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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222476/morphophysiological-mechanism-of-rice-yield-increase-in-response-to-optimized-nitrogen-management
#1
Wei Zhou, Tengfei Lv, Zhiping Yang, Tao Wang, Yong Fu, Yong Chen, Binhua Hu, Wanjun Ren
The yield-increasing mechanism of an optimized nitrogen fertilizer application (OFA) in rice was reported in this work through a three-year test. Results showed that the number of branches and spikelets increased, panicle length, the diameter and vascular bundle number of panicle-neck internode improved with OFA. Under the condition of OFA, high effective leaf areas, especially for the flag and the second upper leaf areas, increased, the net photosynthetic rate of the upper three leaves promoted, so the photosynthetic productivity went up by a large margin; moreover, the content of soluble protein and chlorophyll of leaf also increased, and the content of soluble sugar and malondialdehyde (MDA) decreased, as a result in slowing down the senescence speed in leaves, and increasing the photosynthetic time...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221940/pioglitazone-attenuates-aging-related-disorders-in-aged-apolipoprotein-e-deficient-mice
#2
Dan Shen, Hao Li, Rui Zhou, Meng-Jie Liu, Hong Yu, Dong-Fang Wu
Pioglitazone (Piog) activates peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) and is widely used in clinic for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. PPARγ in various tissues has the essential regulatory role of multiple metabolic function, suggest that PPARγ signaling may contribute to aging processes. However, little is known about the consequences of Piog on aging in aged animal models. We used apolipoprotein E deficient (apoE-/-) mice model to evaluate the effects of Piog on aging-related disorders...
December 5, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221158/epigenetic-silencing-of-mir-296-and-mir-512-ensures-htert-dependent-apoptosis-protection-and-telomere-maintenance-in-basal-type-breast-cancer-cells
#3
Roberto Dinami, Valentina Buemi, Rosanna Sestito, Antonina Zappone, Yari Ciani, Miguel Mano, Eleonora Petti, Andrea Sacconi, Giovanni Blandino, Mauro Giacca, Silvano Piazza, Roberta Benetti, Stefan Schoeftner
The catalytic subunit of the telomerase complex, hTERT, ensures unlimited proliferative potential of cancer cells by maintaining telomere function and protecting from apoptosis. Using a miRNA screening approach we identified miR-296-5p and miR-512-5p as miRNAs that target hTERT in breast cancer cells. Ectopic miR-296-5p and miR-512-5p reduce telomerase activity, drive telomere shortening and cause proliferation defects by enhancing senescence and apoptosis in breast cancer cells. In line with the relevance of hTERT expression for human cancer we found that miR-296-5p and miR-512-5p expression is reduced in human breast cancer...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218300/the-dual-role-of-cellular-senescence-in-developing-tumors-and-their-response-to-cancer-therapy
#4
REVIEW
Markus Schosserer, Johannes Grillari, Michael Breitenbach
Cellular senescence describes an irreversible growth arrest characterized by distinct morphology, gene expression pattern, and secretory phenotype. The final or intermediate stages of senescence can be reached by different genetic mechanisms and in answer to different external and internal stresses. It has been maintained in the literature but never proven by clearcut experiments that the induction of senescence serves the evolutionary purpose of protecting the individual from development and growth of cancers...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218113/age-associated-alteration-in-th17-cell-response-is-related-to-endothelial-cell-senescence-and-atherosclerotic-cerebral-infarction
#5
Qing Li, Shaowei Ding, Yuan Min Wang, Xiaoling Xu, Zuojun Shen, Rui Fu, Mengdie Liu, Chaojie Hu, Cuiping Zhang, Qi Cao, Yiping Wang
T-helper 17 (Th17) cells produce Interleukin-17 (IL-17) that plays an important role in host-defense. However, little is known whether aging affects the functions of human Th17 cells. In this study, we examine age-associated alteration in Th17-cell response; correlation between Th17-cells and endothelial cell senescence; and the occurrence of acute cerebral infarction (ACI). First, we examined Th17-frequency, phenotyping, key transcription factors, and relevant cytokines in healthy elderly, middle-aged and young-people along with elderly-patients with ACI...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217686/synaptic-regulator-%C3%AE-synuclein-in-dopaminergic-fibers-is-essentially-required-for-the-maintenance-of-subependymal-neural-stem-cells
#6
Ana Perez-Villalba, Mª Salomé Sirerol-Piquer, Germán Belenguer, Raúl Soriano-Cantón, Ana Belén Muñoz-Manchado, Javier Villadiego, Diana Alarcón-Arís, Federico N Soria, Benjamin Dehay, Erwan Bezard, Miquel Vila, Analía Bortolozzi, Juan José Toledo-Aral, Francisco Pérez-Sánchez, Isabel Fariñas
Synaptic protein α-synuclein (α-SYN) modulates neurotransmission in a complex and poorly understood manner and aggregates in the cytoplasm of degenerating neurons in Parkinson's disease. Here, we report that α-SYN present in dopaminergic nigral afferents is essential for the normal cycling and maintenance of neural stem cells (NSCs) in the brain subependymal zone of adult male and female mice. We also show that premature senescence of adult NSCs into non-neurogenic astrocytes in mice lacking α-SYN resembles the effects of dopaminergic fiber degeneration resulting from chronic exposure to MPTP or intranigral inoculation of aggregated toxic α-SYN...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215802/does-stigma-curvature-promote-delayed-selfing-an-experimental-investigation-in-triodanis-perfoliata-campanulaceae
#7
Carol Goodwillie, Hetal R Patel, DeAnna M Dvorak
Self-fertilization that is delayed until after opportunities for outcrossing have ceased has been argued to provide both the reproductive assurance benefits of selfing and the genetic advantages of outcrossing. In the Campanulaceae, presentation of pollen on stylar hairs and progressive stigma curvature have been hypothesized to facilitate delayed selfing, but experimental tests are lacking. Stigma curvature is common in Campanula, a genus largely characterized by self-incompatibility, and therefore is unlikely to have initially evolved to promote self-fertilization...
December 7, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215061/local-production-of-activated-factor-x-in-atherosclerotic-plaque-induced-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-senescence
#8
Fumihiro Sanada, Jun Muratsu, Rei Otsu, Hideo Shimizu, Nobutaka Koibuchi, Kazutaka Uchida, Yoshiaki Taniyama, Shinichi Yoshimura, Hiromi Rakugi, Ryuichi Morishita
Our previous study demonstrated that coagulation factor Xa (FXa) induced endothelial cell senescence, resulting in inflammation and impaired angiogenesis. This mechanism is dictated through protease-activated receptors, PARs, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 5 (IGFBP-5), and p53. Activation of PARs contributes to the pathophysiology of several chronic inflammatory diseases, including atherosclerosis. Thus, we speculated that similar mechanism might participate in the progression of atherosclerotic plaques...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214647/antagonistic-pleiotropy-and-mutation-accumulation-contribute-to-age-related-decline-in-stress-response
#9
Elizabeth R Everman, Theodore J Morgan
As organisms age, the effectiveness of natural selection weakens, leading to age-related decline in fitness-related traits. The evolution of age-related changes associated with senescence is likely influenced by mutation accumulation (MA) and antagonistic pleiotropy (AP). MA predicts that age-related decline in fitness components is driven by age-specific sets of alleles, non-negative genetic correlations within trait across age, and an increase in the coefficient of genetic variance. AP predicts that age-related decline in a trait is driven by alleles with positive effects on fitness in young individuals and negative effects in old individuals, and is expected to lead to negative genetic correlations within traits across age...
December 7, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214501/mouse-embryonic-fibroblast-mef-bmp4-conditioned-medium-enhanced-multipotency-of-human-dental-pulp-cells
#10
Lu Liu, Zhengjun Peng, Zhezhen Xu, Haoquan Huang, Xi Wei
Dental pulp cells (DPCs) are valuable cell source for dental regeneration, albeit their application is restricted by limited pluripotency due to current culture condition. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) are served as feeder layer to maintain undifferentiated state of iPSCs and ESCs with long-term in vitro culture. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) plays an important role in the regulation of undifferentiated state and lineage commitment of cells through modulation of microenvironment. However, so far little was known how micro environment affect the multipotency of dental derived cells...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Molecular Histology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213062/nutrient-resorption-or-accumulation-of-desert-plants-with-contrasting-sodium-regulation-strategies
#11
Lilong Wang, Liang Wang, Wenliang He, Lizhe An, Shijian Xu
Desert plants are thought to rely more heavily on nutrient resorption due to the infertile soil. However, little is known regarding the phylogenetic effects on this traits, specifically for halophytes. Here we determined contents of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), sodium (Na), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) in 36 desert plants in a hyper-arid environment. The patterns of resorption or accumulation of the six elements were compared among plant groups with diverse leaf Na regulation strategies: i...
December 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212811/altered-expression-of-hepatic-%C3%AE-adrenergic-receptors-in-aging-rats-implications-for-age-related-metabolic-dysfunction-in-liver
#12
Yun Shi, Zhen-Ju Shu, Hanzhou Wang, Jeffrey L Barnes, Chih-Ko Yeh, Paramita M Ghosh, Michael S Katz, Amrita Kamat
Increased β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR)-mediated activation of adenylyl cyclase (AC) in rat liver during aging has been linked to age-related increases in hepatic glucose output and hepatosteatosis. In this study we investigated the expression of β-ARs, individual receptor subtypes, and G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) regulatory proteins in livers from aging rats. Radioligand binding studies demonstrated that β-AR density increased by >3-fold in hepatocyte membranes from senescent (24 mo old) compared to young adult (7 mo old) rats, and that this phenomenon was blocked by food restriction which is known to retard aging processes in rodents...
December 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212784/an-oligoclonal-antibody-durably-overcomes-resistance-of-lung-cancer-to-third-generation-egfr-inhibitors
#13
Maicol Mancini, Hilah Gal, Nadège Gaborit, Luigi Mazzeo, Donatella Romaniello, Tomer Meir Salame, Moshit Lindzen, Georg Mahlknecht, Yehoshua Enuka, Dominick Ga Burton, Lee Roth, Ashish Noronha, Ilaria Marrocco, Dan Adreka, Raya Eilam Altstadter, Emilie Bousquet, Julian Downward, Antonio Maraver, Valery Krizhanovsky, Yosef Yarden
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations identify patients with lung cancer who derive benefit from kinase inhibitors. However, most patients eventually develop resistance, primarily due to the T790M second-site mutation. Irreversible inhibitors (e.g., osimertinib/AZD9291) inhibit T790M-EGFR, but several mechanisms, including a third-site mutation, C797S, confer renewed resistance. We previously reported that a triple mixture of monoclonal antibodies, 3×mAbs, simultaneously targeting EGFR, HER2, and HER3, inhibits T790M-expressing tumors...
December 6, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212671/influence-of-age-and-gender-on-the-phase-and-strength-of-the-relation-between-heart-period-and-systolic-blood-pressure-spontaneous-fluctuations
#14
Juliana C Milan-Mattos, Alberto Porta, Natália M Perseguini, Vinicius Minatel, Patricia Rehder-Santos, Anielle C M Takahashi, Stela M Mattiello, Aparecida M Catai
Aging affects baroreflex regulation. The effect of senescence on baroreflex control was assessed from spontaneous fluctuations of heart period (HP) and systolic arterial pressure (SAP) through the HP-SAP gain, while the HP-SAP phase and strength are usually disregarded. This study checks whether the HP-SAP phase and strength, as estimated respectively via the phase of the HP-SAP cross-spectrum (PhHP-SAP) and squared coherence function (K2HP-SAP), varies with age in healthy individuals and trends are gender-dependent...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212231/zbp-89-function-in-colonic-stem-cells-and-during-butyrate-induced-senescence
#15
Ramon Ocadiz-Ruiz, Amanda L Photenhauer, Michael M Hayes, Lin Ding, Eric R Fearon, Juanita L Merchant
ZBP-89 (Zfp148, ZNF148) is a Kruppel-type zinc-finger family transcription factor that binds to GC-rich DNA elements. Earlier studies in cell lines demonstrated that ZBP-89 cooperates with Wnt β-catenin signaling by inducing β-catenin gene expression. Since β-catenin levels are normally highest at the crypt base, we examined whether ZBP-89 is required for stem cell maintenance. Lineage-tracing using a Zfp148CreERT2 transgenic line demonstrated expression in both intestine and colonic stem cells. Deleting the Zfp148 locus in the colon using the Cdx2NLSCreERT2 transgene, reduced the size and number of polyps formed in the Apc-deleted mice...
November 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212225/the-relevance-of-prelamin-a-and-rad51-as-molecular-biomarkers-in-cervical-cancer
#16
Simona Leonardi, Marianna Buttarelli, Ilaria De Stefano, Gabriella Ferrandina, Marco Petrillo, Gabriele Babini, Giovanni Scambia, Carmela Marino, Mariateresa Mancuso, Daniela Gallo
Along with their role in the maintenance of nuclear architecture, nuclear lamins also control genomic stability, DNA damage repair, transcription, cell proliferation, differentiation and senescence. Recent reports reveal that prelamin A-processing defects play a role in cancer development by impacting on transcription of key players in the maintenance of the genome stability, including RAD51. Here, we performed a 'proof of concept' study evaluating the role of prelamin A and RAD51 expression in clinical outcome of cervical cancer patients...
November 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212153/age-related-modulation-of-plasmatic-beta-galactosidase-activity-in-healthy-subjects-and-in-patients-affected-by-t2dm
#17
Liana Spazzafumo, Emanuela Mensà, Giulia Matacchione, Tiziana Galeazzi, Lucia Zampini, Rina Recchioni, Fiorella Marcheselli, Francesco Prattichizzo, Roberto Testa, Roberto Antonicelli, Paolo Garagnani, Massimo Boemi, Massimiliano Bonafè, Anna Rita Bonfigli, Antonio Domenico Procopio, Fabiola Olivieri
β-Galactosidase (β-Gal) activity has been the most extensively utilized biomarker for the detection of cellular senescence. It can be measured also in plasma, and few recent evidence showed an altered plasmatic β-Gal activity in patients affected by some age-related diseases (ARDs). Since T2DM is one of the most common ARDs, we aimed to investigate if plasmatic β-Gal activity is modulated in T2DM patients and if "age" could affect such modulation. To gain mechanistic insights we paralleled this investigation with the evaluation of β-Gal activity in young and senescent endothelial cells (HUVECs) cultured in normo- and hyper-glycaemic environment...
November 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212073/age-induced-changes-in-white-brite-and-brown-adipose-depots-a-mini-review
#18
Markus Schosserer, Johannes Grillari, Christian Wolfrum, Marcel Scheideler
Aging is a time-related process of functional decline at organelle, cellular, tissue, and organismal level that ultimately limits life. Cellular senescence is a state of permanent growth arrest in response to stress and one of the major drivers of aging and age-related disorders. Senescent cells accumulate with age, and removal of these cells delays age-related disorders in different tissues and prolongs healthy lifespan. One of the most studied aging mechanisms is the accumulation of reactive oxygen species damage in cells, organs, and organisms over time...
December 7, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211796/reprogramming-pancreatic-stellate-cells-via-p53-activation-a-putative-target-for-pancreatic-cancer-therapy
#19
Maya Saison-Ridinger, Kathleen E DelGiorno, Tejia Zhang, Annabelle Kraus, Randall French, Dawn Jaquish, Crystal Tsui, Galina Erikson, Benjamin T Spike, Maxim N Shokhirev, Christopher Liddle, Ruth T Yu, Michael Downes, Ronald M Evans, Alan Saghatelian, Andrew M Lowy, Geoffrey M Wahl
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is characterized by an extremely dense fibrotic stroma, which contributes to tumor growth, metastasis, and drug resistance. During tumorigenesis, quiescent pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) are activated and become major contributors to fibrosis, by increasing growth factor signaling and extracellular matrix deposition. The p53 tumor suppressor is known to restrict tumor initiation and progression through cell autonomous mechanisms including apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and senescence...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210840/conoscere-e-curare-il-cuore-1986-2016-how-the-heart-has-changed
#20
Alessandro Boccanelli
: The demographic transition, with longer life expectancy, is mainly due to prevention and care of atherosclerotic vascular and heart disease. The cardiovascular patient is now much older and often presents with coexisting geriatric syndromes that affect healthcare goals, outcomes, and the process of care. Numerous mechanisms at cellular level are responsible for cardiovascular aging such as replicative senescence, apoptosis, proteins misfolding, and inflammation. Aging-related modifications are increase in left-ventricular mass, increased left atrial size, myocardial collagen deposition, and calcium deposition in valvular structures and the coronary arteries...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
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