review describes what information is required from preoperative imaging and the surgical options and techniques used for CVH repair, so that radiologists understand the postoperative appearances specific to CVH and are aware of the common complications following surgery...
March 12, 2018: European Radiology
Chaitanya Gopalrao Chinawale, Dipak V Parmar, Parth Kavathia, Twinkle Rangnani, Jainy Thakkar, Girija Kartha
Background: The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a complex disorder and a major health concern in developing countries. Data on MetS in Indian population show multiplicity. There are no published reports about the prevalence of MetS in population of Saurashtra region, Gujarat. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of MetS and its components in adult population of this region. Methods: This cross-sectional observational study was carried out among 473 participants who attended free health checkup camps...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Community Medicine
M Brouri, N Ouadahi, D Nibouche, Y Benabbas, M El Hassar, S Bouraoui, N Abad, P C Abreu, L Ikardouchene
OBJECTIVES: This cross-sectional epidemiological study aimed at determining the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF; including obesity, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, diabetes and smoking), among patients from the Algerian sub-population of the "Africa/Middle East Cardiovascular Epidemiological" study attending general practitioners at primary healthcare facilities, and stratified according to their environment (rural/urban), sex and age. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study sites, located in 10 wilayas (administrative regions), were situated in urban and rural areas (rural populations defined as living at least 50km away from urban centres, or lacking access to suburban transport)...
March 9, 2018: Annales de Cardiologie et D'angéiologie
Alastair D Duncan, Louise M Goff, Barry S Peters
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has a reported greater prevalence and poorer treatment outcomes in people living with HIV (PLWH) than comparable HIV-uninfected cohorts. We conducted a cross-sectional study to delineate the factors driving T2D in PLWH in an ethnically diverse cohort, and additionally observed how these have changed over time. SETTING: We studied a diverse HIV cohort in London to determine the prevalence and risk factors for T2D, and compared them to a cohort studied 10 years previously...
2018: PloS One
Elif Guler, Nilgun Col, Mithat Buyukcelik, Ayse Balat
AIM: In recent years, survival rates of childhood cancers have significantly increased, and occurrence of long-term adverse late effects (eg, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, hypertension) has become increasingly important. Early diagnosis of obesity/hypertension in childhood is essential to avoid morbidity in the adulthood. Therefore, this study was aimed to determine the blood pressure (BP) profile by ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) method, and prevalence of hypertension, obesity, abdominal obesity among childhood cancer survivors...
March 12, 2018: Pediatric Hematology and Oncology
Parastoo Fazelzadeh, Roland W J Hangelbroek, Peter J Joris, Casper G Schalkwijk, Diederik Esser, Lydia Afman, Thomas Hankemeier, Doris M Jacobs, Velitchka V Mihaleva, Sander Kersten, John van Duynhoven, Mark V Boekschoten
Introduction: The response to dietary challenges has been proposed as a more accurate measure of metabolic health than static measurements performed in the fasted state. This has prompted many groups to explore the potential of dietary challenge tests for assessment of diet and lifestyle induced shifts in metabolic phenotype. Objectives: We examined whether the response to a mixed-meal challenge could provide a readout for a weight loss (WL)-induced phenotype shift in abdominally obese male subjects...
2018: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
Mohammad Abu Zaid, Wambui G Gathirua-Mwangi, Chunkit Fung, Patrick O Monahan, Omar El-Charif, Annalynn M Williams, Darren R Feldman, Robert J Hamilton, David J Vaughn, Clair J Beard, Ryan Cook, Sandra K Althouse, Shirin Ardeshir-Rouhani-Fard, Paul C Dinh, Howard D Sesso, Lawrence H Einhorn, Sophie D Fossa, Lois B Travis
Background: Testicular cancer survivors (TCS) are at significantly increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), with metabolic syndrome (MetS) an established risk factor. No study has addressed clinical and genetic MetS risk factors in North American TCS. Patients and Methods: TCS were aged <55 years at diagnosis and received first-line chemotherapy. Patients underwent physical examination, and had lipid panels, testosterone, and soluble cell adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) evaluated. A single nucleotide polymorphism in rs523349 (5-α-reductase gene, SRD5A2 ), recently implicated in MetS risk, was genotyped...
March 2018: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
Silvia Bel-Serrat, Mirjam M Heinen, John Mehegan, Sarah O'Brien, Nazih Eldin, Celine M Murrin, Cecily C Kelleher
BACKGROUND: Existing evidence on the role of sociodemographic variables as risk factors for overweight and obesity in school-aged children is inconsistent. Furthermore, findings seem to be influenced by the obesity definition applied. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate if school sociodemographic indicators were associated with weight status in Irish primary schoolchildren and whether this association was sensitive to different obesity classification systems. METHODS: A nationally representative cross-sectional sample of 7542 Irish children (53...
March 9, 2018: BMC Public Health
Susan Sam
Metabolic and cardiovascular diseases are increasing worldwide due to the rise in the obesity epidemic. The metabolic consequences of obesity vary by distribution of adipose tissue. Visceral and ectopic adipose accumulation are associated with adverse cardiometabolic consequences, while gluteal-femoral adipose accumulation are negatively associated with these adverse complications and subcutaneous abdominal adipose accumulation is more neutral in its associations. Gender, race and ethnic differences in adipose tissue distribution have been described and could account for the observed differences in risk for cardiometabolic disease...
March 9, 2018: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Md Mahbubur Rahman, Myung-Jin Kim, Jin-Hyoung Kim, Sok-Ho Kim, Hyeon-Kyu Go, Mee-Hyang Kweon, Do-Hyung Kim
CONTEXT: Salicornia europaea (Amaranthaceae) (SE) has been shown to reduce obesity, but it remains a problem as a food supplement because of its high salt content (25-35% NaCl). OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the anti-obesity effects and mechanism of action of desalted SE powder (DSP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 50) were divided into a normal control group (NC), a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity control group (HFD), and HFD groups co-administered DSP (250 and 500 mg/kg) or Garcinia cambogia (Clusiaceae) extract (GE, 200 mg/kg, standard control) orally each day for 12 weeks...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
A Bárbara Garcia-Garcia, S Martinez-Hervas, J T Real, P Marin-Garcia, G de Marco, A Priego, J F Martínez-Valls, R Carmena, F J Chaves, J F Ascaso
PURPOSE: Our aim was to evaluate the postprandial effect of an oral fat load test (OFLT) rich in unsaturated fatty acids on gene expression profile in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from subjects with abdominal obesity as an insulin resistance model and controls. METHODS: A total of 20 controls and 20 abdominal obese patients were studied. Metabolic parameters and oxidative stress markers were measured with standardized protocols. The whole gene expression at fasting state and after the OFLT (0, 4 and 8 h) was analysed using human HT-12-v4 expression beadchips, from Illumina...
March 8, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
S Ozturk, H Cakin, K Karabulut, R Pasahan, M Kaplan
Lumboperitoneal shunts are widely used for the treatment of patients diagnosed with pseudotumor cerebri (PTC). Obesity is a risk factor for PTC. In particular, catheter migration out of the abdominal cavity is more commonly observed in morbidly obese patients. The aim of this study was to discuss the underlying mechanisms of catheter migration and treatment modalities in morbidly obese patients with PTC. The present study included four morbidly obese patients. All cases had undergone the previous laparotomy for insertion of a distal catheter into the abdominal cavity...
March 2018: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
Romano Schneider, Ioannis Lazaridis, Marko Kraljević, Christoph Beglinger, Bettina Wölnerhanssen, Ralph Peterli
BACKGROUND: Despite the increasing use of bariatric surgery as the most effective treatment of morbid obesity, there is still no consensus on its preoperative diagnostic workup. The aim of this study was to identify the pathologies of the endoscopic and radiologic investigations before performing bariatric surgery and to evaluate their impact on the patient management. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data of 1225 consecutive patients who underwent laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (n = 834) or sleeve gastrectomy (n = 391) at our institution...
January 12, 2018: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
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