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Cornelia Otto, Bertrand Hirl, Stefan Schweitzer, Sabine Gleich
BACKGROUND: On 4 August 2011 a modification of the infection protection act became law, meaning that antibiotic consumption surveillance and evaluation of data on the local resistance situation became obligatory for hospitals. Four years after the modification of the infection protection act became law, the Munich public health department aimed to evaluate the state of implementation of antibiotic consumption surveillance in Munich hospitals and to ascertain which antibiotic stewardship (ABS) structures have already been established...
October 24, 2016: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
Aoife Fleming, Louise Barry, Stephen Byrne, Michael Prentice
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance in long-term care facilities (LTCFs) poses a risk to elderly residents. The aim of this observational study was to investigate recent patterns of antimicrobial susceptibility in urine samples submitted to the Microbiology Laboratory at Cork University Hospital (CUH) from LTCFs in the greater Cork region. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of LTCF and General Practitioner (GP) urine samples sent to CUH, for patients aged over 65 years of age, were compared...
October 24, 2016: European Journal of Public Health
Jeremy Brown, Jason Patterson, Briony Hazelton, Mitchell Brown, Peter Jelfs, Vitali Sintchenko, Sharon C-A Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2016: Pathology
Pedro Guilherme Lemes, José Cola Zanuncio, José Eduardo Serrão, Simon A Lawson
The Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) was the first non-governmental organization composed of multi-stakeholders to ensure the social, environmental, and economic sustainability of forest resources. FSC prohibits certain chemicals and active ingredients in certified forest plantations. A company seeking certification must discontinue use of products so listed and many face problems to comply with these constraints. The aim of this study was to assess the impacts of certification on pest management from the perspective of Brazilian private forestry sector...
October 22, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Elizabeth A Neuner, Andrea M Pallotta, Simon W Lam, David Stowe, Steven M Gordon, Gary W Procop, Sandra S Richter
OBJECTIVE To describe the impact of rapid diagnostic microarray technology and antimicrobial stewardship for patients with Gram-positive blood cultures. DESIGN Retrospective pre-intervention/post-intervention study. SETTING A 1,200-bed academic medical center. PATIENTS Inpatients with blood cultures positive for Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, E. faecium, Streptococcus pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae, S. anginosus, Streptococcus spp., and Listeria monocytogenes during the 6 months before and after implementation of Verigene Gram-positive blood culture microarray (BC-GP) with an antimicrobial stewardship intervention...
November 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Michelle T Hecker, Edith Ho, Curtis J Donskey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 21, 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Ahmed Abdel Megeed, M Ali Hayssam, Mohamed Z M Salem, Mohamed S El-Shikh, Ibrahim Ahmed Talea, Yahya A Alogaibi
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii infections are a great public health concern and demand continuous surveillance and antibiotic stewardship. Virulence traits and the pathogenicity of Acinetobacter are less studied compared with the molecular epidemiological and antibiotic resistance profile of this organism. In our present study, we investigated the primary characteristics contributing to the virulence of MDR A. baumannii isolates and compared them with avirulent isolates. A total of 32 well-characterized MDR A...
October 19, 2016: Journal of AOAC International
Megan A Rocchio, James W Schurr, Aaron P Hussey, Paul M Szumita
BACKGROUND: In October 2010, a pharmacist-driven stewardship program was implemented at the Brigham and Women's Hospital to ensure continued adherence to the prescribing guideline, focusing on indications for intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) use and dosing per ideal body weight. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to describe an IVIG stewardship program at a tertiary academic medical center. METHODS: This was a prospective, observational study from January 2013 through December 2014...
October 6, 2016: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Wen-Juan Zhou, Zhen-Ni Luo, Chang-Min Tang, Xiao-Xu Zou, Lu Zhao, Peng-Qian Fang
The improvement of antibiotic rational use in China was studied by usage analysis of combination antibiotic therapy for type I incisions in 244 hospitals. Five kinds of hospitals, including general hospital, maternity hospital, children's hospital, stomatological hospital and cancer hospital, from 30 provinces were surveyed. A systematic random sampling strategy was employed to select outpatient prescriptions and inpatient cases in 2011 and 2012. A total of 29 280 outpatient prescriptions and 73 200 inpatient cases from 244 hospitals in each year were analyzed...
October 2016: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
C G Bendixsen
Agriculture is the most dangerous occupation in the United States for both workers and bystanders. Family farms highlight an intersection of domesticity and labor. Agrarian ethics of animal husbandry, land stewardship, and kinship are often conflated and constructed to accommodate unpredictable risks (e.g., weather, financial markets). Here, the right or good agricultural practice is assessed in light of an acute event. Risks of illness and injury are often relegated to the realm of acute unpredictability and accepted as intrinsic to desirable ways of life...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Agromedicine
Michelle K Haas, Kristen Dalton, Bryan C Knepper, Sarah A Stella, Lilia Cervantes, Connie S Price, William J Burman, Philip S Mehler, Timothy C Jenkins
Background.  Syndrome-specific interventions are a recommended approach to antibiotic stewardship, but additional data are needed to understand their potential impact. We implemented an intervention to improve the management of inpatient community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and evaluated its effects on antibiotic and resource utilization. Methods.  A stakeholder group developed and implemented a clinical practice guideline and order set for inpatient, non-intensive care unit CAP recommending a short course (5 days) of a fluoroquinolone-sparing antibiotic regimen in uncomplicated cases...
October 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Katie J Suda, Rebecca M Roberts, Robert J Hunkler, Thomas H Taylor
OBJECTIVES: Although antibiotic prescriptions are decreasing in the United States, broad-spectrum prescribing is increasing. It is unknown if decreases observed in national antibiotic prescribing differ by provider group. Understanding prescribing trends over time by provider group can be helpful for customizing antimicrobial stewardship efforts. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to describe outpatient antibiotic prescribing by provider group overall and adjusted for population and number of providers...
October 8, 2016: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
Sara Tedeschi, Filippo Trapani, Maddalena Giannella, Francesco Cristini, Fabio Tumietto, Michele Bartoletti, Annalisa Liverani, Salvatore Pignanelli, Luisa Toni, Roberto Pederzini, Augusto Cavina, Pierluigi Viale
OBJECTIVE To assess the impact of an antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) on antibiotic consumption, Clostridium difficile infections (CDI), and antimicrobial resistance patterns in a rehabilitation hospital. DESIGN Quasi-experimental study of the periods before (from January 2011 to June 2012) and after (from July 2012 to December 2014) ASP implementation. SETTING 150-bed rehabilitation hospital dedicated to patients with spinal-cord injuries. INTERVENTION Beginning in July 2012, an ASP was implemented based on systematic bedside infectious disease (ID) consultation and structural interventions (ie, revision of protocols for antibiotic prophylaxis and education focused on the appropriateness of antibiotic prescriptions)...
October 17, 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Alexander H Fischer, Alessandra Haskin, Ginette A Okoye
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic therapy is commonly used to treat hidradenitis suppurativa (HS). Although concern for antibiotic resistance exists, data examining the association between antibiotics and antimicrobial resistance in HS lesions are limited. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the frequency of antimicrobial resistance in HS lesions from patients on antibiotic therapy. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional analysis was conducted on 239 patients with HS seen at the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions from 2010 through 2015...
October 11, 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
S D Stites, C A Cooblall, J Aronovitz, S B Singletary, K Micklow, M Sjeime
BACKGROUND: The incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) have increased in recent years. Predictive models may help to identify at-risk patients before the onset of infection. Early identification of high-risk patients could help antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programmes and other initiatives to better prevent C. difficile in these patients. AIM: To develop a predictive model that identifies patients at high risk for CDI at the time of hospitalization...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
Bryce T Fukunaga, Wesley K Sumida, Deborah A Taira, James W Davis, Todd B Seto
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) results in almost half of all deaths caused by antibiotic resistant organisms. Current evidence suggests that MRSA infections are associated with antibiotic use. This study examined state-level data to determine whether outpatient antibiotic use was associated with hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA) infections. The 2013 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Healthcare-Associated Infections Progress Report was used to obtain HA-MRSA infection rates...
October 2016: Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health: a Journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health
Ira L Leeds, Anne Fabrizio, Sara E Cosgrove, Elizabeth C Wick
Antibiotic resistance continues to receive national attention as a leading public health threat. In 2015, President Barack Obama proposed a National Action Plan to Combat Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria to curb the rise of "superbugs," bacteria resistant to antibiotics of last resort. Whereas many antibiotics are prescribed appropriately to treat infections, there continue to be a large number of inappropriately prescribed antibiotics. Although much of the national attention with regards to stewardship has focused on primary care providers, there is a significant opportunity for surgeons to embrace this national imperative and improve our practices...
October 4, 2016: Annals of Surgery
Rossana Rosa, Jacques Simkins, Jose F Camargo, Octavio Martinez, Lilian M Abbo
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to compare the antimicrobial susceptibility percentages in blood and urine bacterial isolates recovered from solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients with those reported in the hospital-wide antibiogram. METHODS: Retrospective review of the antimicrobial susceptibilities of bacterial isolates recovered from SOT recipients at a 1550-bed hospital over a 2-year period. Antibiograms were categorized by anatomic site (blood and urine). Percentage of bacterial susceptibilities to specific antibiotics were compared with the hospital-wide antibiogram...
August 26, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Esther van Kleef, Sarah R Deeny, Mark Jit, Barry Cookson, Simon D Goldenberg, W John Edmunds, Julie V Robotham
BACKGROUND: Early clinical trials of a Clostridium difficile toxoid vaccine show efficacy in preventing C. difficile infection (CDI). The optimal patient group to target for vaccination programmes remains unexplored. This study performed a model-based evaluation of the effectiveness of different CDI vaccination strategies, within the context of existing infection prevention and control strategies such as antimicrobial stewardship. METHODS: An individual-based transmission model of CDI in a high-risk hospital setting was developed...
October 7, 2016: Vaccine
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