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Suping Chen, Jing Yang, Lu Yang, Yang Zhang, Liang Zhou, Qing Liu, Chunyan Duan, Crystal A Mieres, Guanghai Zhou, Guoqiang Xu
The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) modulates the ubiquitination and degradation of many proteins and thus alters their abundance and biological functions. The core clock protein, aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like protein 1 (BMAL1), is the master regulator of the circadian clock and plays important roles in the regulation of many biological processes, such as protein synthesis, cell senescence, and circadian rhythms. However, the influence of the UPS on BMAL1 is not fully understood. Here, we find an E3 ubiquitin ligase, TNF receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2), as an interacting protein of BMAL1 to reduce its stability...
June 23, 2018: FEBS Journal
Bo Cui, Donghong Su, Wenlong Li, Xiaojun She, Ming Zhang, Rui Wang, Qingfeng Zhai
BACKGROUND: Chronic noise exposure is associated with neuroinflammation and gut microbiota dysregulation and increases the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Environmental hazards are also thought to be associated with genetic susceptibility factors that increase AD pathogenesis. However, there is limited experimental evidence regarding the link between chronic noise stress and microbiome-gut-brain axis alterations, which may be closely related to AD development. METHODS: The aim of the present study was to systematically investigate the effects of chronic noise exposure on the microbiome-gut-brain axis in the senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) strain...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Yang Song, Hong-Yan Zhao, Zhong-Shi Lyu, Xie-Na Cao, Min-Min Shi, Qi- Wen, Fei-Fei Tang, Yu Wang, Lan-Ping Xu, Xiao-Hui Zhang, Xiao-Jun Huang, Yuan Kong
Poor graft function (PGF) is a life-threatening complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) and is characterized by defective hematopoiesis. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown to support hematopoiesis, but little is known about the role of MSCs in the pathogenesis of PGF. In the current prospective case-control study, we evaluated whether the number and function of bone marrow (BM) MSCs in PGF patients differed from those in good graft function (GGF) patients. We found that BM MSCs from PGF patients expanded more slowly and appeared flattened and larger, exhibiting more apoptosis and senescence than MSCs from GGF patients...
June 19, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Ben Gorissen, Alain de Bruin, Alberto Miranda-Bedate, Nicoline Korthagen, Claudia Wolschrijn, Teun J de Vries, René van Weeren, Marianna A Tryfonidou
Cellular senescence, that is, the withdrawal from the cell cycle, combined with the acquirement of the senescence associated secretory phenotype has important roles during health and disease and is essential for tissue remodeling during embryonic development. Osteoclasts are multinucleated cells, responsible for bone resorption, and cell cycle arrest during osteoclastogenesis is well recognized. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether these cells should be considered senescent and to assess the influence of hypoxia on their potential senescence status...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Shih-Chung Chang, Inn Lee, Hua Ting, Yuan-Jhe Chang, Nae-Cherng Yang
Commercial dietary supplements of calcium pyruvate claim to be beneficial for losing weight, increasing muscle endurance, and regulating metabolism. Most industrial preparations have some impurities, including parapyruvate. Parapyruvate is an inhibitor of the α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC). However, the effect and mechanism of parapyruvate on cell senescence and the content of parapyruvate in the dietary supplements of calcium pyruvate are unknown. In this study, we prepared pure parapyruvate with a purity of 99...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Timothy Nacarelli, Ashley Azar, Oya Altinok, Zulfiya Orynbayeva, Christian Sell
Inhibition of mTOR signaling using rapamycin has been shown to increase lifespan and healthspan in multiple model organisms; however, the precise mechanisms for the beneficial effects of rapamycin remain uncertain. We have previously reported that rapamycin delays senescence in human cells and that enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis and protection from mitochondrial stress is one component of the benefit provided by rapamycin treatment. Here, using two models of senescence, replicative senescence and senescence induced by the presence of the Hutchinson-Gilford progeria lamin A mutation, we report that senescence is accompanied by elevated glycolysis and increased oxidative phosphorylation, which are both reduced by rapamycin...
June 21, 2018: GeroScience
Shachi Joglekar, Mohamed Suliman, Michael Bartsch, Vivek Halder, Jens Maintz, Jaqueline Bautor, Jürgen Zeier, Jane E Parker, Erich Kombrink
In a chemical screen we identified thaxtomin A (TXA), a phytotoxin from plant pathogenic Streptomyces scabies, as a selective and potent activator of Flavin-dependent monooxygenase1 (FMO1) expression in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). TXA induction of FMO1 was unrelated to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), plant cell death or its known inhibition of cellulose synthesis. TXA-stimulated FMO1 expression was strictly dependent on Enhanced disease susceptibility1 (EDS1) and Phytoalexin deficient4 (PAD4) but independent of salicylic acid (SA) synthesis via Isochorismate synthase1 (ICS1)...
June 21, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Aina Bernal, Marc Moltó-Abad, Daniel Domínguez, Laura Tusell
Telomere dysfunction drives chromosome instability through endless breakage-fusion-bridge (BFB) cycles that promote the formation of highly rearranged genomes. However, reactivation of telomerase or ALT-pathway is required for genome stabilisation and full malignant transformation. To allow the unrestricted proliferation of cells at risk of transformation, we have established a conditional system of telomere deprotection in p16INK4a -deficient MCF-10A cells with modified checkpoints. After sustained expression of a dominant negative form of the shelterin protein TRF2 (TRF2ΔBΔM ), cells with telomere fusion did progress to anaphase but no signs of ongoing BFB cycles were observed, thus anticipating proliferation defects...
June 5, 2018: Oncotarget
Jilian R Melamed, Joshua T Morgan, Stephen A Ioele, Jason P Gleghorn, Jennifer Sims-Mourtada, Emily S Day
Resistance to chemotherapy substantially hinders successful glioblastoma (GBM) treatment, contributing to an almost 100% mortality rate. Resistance to the frontline chemotherapy, temozolomide (TMZ), arises from numerous signaling pathways that are deregulated in GBM, including Hedgehog (Hh) signaling. Here, we investigate suppression of Hh signaling as an adjuvant to TMZ using U87-MG and T98G cell lines as in vitro models of GBM. We found that silencing GLI1 with siRNA reduces cell metabolic activity by up to 30% in combination with TMZ and reduces multidrug efflux activity by 2...
June 5, 2018: Oncotarget
Yan Wang, Yuanyuan Zhang, Lei Wang
Circadian clock and senescence have been shown to tightly intertwined with each other in numerous eukaryotes, but the regulation of circadian oscillator on triggering leaf senescence, and vice versa, remains largely unknown in higher plants. Very recently, circadian system and leaf senescence were found to be highly interconnected in higher plants. Circadian clock was shown to regulate leaf senescence through a few cross signaling pathways including age-dependent, plant hormone mediated, and dark induced manners to trigger the onset of leaf senescence...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Dehua Zhao, Miao Zhang, Zhe Liu, Jing Sheng, Shuqing An
Cold-season macrophytes were configured in a system of stabilization ponds (SPs) and batch operation constructed wetlands (BCWs) to supply a carbon source for low carbon/nitrogen (C/N) effluent in spring and summer without generating secondary pollution during the decomposition process. For eutrophic water, the macrophyte configuration increased the average removal efficiency (RE) from 41.6% to 68.6% and from 70.2% to 83.7% for NO3 - -N and TN in the final BCW effluent, respectively, with the concentrations decreasing from 3...
June 9, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Jessica Bertschmann, Subhash Thalappilly, Karl Riabowol
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 18, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Hongyuan Wang, Yuan Zhao, Marina Ezcurra, Alexandre Benedetto, Ann F Gilliat, Josephine Hellberg, Ziyu Ren, Evgeniy R Galimov, Trin Athigapanich, Johannes Girstmair, Maximilian J Telford, Colin T Dolphin, Zhizhou Zhang, David Gems
A long-standing belief is that aging (senescence) is the result of stochastic damage accumulation. Alternatively, senescent pathology may also result from late-life, wild-type gene action (i.e., antagonistic pleiotropy, as argued by Williams) leading to non-adaptive run-on of developmental programs (or quasi-programs ) (as suggested more recently by Blagosklonny). In this study, we use existing and new data to show how uterine tumors, a prominent form of senescent pathology in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans , likely result from quasi-programs...
2018: NPJ Aging and Mechanisms of Disease
Wenzheng Xia, Meng Hou
Doxorubicin (DOXO) is a chemotherapeutic agent widely used in the treatment of various types of cancer. However, cardiotoxicity is a major side effect of DOXO therapy due to the ability of this compound to induce cardiac cellular senescence. It is well known that microRNA (miR)-34a serves a role in cardiac dysfunction and ageing, and that it is involved in several cellular processes associated with DOXO-induced cardiotoxicity. Furthermore, mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapies have been reported to modulate cellular senescence...
June 2018: Oncology Letters
Florian Netzer, Cornelia Herschbach, Akira Oikawa, Yozo Okazaki, David Dubbert, Kazuki Saito, Heinz Rennenberg
Phosphorus (P) is one of the most important macronutrients limiting plant growth and development, particularly in forest ecosystems such as temperate beech ( Fagus sylvatica ) forests in Central Europe. Efficient tree internal P cycling during annual growth is an important strategy of beech trees to adapt to low soil-P. Organic P (Porg ) is thought to play a decisive role in P cycling, but the significance of individual compounds and processes has not been elucidated. To identify processes and metabolites involved in P cycling of beech trees, polar-metabolome and lipidome profiling was performed during annual growth with twig tissues from a sufficient (Conventwald, Con) and a low-soil-P (Tuttlingen, Tut) forest...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Gilles D Joanisse, Robert L Bradley, Caroline M Preston
Kalmia angustifolia is a boreal ericaceous shrub that can rapidly spread on black spruce forest cutovers in eastern Canada, where CPRS (i.e. Cutting with Protection of Regeneration and Soils") is practiced. The proliferation of Kalmia often coincides with a reduction in the growth rate of regenerating black spruce seedlings. We report on a study where we compared the local effects of Kalmia and black spruce seedling patches (i.e. two types of "Vegetation") on chemical and biochemical soil properties in CPRS cutovers within mesic spruce-moss and xeric spruce-lichen ecosystems, as well as in four mature spruce-moss forests (i...
2018: PloS One
Andrew Blease, Thomas Nicol, Sara Falcone, Becky Starbuck, Simon Greenaway, Marie Hutchinson, Paul K Potter
Aging is inevitable, and our society must deal with the consequences: namely, an increased incidence of disease and ill health. Many mouse models of disease are acute or early onset or are induced in young mice, despite the fact that aging is a significant risk factor for a range of significant diseases. To improve modeling of such diseases, we should incorporate aging into our models. Many systems are affected by aging, with a decline in mitochondrial function, an increase in senescence, a loss of resilience, telomere shortening, and a decline in immune function being key factors in the increased susceptibility to disease that is associated with aging...
June 2018: Current Protocols in Mouse Biology
Ying-Ying Liu, Yao Shi, Ya Liu, Xing-Hua Pan, Ke-Xiong Zhang
Telomere shortening is associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a high-morbidity and high-mortality lung disease of unknown etiology. However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unclear. In this study, wild-type (WT) mice with normal telomeres and generation 3 (G3) or G2 telomerase RNA component (TERC) knockout Terc- /- mice with short telomeres were treated with and without lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or bleomycin by intratracheal injection. We show that under LPS induction, G3 Terc- /- mice develop aggravated pulmonary fibrosis as indicated by significantly increased α-SMA, collagen I and hydroxyproline content...
June 20, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Amel Essaadi, Marie Nollet, Anaïs Moyon, Jimmy Stalin, Stéphanie Simoncini, Laure Balasse, Alexandrine Bertaud, Richard Bachelier, Aurélie S Leroyer, Gabrielle Sarlon, Benjamin Guillet, Françoise Dignat-George, Nathalie Bardin, Marcel Blot-Chabaud
Cell-based therapies constitute a real hope for the treatment of ischaemic diseases. One of the sources of endothelial progenitors for autologous cell therapy is Endothelial Colony Forming Cells (ECFC) that can be isolated from peripheral blood. However, their use is limited by their low number in the bloodstream and the loss of their stem cell phenotype associated with the acquisition of a senescent phenotype in culture. We hypothesized that adding soluble CD146, a novel endothelial growth factor with angiogenic properties, during the isolation and growth procedures could improve their number and therapeutic potential...
June 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Andrew M Donson, Vladimir Amani, Elliot A Warner, Andrea M Griesinger, Davis A Witt, Jean M Mulcahy Levy, Lindsey M Hoffman, Todd C Hankinson, Michael H Handler, Rajeev Vibhakar, Kathleen Dorris, Nicholas K Foreman
Children with ependymoma are cured in less than 50% of cases, with little improvement in outcome over the last several decades. Chemotherapy has not impacted survival in ependymoma, due in part to a lack of preclinical models that has precluded comprehensive drug testing. We recently developed two human ependymoma cell lines harboring high-risk phenotypes which provided us with an opportunity to execute translational studies. ependymoma and other pediatric brain tumor cell lines were subject to a large-scale comparative drug screen of ependymoma -approved oncology drugs for rapid clinical application...
June 20, 2018: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
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