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Senescence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647908/cmv-immune-evasion-and-manipulation-of-the-immune-system-with-aging
#1
REVIEW
Sarah E Jackson, Anke Redeker, Ramon Arens, Debbie van Baarle, Sara P H van den Berg, Chris A Benedict, Luka Čičin-Šain, Ann B Hill, Mark R Wills
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) encodes numerous proteins and microRNAs that function to evade the immune response and allow the virus to replicate and disseminate in the face of a competent innate and acquired immune system. The establishment of a latent infection by CMV, which if completely quiescent at the level of viral gene expression would represent an ultimate in immune evasion strategies, is not sufficient for lifelong persistence and dissemination of the virus. CMV needs to reactivate and replicate in a lytic cycle of infection in order to disseminate further, which occurs in the face of a fully primed secondary immune response...
June 24, 2017: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647885/osteomacs-and-bone-regeneration
#2
REVIEW
Lena Batoon, Susan Marie Millard, Liza Jane Raggatt, Allison Robyn Pettit
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mounting evidence supporting the critical contribution of macrophages, in particular osteal macrophages, to bone regeneration is reviewed. We specifically examine the potential role of macrophages in the basic multicellular units coordinating lifelong bone regeneration via remodelling and bone regeneration in response to injury. We review and discuss the distinctions between macrophage and osteoclast contributions to bone homeostasis, particularly the dichotomous role of the colony-stimulating factor 1-colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor axis...
June 24, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647555/normalizing-the-gene-dosage-of-dyrk1a-in-a-mouse-model-of-down-syndrome-rescues-several-alzheimer-s-disease-phenotypes
#3
Susana García-Cerro, Noemí Rueda, Verónica Vidal, Sara Lantigua, Carmen Martínez-Cué
The intellectual disability that characterizes Down syndrome (DS) is primarily caused by prenatal changes in central nervous system growth and differentiation. However, in later life stages, the cognitive abilities of DS individuals progressively decline due to accelerated aging and the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology. The AD neuropathology in DS has been related to the overexpression of several genes encoded by Hsa21 including DYRK1A (dual-specificity tyrosine-(Y)-phosphorylation regulated kinase 1A), which encodes a protein kinase that performs crucial functions in the regulation of multiple signaling pathways that contribute to normal brain development and adult brain physiology...
June 21, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647344/oncogene-expressing-senescent-melanocytes-upregulate-mhc-class-ii-a-candidate-melanoma-suppressor-function
#4
John van Tuyn, Farah Jaber-Hijazi, Douglas MacKenzie, John J Cole, Elizabeth Mann, Jeff S Pawlikowski, Taranjit Singh Rai, David M Nelson, Tony McBryan, Andre Ivanov, Karen Blyth, Hong Wu, Simon Milling, Peter D Adams
On acquisition of an oncogenic mutation, primary human and mouse cells can enter oncogene-induced senescence (OIS). OIS is characterized by a stable proliferation arrest and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Proliferation arrest and the SASP collaborate to enact tumor suppression, the former by blocking cell proliferation and the latter by recruiting immune cells to clear damaged cells. However, the interactions of OIS cells with the immune system are still poorly defined...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646455/human-nucleus-pulposus-intervertebral-disc-cells-becoming-senescent-using-different-treatments-exhibit-a-similar-transcriptional-profile-of-catabolic-and-inflammatory-genes
#5
Sotiris-Spyros Vamvakas, Eleni Mavrogonatou, Dimitris Kletsas
PURPOSE: Chronic low back pain has been associated with intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration, which is characterized by the accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM)-degrading proteases and inflammatory molecules in the degenerate tissue. IVD degeneration could be the outcome of natural organismal ageing and/or of the exposure of the disc to cumulative stressful environmental stimuli and is accompanied by an increased population of senescent cells in the tissue. On the other hand, senescent cells are known to secrete proteolytic enzymes and inflammatory molecules, which can contribute to ECM catabolism...
June 23, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646235/over-expression-of-long-non-coding-rna-panda-promotes-hepatocellular-carcinoma-by-inhibiting-senescence-associated-inflammatory-factor-il8
#6
Chuanhui Peng, Wendi Hu, Xiaoyu Weng, Rongliang Tong, Shaobing Cheng, Chaofeng Ding, Heng Xiao, Zhen Lv, Haiyang Xie, Lin Zhou, Jian Wu, Shusen Zheng
It has been reported that long non-coding RNA PANDA was disregulated in varieties types of tumor, but its expression level and biological role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains contradictory. We detected PANDA expression in two independent cohorts (48 HCC patients following liver transplantation and 84 HCC patients following liver resection), and found that PANDA was down-regulated in HCC. Thereafter we explored its function in cancer biology by inversing its low expression. Surprisingly, overexpression of PANDA promoted HCC proliferation and carcinogenesis in vitro and in vivo...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646123/expression-of-mir-23a-induces-telomere-shorteningand-is-associated-with-poor-clinical-outcomesin-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease
#7
Mamoru Satoh, Takahito Nasu, Yuji Takahashi, Takuya Osaki, Sho Hitomi, Yoshihiro Morino, Motoyuki Nakamura
Telomeric repeat binding factor 2 (TRF2) plays an important role in telomere maintenance. MicroRNA (miR)-23a may directly inhibit TRF2 expression, inducing telomere shortening and cellular senescence. This study aimed to determine whether miR-23a and TRF2 are expressed in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), and whether pitavastatin might affect these levels. This study included 104 patients with CAD and 50 controls. Patients with CAD were randomly divided into two subgroups [a moderate lipid lowering therapy (LLT) group and an aggressive LLT group]...
June 23, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645930/genomic-and-non-genomic-effects-of-androgens-in-the-cardiovascular-system-clinical-implications
#8
REVIEW
Angela K Lucas Herald, Rheure Alves-Lopes, Augusto C Montezano, S Faisal Ahmed, Rhian M Touyz
The principle steroidal androgens are testosterone and its metabolite 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), which is converted from testosterone by the enzyme 5α-reductase. Through the classic pathway with androgens crossing the plasma membrane and binding to the androgen receptor (AR) or via mechanisms independent of the ligand-dependent transactivation function of nuclear receptors, testosterone induces genomic and non-genomic effects respectively. AR is widely distributed in several tissues, including vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells...
July 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645815/from-cellular-senescence-to-regeneration-a-quest-for-the-holy-grail-for-the-next-generation-of-surgeons
#9
EDITORIAL
Igor E Konstantinov, Xin Tao Ye, Tyson A Fricke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 19, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645477/the-overexpression-of-cpr-and-p450-3a4-in-pancreatic-cancer-cells-changes-the-metabolic-profile-and-increases-the-cytotoxicity-and-pro-apoptotic-activity-of-acridine-antitumor-agent-c-1748
#10
Barbara Borowa-Mazgaj, Anna Mróz, Ewa Augustin, Ewa Paluszkiewicz, Zofia Mazerska
Drug resistance is one of the major cause of pancreatic cancer treatment failure. Thus, it is still imperative to develop new active compounds and novel approach to improve drug efficacy. Here we present 9-amino-1-nitroacridine antitumor agent, C-1748, developed in our laboratory, as a candidate for pancreatic cancer treatment. We examined (i) the cellular response of pancreatic cancer cell lines: Panc-1, MiaPaCa-2, BxPC-3 and AsPC-1, differing in expression levels of commonly mutated genes for this cancer type, to C-1748 treatment and (ii) the role of P450 3A4 isoenzyme and cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) in the modulation of this response...
June 20, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645112/tap63%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-np63%C3%AE-are-regulated-by-rbm38-via-mrna-stability-and-have-an-opposing-function-in-growth-suppression
#11
Wensheng Yan, Yanhong Zhang, Xinbin Chen
The p63 gene is expressed as TAp63 from the P1 promoter and as ΔNp63 from the P2 promoter. Through alternative splicing, five TA and five ΔN isoforms (α-ε) are expressed. Isoforms α-β and δ share an identical 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) whereas isoform γ has a unique 3'UTR. Recently, we found that RBM38 RNA-binding protein is a target of p63 and RBM38 in turn regulates p63α/β expression via mRNA stability. However, it is uncertain whether p63γ has a unique biological activity and whether p63γ is regulated by RBM38...
June 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644983/future-heat-waves-due-to-climate-change-threaten-the-survival-of-p-%C3%A2-oceanica-seedlings
#12
Laura Guerrero-Meseguer, Arnaldo Marín, Carlos Sanz-Lázaro
Extreme weather events are major drivers of ecological change, and their occurrence is likely to increase due to climate change. The transient increases in atmospheric temperatures are leading to a greater occurrence of heat waves, extreme events that can produce a substantial warming of water, especially in enclosed basins such as the Mediterranean Sea. Here, we tested the effects of current and predicted heat waves on the early stages of development of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica. Temperatures above 27 °C limited the growth of the plant by inhibiting its photosynthetic system...
June 20, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642812/the-antioxidant-machinery-of-young-and-senescent-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells-and-their-microvesicles
#13
Guillermo Bodega, Matilde Alique, Lourdes Bohórquez, Sergio Ciordia, María C Mena, Manuel R Ramírez
We examine the antioxidant role of young and senescent human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and their microvesicles (MVs). Proteomic and Western blot studies have shown young HUVECs to have a complete and well-developed antioxidant system. Their MVs also contain antioxidant molecules, though of a smaller and more specific range, specialized in the degradation of hydrogen peroxide and the superoxide anion via the thioredoxin-peroxiredoxin system. Senescence was shown to be associated with a large increase in the size of the antioxidant machinery in both HUVECs and their MVs...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641152/urea-induced-ros-accelerate-senescence-in-endothelial-progenitor-cells
#14
Maria D'Apolito, Anna Laura Colia, Maria Lasalvia, Vito Capozzi, Maria Pia Falcone, Massimo Pettoello-Mantovani, Michael Brownlee, Angela Bruna Maffione, Ida Giardino
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The pathogenic events responsible for the reduction of endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) number and function seen in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) are poorly understood. Here we investigate the hypothesis that increased concentrations of urea associated with CRF increase ROS production directly in EPCs, causing abnormalities associated with coronary artery disease risk. METHODS: Human EPCs were isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy donors and cultured in the presence or absence of 20 mmol/L urea...
June 15, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641138/changes-in-lipid-peroxidation-in-stay-green-leaves-of-tobacco-with-senescence-induced-synthesis-of-cytokinins
#15
Maria Pilarska, Ernest Skowron, Rafał Pietraś, Karin Krupinska, Ewa Niewiadomska
The involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the progress of leaf senescence has long been suggested, but there are contrasting results to either support or deny the positive correlation between the senescence progression and the level of ROS-triggered lipid peroxidation. The inconsistency among reported results can partly be attributed to the poor specificity of the most commonly employed colorimetric assay and changes in the ratio of dry weight/fresh weight during leaf senescence. In this study we determined the end-product of lipid peroxidation malondialdehyde (MDA) by GS-MS, and analyzed its changes during senescence of tobacco leaves as calculated on dry weight basis...
June 15, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640873/healthy-aging-of-the-left-ventricle-in-relationship-to-cardiovascular-risk-factors-the-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis-mesa
#16
Chia-Ying Liu, Shenghan Lai, Nadine Kawel-Boehm, Harjit Chahal, Bharath Ambale-Venkatesh, Joao A C Lima, David A Bluemke
BACKGROUND: Understanding the relationship of cardiovascular structure and function to age is confounded by the high prevalence of traditional risk factors in the United States. The purpose of the study is to compare left ventricular (LV) and aortic structural, and functional parameters in individuals with and without traditional risk factors in a population-based cohort. METHODS AND RESULTS: 3015 study participants (48% men, age 55-94, mean 69.01±9.17 years) in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging from 2010-2012...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640444/impact-of-growth-hormone-on-regulation-of-adipose-tissue
#17
Katie M Troike, Brooke E Henry, Elizabeth A Jensen, Jonathan A Young, Edward O List, John J Kopchick, Darlene E Berryman
Increasing prevalence of obesity and obesity-related conditions worldwide has necessitated a more thorough understanding of adipose tissue (AT) and expanded the scope of research in this field. AT is now understood to be far more complex and dynamic than previously thought, which has also fueled research to reevaluate how hormones, such as growth hormone (GH), alter the tissue. In this review, we will introduce properties of AT important for understanding how GH alters the tissue, such as anatomical location of depots and adipokine output...
June 18, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639116/integration-of-transcriptomic-and-metabolic-data-reveals-hub-transcription-factors-involved-in-drought-stress-response-in-sunflower-helianthus-annuus-l
#18
Sebastián Moschen, Julio A Di Rienzo, Janet Higgins, Takayuki Tohge, Mutsumi Watanabe, Sergio González, Máximo Rivarola, Francisco García-García, Joaquin Dopazo, H Esteban Hopp, Rainer Hoefgen, Alisdair R Fernie, Norma Paniego, Paula Fernández, Ruth A Heinz
By integration of transcriptional and metabolic profiles we identified pathways and hubs transcription factors regulated during drought conditions in sunflower, useful for applications in molecular and/or biotechnological breeding. Drought is one of the most important environmental stresses that effects crop productivity in many agricultural regions. Sunflower is tolerant to drought conditions but the mechanisms involved in this tolerance remain unclear at the molecular level. The aim of this study was to characterize and integrate transcriptional and metabolic pathways related to drought stress in sunflower plants, by using a system biology approach...
June 21, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638987/leukodystrophies-a-proposed-classification-system-based-on-pathological-changes-and-pathogenetic-mechanisms
#19
REVIEW
Marjo S van der Knaap, Marianna Bugiani
Leukodystrophies are genetically determined disorders characterized by the selective involvement of the central nervous system white matter. Onset may be at any age, from prenatal life to senescence. Many leukodystrophies are degenerative in nature, but some only impair white matter function. The clinical course is mostly progressive, but may also be static or even improving with time. Progressive leukodystrophies are often fatal, and no curative treatment is known. The last decade has witnessed a tremendous increase in the number of defined leukodystrophies also owing to a diagnostic approach combining magnetic resonance imaging pattern recognition and next generation sequencing...
June 21, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638452/targeting-tpx2-suppresses-the-tumorigenesis-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells-resulting-in-arrested-mitotic-phase-progression-and-increased-genomic-instability
#20
Chao-Wen Hsu, Yu-Chia Chen, Hsing-Hao Su, Guan-Jin Huang, Chih-Wen Shu, Tony Tong-Lin Wu, Hung-Wei Pan
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains one of the most difficult cancers to treat, with chemotherapies being relatively ineffective. Therefore, a better knowledge of molecular hepatocarcinogenesis will provide opportunities for designing targeted therapies. TPX2 (targeting protein for Xklp2) is overexpressed as a consequence of oncogenic alterations and is likely to alter the proper regulation of chromosome segregation in cancer cells. Disrupting the machinery which is responsible for mitosis and chromosome instability in cancer cells can be one of the most successful strategies for cancer therapy...
2017: Journal of Cancer
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