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Senescence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458179/live-and-let-die-the-core-circadian-oscillator-coordinates-life-history-of-plants-and-pilots-leaf-senescence
#1
Ulrike Zentgraf, Jasmin Doll, Lena Riester
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 16, 2018: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458070/the-epigenetic-alterations-of-endogenous-retroelements-in-aging
#2
REVIEW
Maurizio Cardelli
Endogenous retroelements, transposons that mobilize through RNA intermediates, include some of the most abundant repetitive sequences of the human genome, such as Alu and LINE-1 sequences, and human endogenous retroviruses. Recent discoveries demonstrate that these mobile genetic elements not only act as intragenomic parasites, but also exert regulatory roles in living cells. The risk of genomic instability represented by endogenous retroelements is normally counteracted by a series of epigenetic control mechanisms which include, among the most important, CpG DNA methylation...
February 16, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457783/cellular-senescence-in-brain-aging-and-neurodegenerative-diseases-evidence-and-perspectives
#3
Darren J Baker, Ronald C Petersen
Along with a general decline in overall health, most chronic degenerative human diseases are inherently associated with increasing age. Age-associated cognitive impairments and neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases, are potentially debilitating conditions that lack viable options for treatment, resulting in a tremendous economic and societal cost. Most high-profile clinical trials for neurodegenerative diseases have led to inefficacious results, suggesting that novel approaches to treating these pathologies are needed...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454645/characterization-of-cd4-t-cell-mediated-cytotoxicity-in-patients-with-multiple-myeloma
#4
Xiaole Zhang, Lei Gao, Kai Meng, Chunting Han, Qiang Li, Zhenjun Feng, Lei Chen
Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable cancer characterized by the development of malignant plasma cells. The CD8 T cell-mediated cytotoxicity is considered a major player in antitumor immunity, but in MM patients, the CD8 T cells displayed senescence markers and were functionally impaired. To investigate whether cytotoxic CD4 T cells could act as a treatment alternative in MM, we examined the frequency and function of naturally occurring cytotoxic CD4 T cells in MM patients. The cytotoxic CD4 T cells were identified as granzyme-A, granzyme B-, and perforin-expressing CD4 T cells, and their frequencies were significantly upregulated in MM patients when compared with healthy controls...
February 12, 2018: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454261/frequency-of-somatic-tp53-mutations-in-combination-with-known-pathogenic-mutations-in-colon-adenocarcinoma-non-small-cell-lung-carcinoma-and-gliomas-as-identified-by-next-generation-sequencing
#5
Zahra Shajani-Yi, Francine B de Abreu, Jason D Peterson, Gregory J Tsongalis
The tumor suppressor gene TP53 is the most frequently mutated gene in human cancer. It encodes p53, a DNA-binding transcription factor that regulates multiple genes involved in DNA repair, metabolism, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and senescence. TP53 is associated with human cancer by mutations that lead to a loss of wild-type p53 function as well as mutations that confer alternate oncogenic functions that enable them to promote invasion, metastasis, proliferation, and cell survival. Identifying the discrete TP53 mutations in tumor cells may help direct therapies that are more effective...
February 13, 2018: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454112/comparative-proteomic-analysis-of-the-maize-responses-to-early-leaf-senescence-induced-by-preventing-pollination
#6
Liancheng Wu, Shunxi Wang, Lei Tian, Liuji Wu, Mingna Li, Jun Zhang, Pei Li, Weiqiang Zhang, Yanhui Chen
The aim of this study was to explore the molecular mechanisms of induced leaf senescence by preventing pollination in maize using a proteomic method combined with other physiological methods. An elite maize inbred line Yu816 were selected for evaluation of its senescence mechanism. Phenotypic and chlorophyll content analysis revealed that the onset of leaf senescence occurred earlier in non-pollinated (NONPOL) leaves than pollinated (POL) leaves. Leaf protein species of NONPOL and POL leaves were separately extracted and their proteomes were assessed using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) analysis...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453885/bacterial-neuraminidase-mediated-erythrocyte-desialylation-provokes-cell-surface-aminophospholipid-exposure
#7
Syed M Qadri, David A Donkor, Ishac Nazy, Donald R Branch, William P Sheffield
BACKGROUND: Surface desialylation is associated with erythrocyte aging and mediates phagocytic recognition and clearance of senescent erythrocytes. Neuraminidases, a family of glycohydrolytic enzymes, cleave the glycosidic linkages between sialic acid and mucopolysaccharides and have previously been implicated in erythrocyte dysfunction associated with sepsis. Erythrocytes in septic patients further display a phenotype of accelerated eryptosis characterized by membrane phospholipid scrambling resulting in phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization...
February 17, 2018: European Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453723/macroelements-and-heavy-metals-content-in-energy-crops-cultivated-on-contaminated-soil-under-different-fertilization-case-studies-on-autumn-harvest
#8
Marta Pogrzeba, Szymon Rusinowski, Jacek Krzyżak
Heavy metals (HMs) contamination of soils is a major problem occurring worldwide. Utility of energy crops for biofuel feedstock production systems offers a feasible solution for a commercial exploitation of an arable land contaminated with HMs. Experiments involved field testing of Miscanthus x giganteus and Spartina pectinata cultivated on HMs-contaminated soil with standard NPK fertilizers and commercially available microbial inoculum. Biomass yield, water content, macronutrients (N, P, K, Mg, Ca), and heavy metal (Cd, Pb, Zn) concentrations in plant shoots were assessed at the end of the first and the second growing season...
February 16, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452453/-personalized-ophthalmology-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-for-in-vitro-modelling-of-retinal-degenerative-diseases
#9
Caroline Brandl, Bernhard H F Weber
Today, the search for therapeutic options to treat retinal degeneration often relies on an in-depth understanding of the underlying pathological events. Alternatively, it is conceivable to search, in an undirected screening approach, for chemical compounds affecting disease outcome. For both approaches, there is an urgent need for in vitro and, ideally, in vivo disease models that adequately reflect the site of pathology. Currently available animal models possess limitations as they often develop only defined aspects of disease...
February 16, 2018: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451817/the-impact-of-pulse-pressure-on-cerebrovascular-events-leading-to-age-related-cognitive-decline
#10
Nathalie Thorin-Trescases, Olivia de Montgolfier, Anthony Pinçon, Adeline Raignault, Laurie Caland, Pauline Labbé, Eric Thorin
Aging is a modern concept: human life expectancy has more than doubled in less than 150 years in Western countries. Longer lifespan, however, reveals age-related diseases, including cerebrovascular diseases. The vascular system is a prime target of aging: the "wear and tear" of large elastic arteries exposed to a life-long pulsatile pressure causes arterial stiffening by fragmentation of elastin fibers and replacement by stiffer collagen. This arterial stiffening increases in return the amplitude of the pulse pressure (PP), its wave penetrating deeper into the microcirculation of low resistance, high flow organs such as the brain...
February 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449851/divergent-n-deficiency-dependent-senescence-and-transcriptome-response-in-developmentally-old-and-young-brassica-napus-leaves
#11
Vajiheh Safavi-Rizi, Jürgen Franzaring, Andreas Fangmeier, Reinhard Kunze
In the spring oilseed rape (OSR) cultivar 'Mozart' grown under optimal N supply (N O ) or mild N deficiency (N L ) the transcriptome changes associated with progressing age until early senescence in developmentally old lower canopy leaves (leaf #4) and younger higher canopy leaves (leaf #8) were investigated. Twelve weeks old N O and N L plants appeared phenotypically and transcriptomically identical, but thereafter distinct nutrition-dependent differences in gene expression patterns in lower and upper canopy leaves emerged...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449707/modulation-of-cardiac-stem-cell-characteristics-by-metoprolol-in-hypertensive-heart-disease
#12
Sherin Saheera, Ajay Godwin Potnuri, Renuka R Nair
Cardiac stem cells (CSCs) play a vital role in cardiac remodeling. Uncontrolled hypertension leads to cardiac hypertrophy, followed by cardiac failure. Pathological remodeling is associated with enhanced oxidative stress. Decreased cardiac stem cell efficiency is speculated in heart diseases. Maintaining a healthy stem cell population is essential for preventing progressive cardiac remodeling. Some anti-hypertensive drugs are cardioprotective. However, the effect of these drugs on CSCs has not been investigated...
February 15, 2018: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449647/the-pro-inflammatory-phenotype-of-the-human-non-classical-monocyte-subset-is-attributed-to-senescence
#13
Siew-Min Ong, Eva Hadadi, Truong-Minh Dang, Wei-Hseun Yeap, Crystal Tze-Ying Tan, Tze-Pin Ng, Anis Larbi, Siew-Cheng Wong
Human primary monocytes comprise a heterogeneous population that can be classified into three subsets based on CD14 and CD16 expression: classical (CD14 high /CD16 - ), intermediate (CD14 high /CD16 + ), and non-classical (CD14 low /CD16 + ). The non-classical monocytes are the most pro-inflammatory in response to TLR stimulation in vitro, yet they express a remarkably high basal level of miR-146a, a microRNA known to negatively regulate the TLR pathway. This concurrence of a pro-inflammatory status and a high miR-146a level has been associated with cellular senescence in other cell types...
February 15, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449545/transcriptional-repression-of-dna-repair-genes-is-a-hallmark-and-a-cause-of-cellular-senescence
#14
Guillaume Collin, Anda Huna, Marine Warnier, Jean-Michel Flaman, David Bernard
Cellular senescence response is (i) activated by numerous stresses, (ii) is characterized by a stable proliferation arrest, and (iii) by a set of specific features. Timely regulated senescence is thought to be beneficial, whereas chronic senescence such as during normal or premature aging is deleterious as it favors most, if not all, age-related diseases. In this study, using in-house or publicly available microarray analyses of transcriptomes of senescent cells, as well as analyses of the level of expression of several DNA repair genes by RT-qPCR and immunoblot, we show that repression of DNA repair gene expression is associated with cellular senescence...
February 15, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449532/senescence-associated-secretory-factors-induced-by-cisplatin-in-melanoma-cells-promote-non-senescent-melanoma-cell-growth-through-activation-of-the-erk1-2-rsk1-pathway
#15
Xuerong Sun, Benyan Shi, Huiling Zheng, Ling Min, Jie Yang, Xiaoyi Li, Xiaoxin Liao, Weixing Huang, Mingmeng Zhang, Shun Xu, Zhe Zhu, Hongjing Cui, Xinguang Liu
Although targeted therapy and immunotherapy greatly improve the outcome of melanoma, drug resistance and low response rates still maintain the unsubstitutability of traditional chemotherapy. Cisplatin (CDDP) is widely used in different types of tumours with high response rates, but it generally has low efficiency in melanoma. The mechanisms underpinning the phenomena are not sufficiently understood. Here we demonstrated that various melanoma cell lines adopted senescence phenotype after CDDP treatment in contrast to the other types of tumour cells...
February 15, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448954/new-therapeutic-strategies-to-treat-human-cancers-expressing-mutant-p53-proteins
#16
REVIEW
Giovanni Blandino, Silvia Di Agostino
The tumor suppressor p53 plays a critical role to preserve DNA fidelity from diverse insults through the regulation of cell-cycle checkpoints, DNA repair, senescence and apoptosis. The TP53 is the most frequently inactivated gene in human cancers. This leads to the production of mutant p53 proteins that loose wild-type p53 tumor suppression functions and concomitantly acquire new oncogenic properties among which deregulated cell proliferation, increased chemoresistance, disruption of tissue architecture, promotion of migration, invasion and metastasis and several other pro-oncogenic activities...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447461/genetic-ablation-of-p16-ink4a-does-not-protect-against-cellular-senescence-in-mouse-models-of-copd-emphysema
#17
Isaac K Sundar, Kahkashan Rashid, Janice Gerloff, Dongmei Li, Irfan Rahman
Cigarette smoke (CS) affects DNA damage and cellular senescence signaling pathways in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). p16(INK4a) (p16: a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor) is a key marker of cellular senescence, which is induced by CS in lung cells. It is thought that removal of p16 attenuates premature aging by removing senesced cells. However, the role of p16 in CS-induced stress induce premature senescence (SIPS) and senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP during the development of COPD/emphysema is not known...
February 15, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447202/nitrogen-isotopes-suggest-a-change-in-nitrogen-dynamics-between-the-late-pleistocene-and-modern-time-in-yukon-canada
#18
Farnoush Tahmasebi, Fred J Longstaffe, Grant Zazula
A magnificent repository of Late Pleistocene terrestrial megafauna fossils is contained in ice-rich loess deposits of Alaska and Yukon, collectively eastern Beringia. The stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope compositions of bone collagen from these fossils are routinely used to determine paleodiet and reconstruct the paleoecosystem. This approach requires consideration of changes in C- and N-isotope dynamics over time and their effects on the terrestrial vegetation isotopic baseline. To test for such changes between the Late Pleistocene and modern time, we compared δ13C and δ15N for vegetation and bone collagen and structural carbonate of some modern, Yukon, arctic ground squirrels with vegetation and bones from Late Pleistocene fossil arctic ground squirrel nests preserved in Yukon loess deposits...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446526/the-scn9a-channel-and-plasma-membrane-depolarization-promote-cellular-senescence-through-rb-pathway
#19
Marine Warnier, Jean-Michel Flaman, Christophe Chouabe, Clotilde Wiel, Baptiste Gras, Audrey Griveau, Elena Blanc, Jean-Philippe Foy, Pauline Mathot, Pierre Saintigny, Fabien Van Coppenolle, David Vindrieux, Nadine Martin, David Bernard
Oncogenic signals lead to premature senescence in normal human cells causing a proliferation arrest and the elimination of these defective cells by immune cells. Oncogene-induced senescence (OIS) prevents aberrant cell division and tumor initiation. In order to identify new regulators of OIS, we performed a loss-of-function genetic screen and identified that the loss of SCN9A allowed cells to escape from OIS. The expression of this sodium channel increased in senescent cells during OIS. This upregulation was mediated by NF-κB transcription factors, which are well-known regulators of senescence...
February 15, 2018: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446169/oxygen-concentration-modulates-cellular-senescence-and-autophagy-in-human-trophoblast-cells
#20
Kotomi Seno, Nao Tanikawa, Hironori Takahashi, Akihide Ohkuchi, Hirotada Suzuki, Shigeki Matsubara, Hisataka Iwata, Takehito Kuwayama, Koumei Shirasuna
PROBLEM: We investigated the effect of oxygen concentrations on cellular senescence and autophagy and examined the role of autophagy in human trophoblast cells. METHOD OF STUDY: Human first-trimester trophoblast cells (Sw.71) were incubated under 21%, 5%, or 1% O 2 concentrations for 24 hours. We examined the extent of senescence caused using senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-Gal) and senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) as markers. Moreover, we examined the role of autophagy in causing cellular senescence using an autophagy inhibitor (3-methyladenine, 3MA)...
February 15, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
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