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Fatemeh Kiani, Negar Ashari Astani, Reza Rahighi, Ahmad Tayyebi, Meysam Tayebi, Jafar Khezri, Ehsan Hashemi, Ursula Rothlisberger, Abdolreza Simchi
In the present work, the effect of graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets on the antibacterial activity of CuO nanowire arrays under visible light irradiation is shown. A combined thermal oxidation/electrophoretic deposition technique was employed to prepare three-dimensional networks of graphene oxide nanosheets hybridized with vertically aligned CuO nanowires. With the help of standard antibacterial assays and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, it is shown that the light-activated antibacterial response of the hybrid material against gram-negative Escherichia coli is significantly improved as the oxide functional groups of the GO nanosheets are reduced...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Shahid Khan, Jonathan M Scholey
Cells from all three domains of life on Earth utilize motile macromolecular devices that protrude from the cell surface to generate forces that allow them to swim through fluid media. Research carried out on archaea during the past decade or so has led to the recognition that, despite their common function, the motility devices of the three domains display fundamental differences in their properties and ancestry, reflecting a striking example of convergent evolution. Thus, the flagella of bacteria and the archaella of archaea employ rotary filaments that assemble from distinct subunits that do not share a common ancestor and generate torque using energy derived from distinct fuel sources, namely chemiosmotic ion gradients and FlaI motor-catalyzed ATP hydrolysis, respectively...
March 19, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Shimeng Zhu, Jiecai Fu, Hongli Li, Liu Zhu, Yang Hu, Weixing Xia, Xixiang Zhang, Yong Peng, Junli Zhang
Discovering the effect of magnetic anisotropy on the magnetization configurations of magnetic nanomaterials is essential and significant for not only enriching the fundamental knowledge of magnetics, but also facilitating the designs of desired magnetic nanostructures for diverse technological applications, such as data storage devices, spintronic devices, and magnetic nanosensors. Herein, we present a direct observation of magnetocrystalline anisotropy tuning magnetization configurations in uniaxial magnetic nanomaterials with hexagonal structure by means of three modeled samples...
March 20, 2018: ACS Nano
Peter J Carr, Niall S Higgins, Marie L Cooke, Gabor Mihala, Claire M Rickard
BACKGROUND: Most people admitted to hospitals worldwide require a vascular access device (VAD). Hundreds of millions of VADs are inserted annually in the USA with reports of over a billion peripheral intravenous catheters used annually worldwide. Numerous reports suggest that a team approach for the assessment, insertion, and maintenance of VADs improves clinical outcomes, the patient experience, and healthcare processes. OBJECTIVES: To compare the use of the vascular access specialist team (VAST) for VAD insertion and care to a generalist model approach for hospital or community participants requiring a VAD in terms of insertion success, device failure, and cost-effectiveness...
March 20, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Moritz Lindner, Sebastian Kosanetzky, Maximilian Pfau, Jennifer Nadal, Lukas A Gördt, Steffen Schmitz-Valckenberg, Matthias Schmid, Frank G Holz, Monika Fleckenstein
Purpose: To assess the impact of distinct atrophy border characteristics based on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) imaging on local atrophy progression. Methods: Patients with geographic atrophy (GA) secondary to AMD were recruited in the context of the Longitudinal Fundus Autofluorescence in Age-related Macular Degeneration and Directional Spread in Geographic Atrophy studies (NCT00393692, NCT02051998). Horizontal and vertical SD-OCT scans were acquired at sequential visits using a device allowing for anatomically accurate registration of follow-up to baseline scans...
March 20, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Ali Hassan Sodhro, Arun Kumar Sangaiah, Gul Hassan Sodhro, Sonia Lohano, Sandeep Pirbhulal
Rapid progress and emerging trends in miniaturized medical devices have enabled the un-obtrusive monitoring of physiological signals and daily activities of everyone's life in a prominent and pervasive manner. Due to the power-constrained nature of conventional wearable sensor devices during ubiquitous sensing (US), energy-efficiency has become one of the highly demanding and debatable issues in healthcare. This paper develops a single chip-based wearable wireless electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring system by adopting analog front end (AFE) chip model ADS1292R from Texas Instruments...
March 20, 2018: Sensors
Caitlin R Woolcott, Stephanie Torrey, Patricia V Turner, Lilia Serpa, Karen Schwean-Lardner, Tina M Widowski
On-farm euthanasia is a critical welfare issue in the poultry industry and can be particularly difficult to perform on mature turkeys due to their size. We evaluated the efficacy of two commercially available non-penetrating captive bolt devices, the Zephyr-EXL and the Turkey Euthanasia Device (TED), on 253 turkeys at three stages of production: 4-5, 10, and 15-20 weeks of age. Effectiveness of each device was measured using both ante- and post-mortem measures. Application of the Zephyr-EXL resulted in a greater success rate (immediate abolishment of brainstem reflexes) compared to the TED (97...
March 20, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Heekyeong Park, Sungho Lee, Seok Hwan Jeong, Ui Hyun Jung, Kidong Park, Min Goo Lee, Sunkook Kim, Joonhyung Lee
Flexible sensors connected to cell phones are a promising technology that can aid in continuously monitoring signals in our daily lives, such as an individual's health status and information from buildings, farms, and industry. Among such signals, real-time humidity monitoring is crucial to a comfortable life, as human bodies, plants, and industrial environments require appropriate humidity to be maintained. We propose a hydrophilic polytetrafluoroethylene (H-PTFE)-based flexible humidity sensor integrated with readout circuitry, wireless communication, and a mobile battery...
March 20, 2018: Sensors
Flavio Esposito, Rajeev Ranjan, Stefania Campopiano, Agostino Iadicicco
In this work, we report about our recent results concerning the fabrication of Long Period Grating (LPG) sensors in several optical fibers, through the Electric Arc Discharge (EAD) technique. In particular, the following silica fibers with both different dopants and geometrical structures are considered: standard Ge-doped, photosensitive B/Ge codoped, P-doped, pure-silica core with F-doped cladding, Panda type Polarization-maintaining, and Hollow core Photonic crystal fiber. An adaptive platform was developed and the appropriate "recipe" was identified for each fiber, in terms of both arc discharge parameters and setup arrangement, for manufacturing LPGs with strong and narrow attenuation bands, low insertion losses, and short length...
March 20, 2018: Sensors
Luis Cruz-Piris, Diego Rivera, Ivan Marsa-Maestre, Enrique de la Hoz, Juan R Velasco
Internet growth has generated new types of services where the use of sensors and actuators is especially remarkable. These services compose what is known as the Internet of Things (IoT). One of the biggest current challenges is obtaining a safe and easy access control scheme for the data managed in these services. We propose integrating IoT devices in an access control system designed for Web-based services by modelling certain IoT communication elements as resources. This would allow us to obtain a unified access control scheme between heterogeneous devices (IoT devices, Internet-based services, etc...
March 20, 2018: Sensors
Maria Spies, Jakub Polaczynski, Akhil Ajay, Dipankar Kalita, Jonas Lähnemann, Bruno Gayral, Martien den Hertog, Eva Monroy
Nanowire photodetectors are investigated because of their compatibility with flexible electronics, or for the implementation of on-chip optical interconnects. Such devices are characterized by ultrahigh photocurrent gain, but their photoresponse scales sublinearly with the optical power. Here, we present a study of single-nanowire photodetectors displaying a linear response to ultraviolet illumination. Their structure consists of a GaN nanowire incorporating an AlN/GaN/AlN heterostructure, which generates an internal electric field...
March 20, 2018: Nanotechnology
Ariel F Pomputius
Wellness-the balance of mental, emotional, spiritual, and physical health for the overall health benefit of the individual-is a growing concern, particularly for professionals in the medical field. Although wellness is usually viewed in opposition to technology, more digital devices and mobile applications are emerging to support wellness for health consumers. This wellness technology seeks to improve the overall health of the user through increasing calm and decreasing stress. This column will explain what wellness technology is, concerns over its widespread application, examples of wellness devices on the market currently, and an overview of where it is being applied in libraries...
April 2018: Medical Reference Services Quarterly
Suzanne Schwartz, Aftin Ross, Seth Carmody, Penny Chase, Steve Christey Coley, Julie Connolly, Cathy Petrozzino, Margie Zuk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Biomedical Instrumentation & Technology
Lukas Zeininger, Maggie He, Stephen T Hobson, Timothy M Swager
We report γ-ray dosimeters using carbon nanotubes wrapped with metastable poly(olefin sulfone)s (POSs) that readily depolymerize when exposed to ionizing radiation. New POSs, designed for wrapping single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), are synthesized and characterized. The resulting POS-SWCNT composites serve as the active transducer in a novel class of γ-ray dosimeters. In our devices, polymer degradation results in immediate changes in the electronic potential of the POS-SWCNT active layers by decreasing the electron tunneling barriers between individualized tubes and by creating enhanced cofacial π-π electron contacts...
March 20, 2018: ACS Sensors
Chengbo Tian, Shujing Zhang, Anyi Mei, Yaoguang Rong, Yue Hu, Kai Du, Miao Duan, Yusong Sheng, Pei Jiang, Gengzhao Xu, Hongwei Han
The printable mesoscopic perovskite solar cells (PMPSCs) have exhibited great attracting prospects in the energy conversion field due to their high stability and potential scalability. However, the thick perovskite film in the mesoporous layers challenge the charge transportation and increase grain boundary defects, limiting the performance of the PMPSCs. It is critical not only to improve the electric property of the perovskite film but also to passivate the charge traps to improve the device performance. Herein we synthesized a bis-adduct 2, 5-(Dimethyl ester) C60 fulleropyrrolidine (bis-DMEC60 ) via rational molecular design and incorporated it into the PMPSCs...
March 20, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yanyan Gao, Jianping Xu, Shaobo Shi, Hong Dong, Yahui Cheng, Chengtai Wei, Xiaosong Zhang, Shougen Yin, Lan Li
The self-powered ultraviolet photodetectors (UV PDs) have attracted increasing attention due to their potential applications without consuming any external power. It is important to obtain the high performance self-powered UV PDs by a simple method for the practical application. Herein, TiO2 nanorod arrays (NRs) were synthesized by hydrothermal method, which were integrated with p-type NiO nanoflakes to realize a high performance pn heterojunction for the efficient UV photodetection. TiOx thin film can improve the morphological and carrier transport properties of TiO2 NRs, and decrease the surface and defect states, resulting in the enhanced photocurrent of the devices...
March 20, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Joseph Houston Dycus, Kelsey J Mirrielees, Everett D Grimley, Ronny Kirste, Seiji Mita, Zlatko Sitar, Ramon Collazo, Doug Irving, James M LeBeau
When pristine material surfaces are exposed to air, highly reactive broken bonds can promote the formation of surface oxides with structures and properties differing greatly from bulk. Determination of the oxide structure, however, is often elusive through the use of indirect diffraction methods or techniques that probe only the outer most layer. As a result, surface oxides forming on widely used materials, such as group III-nitrides, have not been unambiguously resolved, even though critical properties can depend sensitively on their presence...
March 20, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Rashi I Mehta, Rupal I Mehta
Hydrophilic polymers are ubiquitously applied as surface coatings on catheters and intravascular medical technologies. Recent clinical literature has heightened awareness on the complication of hydrophilic polymer embolism, the phenomenon wherein polymer coating layers separate from catheter and device surfaces, and may be affiliated with a range of unanticipated adverse reactions. Significant system barriers have limited and delayed reporting on this iatrogenic complication, the full effects of which remain underrecognized by healthcare providers and manufacturers of various branded devices...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Patient Safety
Santiago Mencía, Alba Palacios, Miriam García, Ana M Llorente, Olga Ordóñez, Blanca Toledo, Jesús López-Herce
OBJECTIVES: To analyze the effectiveness of inhaled sevoflurane in critically ill children with challenging sedation. DESIGN: Prospective case series. SETTING: Two PICUs of university hospitals in Spain. INTERVENTIONS: Prospective observational study and exploratory investigation conducted in two PICUs in Madrid, Spain, over a 6-year period. Children treated with inhaled sevoflurane due to difficult sedation were included...
March 19, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Emmanuel Igumbor, Okikiola Olaniyan, Edwin Mapasha, Helga Danga, Ezekiel Omotoso, Walter Meyer
Electrically active induced energy levels in semiconductor devices could be beneficial to the discovery of an enhanced p or n-type semiconductor. N implanted into 4H-SiC is a high energy process that produced high defect concentrations which could be removed during dopant activation annealing. On the other hand, B substituted for silicon in SiC causes a reduction in the number of defects. This scenario leads to a decrease in the dielectric properties and induced deep donor and shallow acceptor levels. Complexes formed by N, such as the N-vacancy centre, have been reported to play a significant role in the application of quantum bits...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
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