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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454438/chk2-is-involved-in-the-p53-independent-radiosensitizing-effects-of-valproic-acid
#1
Dong Wan Choo, Sung Ho Goh, Young Woo Cho, Hye Jung Baek, Eun Jung Park, Noboru Motoyama, Tae Hyun Kim, Joo Young Kim, Sang Soo Kim
Radiotherapy is an effective treatment for the majority of types of localized solid cancer. However, the risk of side effects to the surrounding normal tissues limits radiotherapeutic approaches. Whilst the mechanism of action of valproic acid, an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, remains unknown, the inhibitor is a potential antineoplastic radiosensitizer. The present study demonstrated the in vitro radiosensitizing effects of valproic acid on the human breast cancer MCF7 cell line, and revealed that valproic acid increased the level of DNA breakage, apoptosis and senescence...
April 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454264/luteolin-a-novel-p90-ribosomal-s6-kinase-inhibitor-suppresses-proliferation-and-migration-in-leukemia-cells
#2
Lan Deng, Ling Jiang, Xianghua Lin, Kuo-Fu Tseng, Zhigang Lu, Xiuju Wang
Ribosomal S6 kinases (RSKs) are directly regulated by extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling and are implicated in cell growth, survival, motility and senescence. The present study observed that RSK1 was overexpressed in primary untreated leukemia patient bone marrow samples compared with the expression at the complete remission stage, using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). In addition, a high RSK1 expression (relative expression ≥10) was associated with a significantly shorter overall survival (P=0...
March 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448963/paradoxical-aging-in-hiv-immune-senescence-of-b-cells-is-most-prominent-in-young-age
#3
Stefano Rinaldi, Suresh Pallikkuth, Varghese K George, Lesley R de Armas, Rajendra Pahwa, Celeste M Sanchez, Maria Fernanda Pallin, Li Pan, Nicola Cotugno, Gordon Dickinson, Allan Rodriguez, Margaret Fischl, Maria Alcaide, Louis Gonzalez, Paolo Palma, Savita Pahwa
Combination antiretroviral therapies (cART)can lead to normal life expectancy in HIV-infected persons, and people aged >50 yrs represent the fastest growing HIV group. Although HIV and aging are independently associated with impaired humoral immunity, immune status in people aging with HIV is relatively unexplored. In this study influenza vaccination was used to probe age associated perturbations in the B cell compartment of HIV-negative "healthy controls" (HC) and virologically controlled HIV-infected participants on cART (HIV) (n=124), grouped by age as young (<40 yrs), middle-aged (40-59yrs) or old (>60 yrs)...
April 27, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448932/seasonal-changes-of-fructans-in-dimorphic-roots-of-ichthyothere-terminalis-spreng-blake-asteraceae-growing-in-cerrado
#4
Lorrayne Veloso de Almeida, Pedro Henrique Ferri, José Carlos Seraphin, Moemy Gomes de Moraes
Cerrado is a floristically rich savanna in Brazil, whose vegetation consists of a physiognomic mosaic, influenced by rainfall seasonality. In the dry season rainfall is substantially lower and reduces soil water supply, mainly for herbs and subshrubs. Climatic seasonal variations may well define phenological shifts and induce fluctuations of plant reserve pools. Some Cerrado native species have thickened underground organs that bear buds and store reserves, as adaptive features to enable plant survival following environmental stresses...
April 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448915/ozone-exposure-affects-tree-defoliation-in-a-continental-climate
#5
Alessandra De Marco, Marcello Vitale, Ionel Popa, Alessandro Anav, Ovidiu Badea, Diana Silaghi, Stefan Leca, Augusto Screpanti, Elena Paoletti
Ground-level ozone (O3) affects trees through visible leaf injury, accelerating leaf senescence, declining foliar chlorophyll content, photosynthetic activity, growth, carbon sequestration, predisposing to pests attack and a variety of other physiological effects. Tree crown defoliation is one of the most important parameters that is representative of forest health and vitality. Effects of air pollution on forests have been investigated through manipulative experiments that are not representative of the real environmental conditions observed in the field...
April 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448821/the-implications-of-war-captivity-and-long-term-psychopathology-trajectories-for-telomere-length
#6
Zahava Solomon, Noga Tsur, Yafit Levin, Orit Uziel, Meir Lahav, Avi Ohry
BACKGROUND: Previous findings have demonstrated the link between trauma, its psychopathological aftermath and cellular aging, as reflected in telomere length. However, as long-term examinations of psychopathology following trauma are scarce, very little is known regarding the repercussions of depression and PTSD trajectories of psychopathology for telomeres. The current study examined the implications of war captivity and depression/PTSD trajectories on telomere length. METHODS: Ninety-nine former prisoners of war (ex-POWs) from the 1973 Yom Kippur War were evaluated for depression and PTSD at 18, 30, 35 and 42 years after the war...
April 12, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448089/bone-degeneration-and-its-recovery-in-smp30-gnl-knockout-mice
#7
K Nishijima, T Ohno, A Amano, Y Kishimoto, Y Kondo, A Ishigami, S Tanaka
Senescence marker protein-30 (SMP30) decreases androgen-independently with aging and is a lactone-hydrolyzing enzyme gluconolactonase (GNL) that is involved in vitamin C biosynthesis. In the present study, bone properties of SMP30/GNL knockout (KO) mice with deficiency in vitamin C synthesis were investigated to reveal the effects of SMP30/GNL and exogenous vitamin C supplementation on bone formation. Mineral content (BMC) and mineral density (BMD) of the mandible and femur of SMP30/GNL KO and wild-type mice at 2 and 3 months of age with or without vitamin C supplementation were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447782/does-waterborne-exposure-explain-effects-caused-by-neonicotinoid-contaminated-plant-material-in-aquatic-systems
#8
Dominic Englert, Jochen Peter Zubrod, Moritz Link, Saskia Mertins, Ralf Schulz, Mirco Bundschuh
Neonicotinoids are increasingly applied on trees as protection measure against insect pests. Consequently, neonicotinoids are inevitably transferred into aquatic environments either via spray drift, surface runoff or - due to neonicotinoids' systemic nature - via senescent leaves. There particularly leaf-shredding invertebrates may be exposed to neonicotinoids through both the water phase and the consumption of contaminated leaves. In 7-d-bioassays (n=30) we examined ecotoxicological differences between these two exposure scenarios for an amphipod and an insect nymph with their feeding rate as the response variable...
April 27, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447575/adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-the-elderly-exhibit-decreased-migration-and-differentiation-abilities-with-senescent-properties
#9
Meichen Liu, Hua Lei, Ping Dong, Xin Fu, Zhigang Yang, Ying Yang, Jiguang Ma, Xia Liu, Yilin Cao, Ran Xiao
Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) can be applied extensively in the clinic because they can be easily isolated and cause less donor-site morbidity; however, their application can be complicated by patient-specific factors, such as age and harvest site. In this study, we systematically evaluated the effects of age on the quantity and quality of hADSCs isolated from excised chest subcutaneous adipose tissue and investigated the underlying molecular mechanism. hADSCs were isolated from donors of three different age groups (i...
April 26, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447256/establishment-of-a-protocol-to-extend-the-lifespan-of-human-hormone-secreting-pituitary-adenoma-cells
#10
Aurora Aiello, Maria Francesca Cassarino, Simona Nanni, Antonella Sesta, Francesco Ferraú, Claudio Grassi, Marco Losa, Francesco Trimarchi, Alfredo Pontecorvi, Salvatore Cannavò, Francesca Pecori Giraldi, Antonella Farsetti
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to generate immortalized human anterior pituitary adenoma cells. Reliable cell models for the study of human pituitary adenomas are as yet lacking and studies performed so far used repeated passaging of freshly excised adenomas, with the attendant limitations due to limited survival in culture, early senescence, and poor reproducibility. METHODS & RESULTS: We devised a technique based upon repeated co-transfections of two retroviral vectors, one carrying the catalytic subunit of human telomerase, hTERT, the other SV40 large T antigen...
April 26, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447069/long-term-calorie-restriction-in-humans-is-not-associated-with-indices-of-delayed-immunologic-aging-a-descriptive-study
#11
A Janet Tomiyama, Jeffrey M Milush, Jue Lin, James M Flynn, Pankaj Kapahi, Eric Verdin, Elizabeth Sinclair, Simon Melov, Elissa S Epel
BACKGROUND: Delayed immunologic aging is purported to be a major mechanism through which calorie restriction (CR) exerts its anti-aging effects in non-human species. However, in non-obese humans, the effect of CR on the immune system has been understudied relative to its effects on the cardiometabolic system. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether CR is associated with delayed immunologic aging in non-obese humans. METHODS: We tested whether long-term CR practitioners (average 10.03 years of CR) evidenced decreased expression of T cell immunosenescence markers and longer immune cell telomeres compared to gender-, race/ethnicity-, age-, and education-matched "healthy" Body Mass Index (BMI) and "overweight"/"obese" BMI groups...
March 31, 2017: Nutrition and Healthy Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446595/dna-damage-signaling-mediates-the-functional-antagonism-between-replicative-senescence-and-terminal-muscle-differentiation
#12
Lucia Latella, Alessandra Dall'Agnese, Francesca Boscolo Sesillo, Chiara Nardoni, Marianna Cosentino, Armin Lahm, Alessandra Sacco, Pier Lorenzo Puri
The molecular determinants of muscle progenitor impairment to regenerate aged muscles are currently unclear. We show that, in a mouse model of replicative senescence, decline in muscle satellite cell-mediated regeneration coincides with activation of DNA damage response (DDR) and impaired ability to differentiate into myotubes. Inhibition of DDR restored satellite cell differentiation ability. Moreover, in replicative human senescent fibroblasts, DDR precluded MYOD-mediated activation of the myogenic program...
April 1, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446235/differential-expression-of-cell-cycle-and-wnt-pathway-related-genes-accounts-for-differences-in-the-growth-and-differentiation-potential-of-wharton-s-jelly-and-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#13
Aristea K Batsali, Charalampos Pontikoglou, Dimitrios Koutroulakis, Konstantia I Pavlaki, Athina Damianaki, Irene Mavroudi, Kalliopi Alpantaki, Elisavet Kouvidi, George Kontakis, Helen A Papadaki
BACKGROUND: In view of the current interest in exploring the clinical use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from different sources, we performed a side-by-side comparison of the biological properties of MSCs isolated from the Wharton's jelly (WJ), the most abundant MSC source in umbilical cord, with bone marrow (BM)-MSCs, the most extensively studied MSC population. METHODS: MSCs were isolated and expanded from BM aspirates of hematologically healthy donors (n = 18) and from the WJ of full-term neonates (n = 18)...
April 26, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445988/specific-up-regulation-of-p21-by-a-small-active-rna-sequence-suppresses-human-colorectal-cancer-growth
#14
Lu-Lu Wang, Hui-Hui Guo, Yun Zhan, Chen-Lin Feng, Shuai Huang, Yan-Xing Han, Wen-Sheng Zheng, Jian-Dong Jiang
The double stranded small active RNA (saRNA)- p21-saRNA-322 inhibits tumor growth by stimulating the p21 gene expression. We focused our research of p21-saRNA-322 on colorectal cancer because 1) p21 down-regulation is a signature abnormality of the cancer, and 2) colorectal cancer might be a suitable target for in situ p21-saRNA-322 delivery. The goal of the present study is to learn the activity of p21-saRNA-322 in colorectal cancer. Three human colorectal cancer cell lines, HCT-116, HCT-116 (p53-/-) and HT-29 were transfected with the p21-saRNA-322...
April 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445141/downregulation-of-protein-kinase-ck2-activity-induces-age-related-biomarkers-in-c-elegans
#15
Jeong-Hwan Park, Joo-Hyun Lee, Jeong-Woo Park, Dong-Yun Kim, Jeong-Hoon Hahm, Hong Gil Nam, Young-Seuk Bae
Studies show that a decrease in protein kinase CK2 (CK2) activity is associated with cellular senescence. However, the role of CK2 in organism aging is still poorly understood. Here, we investigated whether protein kinase CK2 (CK2) modulated longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans. CK2 activity decreased with advancing age in the worms. Knockdown of kin-10 (the ortholog of CK2β) led to a short lifespan phenotype and induced age-related biomarkers, including retardation of locomotion, decreased pharyngeal pumping rate, increased lipofuscin accumulation, and reduced resistance to heat and oxidative stress...
April 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445002/glucose-metabolism-targeting-therapy-and-withaferin-a-are-effective-for-egfr-tki-induced-drug-tolerant-persisters
#16
Kei Kunimasa, Tatsuya Nagano, Yohei Shimono, Ryota Dokuni, Tatsunori Kiriu, Shuntaro Tokunaga, Daisuke Tamura, Masatsugu Yamamoto, Motoko Tachihara, Kazuyuki Kobayashi, Miyako Satouchi, Yoshihiro Nishimura
In pathway-targeted cancer drug therapies, the relatively rapid emergence of drug-tolerant persisters (DTPs) substantially limits the overall therapeutic benefit. However, little is known about the roles of DTPs in drug resistance. In this study, we investigated the features of EGFR-TKI induced DTPs and explored a new treatment strategy to overcome the emergence of these DTPs. We used two EGFR mutated lung adenocarcinoma cell lines, PC9 and II-18. They were treated with 2 μM gefitinib for 6, 12, or 24 days or 6 month...
April 26, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444897/aging-asexual-lineages-and-the-evolutionary-maintenance-of-sex
#17
E K H Ho, A F Agrawal
Finite populations of asexual and highly selfing species suffer from a reduced efficacy of selection. Such populations are thought to decline in fitness over time due to accumulating slightly deleterious mutations or failing to adapt to changing conditions. These within-population processes that lead non-recombining species to extinction may help maintain sex and outcrossing through species level selection. Although inefficient selection is proposed to elevate extinction rates over time, previous models of species selection for sex assumed constant diversification rates...
April 26, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444744/dual-cdk4-6-inhibition-by-pd-0332991-induces-apoptosis-and-senescence-in-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-cells
#18
Liang Chen, Jingxuan Pan
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Aberrant activation of Cyclin D1-CDK4/6-Rb signaling pathway is common in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). PD-0332991, a highly specific inhibitor of CDK4/6, has been showed potent antitumor activity against multiple types of cancer. The purpose of this study was to examine the in vitro and in vivo antineoplastic effect of PD-0332991 against the growth and metastasis in ESCC cells. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Cell viability and synergy between PD-0332991 and 5-fluorouracil/Cisplatin were measured by MTS assay and CalcuSyn software, respectively...
April 25, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443528/understanding-medusahead-low-intake-and-palatability-through-in-vitro-digestibility-and-fermentation-kinetics
#19
J J Montes-Sánchez, J J Villalba
The low intake of medusahead grass (Taeniatherum caput-medusae ssp. asperum) by sheep is attributed to the high silica content of the plant and its negative impact on digestibility, making this weed a successful competitor in grazed plant communities. The goals of this study were to determine the influence of (1) plant maturity stage (from late vegetative stage to beginning of senescence and thatch), (2) particle size (1, 5, 10 and 20 mm), and (3) high-quality feeds (alfalfa hay and a high-energy concentrate) on fermentation kinetics and apparent digestibility of medusahead relative to palatable feeds (alfalfa and tall fescue hays, and high-energy concentrates)...
April 26, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442347/chronic-mitochondrial-calcium-elevation-suppresses-leaf-senescence
#20
Shijuan Fu, Luhua Li, Huimin Kang, Xue Yang, Shuzhen Men, Yuequan Shen
Mitochondria Ca(2+) overload has long been recognized as a cell death trigger. Unexpectedly, we demonstrated a signaling complex composed of Calmodulin (CaM), Arabidopsis thaliana Bcl-2-associated athanogene 5 (AtBAG5) and Heat-shock cognate 70 protein (Hsc70) within Arabidopsis thaliana mitochondria which transduces mitochondria Ca(2+) elevations to suppress leaf senescence. Gain- and loss-of-function AtBAG5 mutant plants revealed that, mitochondria Ca(2+) elevation significantly increase chlorophyll retention and decrease H2O2 level in dark-induced leaf senescence assay...
April 22, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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