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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763268/croup-what-you-should-know
#1
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2018: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763253/croup-diagnosis-and-management
#2
Dustin K Smith, Andrew J McDermott, John F Sullivan
Croup is a common respiratory illness affecting 3% of children six months to three years of age. It accounts for 7% of hospitalizations annually for fever and/or acute respiratory illness in children younger than five years. Croup is a manifestation of upper airway obstruction resulting from swelling of the larynx, trachea, and bronchi, leading to inspiratory stridor and a barking cough. Many patients experience low-grade fevers, but fever is not necessary for diagnosis. Less commonly, stridor can be associated with acute epiglottitis, bacterial tracheitis, and foreign body airway obstruction...
May 1, 2018: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683419/haemagglutinin-neuraminidase-from-hpiv3-mediates-human-nk-regulation-of-t-cell-proliferation-via-nkp44-and-nkp46
#3
Samantha McQuaid, Sinead Loughran, Patrick Power, Paula Maguire, Dermot Walls, Maria Grazia Cusi, Claes Orvell, Patricia Johnson
HPIV3 is a respiratory virus causing airway diseases, including pneumonia, croup, and bronchiolitis, during infancy and childhood. Currently there is no effective vaccine or anti-viral therapy for this virus. Studies have suggested that poor T cell proliferation following HPIV3 infection is responsible for impaired immunological memory associated with this virus. We have previously demonstrated that NK cells mediate regulation of T cell proliferation during HPIV3 infection. Here we add to these studies by demonstrating that the regulation of T cell proliferation during HPIV3 infection is mediated via NK receptors NKp44 and NKp46 and involves the surface glycoprotein haemagglutinin-neuraminidase but not the fusion protein of the virus...
April 23, 2018: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532807/acute-management-of-croup-in-the-emergency-department
#4
Oliva Ortiz-Alvarez
Croup is one of the most common causes of upper airway obstruction in young children. It is characterized by sudden onset of barky cough, hoarse voice, inspiratory stridor and respiratory distress caused by upper airway inflammation secondary to a viral infection. Published guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of croup advise using steroids as the mainstay treatment for all children who present to emergency department (ED) with croup symptoms. Dexamethasone, given orally as a single dose at 0.6 mg/kg, is highly efficacious in treating croup symptoms...
June 2017: Paediatrics & Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490126/corticosteroid-use-in-management-of-pediatric-emergency-conditions
#5
Asalim Thabet, Tyler Greenfield, Richard M Cantor
Corticosteroids have been used for over half a century to treat various inflammatory disorders; however, their use in many pediatric conditions remains controversial. This issue reviews evidence on corticosteroid treatment in acute asthma exacerbations, croup, acute pharyngitis, anaphylaxis, acute spinal injury, and bacterial meningitis. While corticosteroids are clearly indicated for management of asthma exacerbations and croup, they are not universally recommended for potential spinal cord injury. Due to insufficient data or conflicting data, corticosteroids may be considered in children with acute pharyngitis, anaphylaxis, and bacterial meningitis...
March 2018: Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490125/corticosteroid-use-in-management-of-pediatric-emergency-conditions-digest
#6
Asalim Thabet, Tyler Greenfield, Richard M Cantor, Bryan Wilson
Corticosteroids have been used for over half a century to treat various inflammatory disorders; however, their use in many pediatric conditions remains controversial. This issue reviews evidence on corticosteroid treatment in acute asthma exacerbations, croup, acute pharyngitis, anaphylaxis, acute spinal injury, and bacterial meningitis. While corticosteroids are clearly indicated for management of asthma exacerbations and croup, they are not universally recommended for potential spinal cord injury. Due to insufficient data or conflicting data, corticosteroids may be considered in children with acute pharyngitis, anaphylaxis, and bacterial meningitis...
March 1, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385277/prenatal-phthalate-exposure-was-associated-with-croup-in-swedish-infants
#7
Huan Shu, Sverre Wikstrom, Bo A G Jönsson, Christian H Lindh, Åke Svensson, Eewa Nånberg, Carl-Gustaf Bornehag
AIM: This study examined whether prenatal phthalate exposure was associated with lower or upper airway inflammation in infants. METHODS: From 2007 to 2010, we used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, adjusted for creatinine, to analyse 14 phthalate metabolites and one phthalate replacement in the urine of 1062 Swedish mothers at a median of 10 weeks of pregnancy. This was used to determine any associations between prenatal phthalate exposure and croup, wheezing or otitis in their offspring until 12 months of age, using logistic regression, adjusted for potential confounders...
January 31, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310492/prognostic-factors-and-importance-of-recognition-of-adult-croup
#8
Tomoyasu Tachibana, Yorihisa Orita, Takuma Makino, Yasutoshi Komatsubara, Yuko Matsuyama, Yuto Naoi, Michihiro Nakada, Yasuharu Sato, Kazunori Nishizaki
OBJECTIVES: Croup, or laryngotracheobronchitis, is a common disease in childhood. On the other hand, to our knowledge, there are only 14 cases in six English literatures describing adult croup (AC). The clinical features of AC have not been well known. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of medical records of 18 patients with AC during the period from 2008 to 2016. RESULTS: None of the 18 patients required an urgent airway intervention...
January 8, 2018: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247097/which-outcomes-are-important-to-patients-and-families-who-have-experienced-paediatric-acute-respiratory-illness-findings-from-a-mixed-methods-sequential-exploratory-study
#9
Michele P Dyson, Kassi Shave, Allison Gates, Ricardo M Fernandes, Shannon D Scott, Lisa Hartling
OBJECTIVES: To identify the outcome priorities of parents of children who had experienced an acute respiratory infection (ARI). DESIGN: This was a two-phase, mixed methods study with a sequential exploratory design. We used a cross-sectional quantitative web-based survey to elicit parents' priorities for paediatric ARI. We then used a discussion moderated via Facebook to elucidate richer descriptions of parents' priorities. SETTING: Survey and discussion data were collected via the internet...
December 14, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217058/management-of-infantile-hemangiomas-of-the-airway
#10
REVIEW
David H Darrow
Infantile hemangiomas (IHs) of the airway are far less common than their cutaneous counterparts, and their symptoms mimic those of viral croup. As a result, by the time these lesions are diagnosed, they are often advanced and causing airway compromise. Fortunately, the evolution of propranolol as an effective and safe pharmacotherapy has simplified management of IH and reduced the likelihood of complications previously seen with steroid therapy and surgery. Nevertheless, the otolaryngologist must be prepared with an alternate plan to manage lesions refractory to pharmacotherapy...
February 2018: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200244/management-of-airway-obstruction-and-stridor-in-pediatric-patients-digest
#11
Ashley Marchese, Melissa L Langhan, Kathryn H Pade
Stridor is a result of turbulent air-flow through the trachea from upper airway obstruction, and although in children it is often due to croup, it can also be caused by noninfectious and/or congenital conditions as well as life-threatening etiologies. The history and physical examination guide initial management, which includes reduction of airway inflammation, treatment of bacterial infection, and, less often, imaging, emergent airway stabilization, or surgical management. This issue discusses the most common as well as the life-threatening etiologies of acute and chronic stridor and its management in the emergency department...
November 22, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189589/pediatric-emergency-research-canada-origins-and-evolution
#12
Liza Bialy, Amy Plint, Roger Zemek, David Johnson, Terry Klassen, Martin Osmond, Stephen B Freedman
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to describe the origins, growth, and progress of a national research network in pediatric emergency medicine. METHODS: The success of Pediatric Emergency Research Canada (PERC) is described in terms of advancing the pediatric emergency medicine agenda, grant funding, peer-reviewed publications, mentoring new investigators, and global collaborations. RESULTS: Since 1995, clinicians and investigators within PERC have grown the network to 15 active tertiary pediatric emergency medicine sites across Canada...
February 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187536/inflammasome-antagonism-by-human-parainfluenza-virus-type-3-c-protein
#13
Niraj K Shil, Swechha M Pokharel, Amiya K Banerjee, Michael Hoffman, Santanu Bose
Human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) is a negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Paramyxoviridae family. HPIV3 is a lung-tropic virus causing airway diseases, including pneumonia, croup, and bronchiolitis, during infancy and childhood. The activation of the inflammasome by pathogens results in the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β) during infection. Thus, the inflammasome-mediated proinflammatory response plays a critical role in regulating the immune response and virus clearance...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178963/chloral-hydrate-enteral-infusion-for-sedation-in-ventilated-children-the-chosen-pilot-study
#14
Ari R Joffe, Jessica Hogan, Cathy Sheppard, Gerda Tawfik, Jonathan P Duff, Gonzalo Garcia Guerra
BACKGROUND: We aimed to test a novel method of delivery of chloral hydrate (CH) sedation in ventilated critically ill young children. METHODS: Children < 12 years old, within 72 hours of admission, who were ventilated, receiving enteral tube-feeds, with intermittent CH ordered were enrolled after signed consent. Patients received a CH loading-dose of 10 mg/kg enterally, then a syringe-pump enteral infusion at 5 mg/kg/hour, increasing to a maximum of 9 mg/kg/hour...
November 26, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115814/calculated-decisions-westley-croup-score
#15
Joshua Beiner, Matthew Lecuyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100262/comparison-of-the-effect-of-cold-drink-and-dexamethasone-and-their-combined-effect-on-children-with-croup
#16
Mojgan Faraji-Goodarzi, Nadereh Taee, Mehrnoosh Mohammadi-Kamalvand
Aims Croup is a clinical syndrome which included inspiratory stridor, coughing with a dog-like sound, noise obstruction and respiratory distress symptoms. This present study was conducted to compare the effects of cold drink and dexamethasone, and the effects of their co-administration on children's croup. Materials and Methods In this study, all patients with croup admitted to the emergency ward of Madani Hospital Khorramabad were divided through the simple randomized method into 3 groups after informed consents were taken from their parents...
November 3, 2017: Drug Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094427/dermoscopic-analysis-of-the-skin-of-healthy-warmblood-horses-a-descriptive-study-of-34-cases-in-italy
#17
Sara Legnani, Eric Zini, Paola Roccabianca, Beatrice Funiciello, Giordana Zanna
BACKGROUND: Dermoscopy is a diagnostic tool that has been introduced into small animal dermatology for the evaluation of hair and the skin surface. To the best of the authors' knowledge, the use of this technique on horses and the dermoscopic appearance of equine hair and skin have yet to be reported. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To assess the feasibility of dermoscopy, and to describe hair and skin surface features of healthy warmblood horses. ANIMALS: Thirty four client-owned, healthy adult horses...
April 2018: Veterinary Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060916/cough-sound-analysis-for-diagnosing-croup-in-pediatric-patients-using-biologically-inspired-features
#18
Roneel V Sharan, Udantha R Abeyratne, Vinayak R Swarnkar, Paul Porter
This paper aims to diagnose croup in children using cough sound signal classification. It proposes the use of a time-frequency image-based feature, referred as the cochleagram image feature (CIF). Unlike the conventional spectrogram image, the cochleagram utilizes a gammatone filter which models the frequency selectivity property of the human cochlea. This helps reveal more spectral information in the time-frequency image making it more useful for feature extraction. The cochleagram image is then divided into blocks and central moments are extracted as features...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045097/management-of-airway-obstruction-and-stridor-in-pediatric-patients
#19
Ashley Marchese, Melissa L. Langhan
Stridor is a result of turbulent air-flow through the trachea from upper airway obstruction, and although in children it is often due to croup, it can also be caused by noninfectious and/or congenital conditions as well as life-threatening etiologies. The history and physical examination guide initial management, which includes reduction of airway inflammation, treatment of bacterial infection, and, less often, imaging, emergent airway stabilization, or surgical management. This issue discusses the most common as well as the life-threatening etiologies of acute and chronic stridor and its management in the emergency department...
November 2017: Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034735/failure-of-outpatient-management-with-different-observation-times-after-racemic-epinephrine-for-croup
#20
Nadine Smith, Kathryn Giordano, Amy Thompson, Andrew DePiero
BACKGROUND: Observation is necessary following racemic epinephrine (RE) for patients with croup. The ideal length of this observation period is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To compare the rate of failed outpatient management utilizing different observation times after RE administration for croup. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of children with croup who required RE. Failure of treatment was defined as requiring a second RE treatment and/or returning to the pediatric emergency department for croup symptoms within 24 hours of discharge...
October 1, 2017: Clinical Pediatrics
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