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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815897/multidrug-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-three-major-threats-to-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients
#1
REVIEW
Michael J Satlin, Thomas J Walsh
Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients are uniquely threatened by the emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria because these patients rely on immediate active antimicrobial therapy to combat bacterial infections. This review describes the epidemiology and treatment considerations for three challenging MDR bacterial pathogens in HSCT recipients: MDR Enterobacteriaceae, including extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE)...
August 16, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814444/implementing-an-inpatient-pediatric-prospective-audit-and-feedback-antimicrobial-stewardship-program-within-a-larger-medical-center
#2
Jennifer Lighter-Fisher, Sonya Desai, Anna Stachel, Vinh Philip Pham, Liana Klejmont, Yanina Dubrovskaya
BACKGROUND: Pediatric antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) within larger institutions have unique opportunities to develop programs specialized to the needs of the pediatric program. In January 2013, our institution established a formalized pediatric ASP utilizing the prospective audit and feedback process. In an effort to standardize therapy and improve quality of care, members of the ASP developed evidence-based guidelines for management of common inpatient pediatric infections...
August 16, 2017: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814443/antibiotic-use-by-pediatric-residents-identifying-opportunities-and-strategies-for-antimicrobial-stewardship
#3
Prateek J Shukla, Maria Behnam-Terneus, Beatriz Cunill-De Sautu, Geovanny F Perez
OBJECTIVES: To determine the antibiotic prescribing practices of pediatric residents and assess how they acquire knowledge leading to prescribing behaviors. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional electronic survey of all pediatric residents at the Children's National Medical Center and Nicklaus Children's Hospital, assessing antibiotic prescribing patterns for common pediatric infections, use of antibiograms, and factors influencing antibiotic choice. RESULTS: Eighty-five surveys (45%) were returned complete and included in the analysis...
August 16, 2017: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814442/extending-antimicrobial-stewardship-to-all-hospitalized-children-the-time-is-now
#4
Russell J McCulloh, Laura E Norton, Jennifer L Goldman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 16, 2017: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813757/quality-focus-antimicrobial-stewardship-cultural-change-continuing-challenge
#5
Stephan D Schroeder
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813735/duration-of-antibiotics-prescribed-at-hospital-discharge
#6
Susan E Hoover
INTRODUCTION: A patient's transition from hospitalization to discharge may represent an additional opportunity for antibiotic stewardship. METHODS: We reviewed antimicrobial drugs prescribed at discharge to patients at our medical center over a nine-month period, and calculated the total duration of inpatient and outpatient antibiotic therapy. RESULTS: The median duration of inpatient antibiotics was three days (interquartile range [IQR] four days), of outpatient antibiotics was seven days (IQR six days), and of total antibiotics 10 days (IQR six days)...
April 2017: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813003/self-assessment-of-antimicrobial-stewardship-in-primary-care-self-reported-practice-using-the-target-primary-care-self-assessment-tool
#7
Rebecca Owens, Leah Ffion Jones, Michael Moore, Dirk Pilat, Cliodna McNulty
Multifaceted antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) interventions including: antibiotic guidance, reviews of antibiotic use using audits, education, patient facing materials, and self-assessment, are successful in improving antimicrobial use. We aimed to measure the self-reported AMS activity of staff completing a self-assessment tool (SAT). The Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP)/Public Health England (PHE) SAT enables participants considering an AMS eLearning course to answer 12 short questions about their AMS activities...
August 16, 2017: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812924/susceptibility-testing-and-reporting-of-new-antibiotics-with-a-focus-on-tedizolid-an-international-working-group-report
#8
Mark H Wilcox, Natalia Dmitrieva, Ana Cristina Gales, Irina Petukhova, Suleiman Al-Obeid, Flavia Rossi, Joseph M Blondeau
Inappropriate use and overuse of antibiotics are among the most important factors in resistance development, and effective antibiotic stewardship measures are needed to optimize outcomes. Selection of appropriate antimicrobials relies on accurate and timely antimicrobial susceptibility testing. However, the availability of clinical breakpoints and in vitro susceptibility testing often lags behind regulatory approval by several years for new antimicrobials. A Working Group of clinical/medical microbiologists from Brazil, Canada, Mexico, Saudi Arabia, Russia and the UK recently examined issues surrounding antimicrobial susceptibility testing for novel antibiotics...
August 16, 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810817/struggles-over-antibiotics-physicians-stance-taking-toward-a-nonconforming-policy-in-an-intensive-care-unit
#9
Letizia Caronia, Marzia Saglietti
One of the most pressing contemporary health care challenges consists in rethinking antibiotic use to contrast the increase of multidrug resistant bacteria. Drawing on an ethnographic fieldwork in an Intensive Care Unit that adopts a nonconforming policy of antibiotic stewardship, this article analyzes doctor-doctor interaction concerning infectious disease diagnosis and antibiotic treatment. By analyzing examples of medical decision-making from a corpus of video-recorded morning briefings, we focus on physicians' stance-taking toward the ward's nonconforming policy and illustrate how it is contingently situated along a continuum from strong commitment to overt resistance...
August 1, 2017: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810368/public-health-messages-about-antibiotic-treatment-for-respiratory-tract-infection-may-increase-perceived-symptom-severity-reporting
#10
Claire Lawrence, Eamonn Ferguson
Public health campaigns to reduce expectations for antibiotic treatment for respiratory tract infections have shown little or no effect on antibiotic prescribing and consumption. We examined whether such messages can increase respiratory tract infection symptom reporting. Participants ( N = 318) received one of four campaign messages, a combination of all four messages, or no message. Respiratory tract infection symptoms increased for those who received information that emphasized the ineffectiveness of antibiotic treatment for respiratory tract infections...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809746/analytical-evaluation-of-the-performances-of-diazyme-and-brahms-procalcitonin-applied-to-roche-cobas-in-comparison-with-brahms-pct-sensitive-kryptor
#11
Ferruccio Ceriotti, Irene Marino, Andrea Motta, Anna Carobene
BACKGROUND: Procalcitonin (PCT) is a recognized marker of sepsis, and its use is expanding to antibiotic stewardship. The aim of this study was the evaluation of two methods: Diazyme PCT on Roche Cobas c702 (PCT-D) and BRAHMS PCT on Roche Cobas e602 analyzers (PCT-BR) in comparison with BRAHMS PCT-sensitive Kryptor (PCT-BK). METHODS: Imprecision was assessed at six critical concentrations following the CLSI EP5-A3; limits of detection (LoDs) were checked according to CLSI EP17-A2; linearity was tested, and method comparison was performed on 239 serum samples...
August 15, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808074/trends-in-antibiotic-use-by-birth-season-and-birth-year
#12
Alan C Kinlaw, Til Stürmer, Jennifer L Lund, Lars Pedersen, Michael D Kappelman, Julie L Daniels, Trine Frøslev, Christina D Mack, Henrik Toft Sørensen
OBJECTIVES: We examined 2 birth cohort effects on antibiotic prescribing during the first year of life (henceforth, infancy) in Denmark: (1) the birth season effect on timing and overall occurrence of antibiotic prescribing, and (2) the birth year effect amid emerging nationwide pneumococcal vaccination programs and changing prescribing guidelines. METHODS: We linked data for all live births in Denmark from 2004 to 2012 (N = 561 729) across the National Health Service Prescription Database, Medical Birth Registry, and Civil Registration System...
August 14, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808072/vaccines-and-outpatient-antibiotic-stewardship
#13
Adam L Hersh, Katherine E Fleming-Dutra
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 14, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807835/the-role-of-antimicrobial-stewardship-programmes-in-children-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
André Ricardo Araujo da Silva, Déborah Cardoso Albernaz de Almeida Dias, Amanda Fáris Marques, Clara Biscaia di Biase, Indah K Murni, Angela Dramowski, Mike Sharland, Johanes Huebner, Walter Zingg
The United Nations and the World Health Organization have designated antimicrobial resistance (AMR) as a major health priority and developed action plans to reduce AMR in all healthcare settings. Establishment of institutional antimicrobial stewardship programmes (ASPs) is advocated as a key intervention to reduce antibiotic consumption in hospitals and address high rates of multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria. We searched PUBMED and the Cochrane database of systematic reviews (1/2007-3/2017) to identify studies reporting about the effectiveness of ASPs in general paediatric wards and paediatric intensive care units (PICU), on reducing antibiotic consumption, on using broad spectrum/restricted antibiotics, and on antibiotic resistance and healthcare-associated infections (HAIs)...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807192/does-compliance-with-antibiotic-prophylaxis-in-pediatric-simple-appendicitis-matter
#15
Krislynn M Mueck, Luke R Putnam, Kathryn T Anderson, Kevin P Lally, KuoJen Tsao, Lillian S Kao
BACKGROUND: Institutional protocols for preincisional antibiotic prophylaxis can standardize care and improve outcomes. However, challenges remain in compliance with such protocols for urgent or emergent operations. We hypothesized that compliance with an institutional protocol for antibiotic prophylaxis for appendectomy for appendicitis in pediatric patients results in reduced surgical site infections (SSIs) after simple appendectomy. METHODS: This retrospective study assessed all pediatric patients (≤18 y) who underwent appendectomy for confirmed simple appendicitis at a tertiary children's hospital between 2012 and 2015...
August 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806902/monitoring-documenting-and-reporting-the-quality-of-antibiotic-use-in-the-netherlands-a-pilot-study-to-establish-a-national-antimicrobial-stewardship-registry
#16
Marvin Ah Berrevoets, Jaap Ten Oever, Tom Sprong, Reinier M van Hest, Ingeborg Groothuis, Inger van Heijl, Jeroen A Schouten, Marlies E Hulscher, Bart-Jan Kullberg
BACKGROUND: The Dutch Working Party on Antibiotic Policy is developing a national antimicrobial stewardship registry. This registry will report both the quality of antibiotic use in hospitals in the Netherlands and the stewardship activities employed. It is currently unclear which aspects of the quality of antibiotic use are monitored by antimicrobial stewardship teams (A-teams) and can be used as indicators for the stewardship registry. In this pilot study we aimed to determine which stewardship objectives are eligible for the envisioned registry...
August 15, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803555/bedside-registered-nurse-roles-in-antimicrobial-stewardship-a-survey-of-acute-care-hospitals-in-los-angeles-county
#17
Crystal D Cadavid, Sharon D Sakamoto, Dawn M Terashita, Benjamin Schwartz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 14, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802758/impact-of-rapid-identification-of-staphylococcus-aureus-bloodstream-infection-without-antimicrobial-stewardship-intervention-on-antibiotic-optimization-and-clinical-outcomes
#18
R Brigg Turner, Karineh Lalikian, Madeline Fry, Jacqueline Schwartz, Dominic Chan, Regina Won
Few studies have evaluated the clinical impact of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections in resource-limited settings that lack direct antimicrobial stewardship intervention. This retrospective cohort study compared patients with standard microbiological identification (n=343) to those with additional identification by (PCR) (n=130). Time to initiation of optimal therapy was similar between groups but substantially shorter in the PCR group for those infected with methicillin susceptible S...
July 8, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801466/statewide-payment-and-delivery-reform-do-states-have-what-it-takes
#19
Judy Feder, Alan R Weil, Robert Berenson, Rachel Dolan, Nicole Lallemand, Emily Hayes
States' role in payment as well as coverage will be subject to debate as the administration and the Congress decide how to address the Affordable Care Act (ACA) and otherwise reshape the nation's health policies. Acting as stewards of health care for the entire state population and stimulated by concern about rising costs and federal support under the ACA, the elected and administrative leaders of some states have been using their political influence and authority to improve their state's overall systems of care regardless of who pays the bill...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797590/antibiotic-stewardship-programs-in-nursing-homes-a-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
Diana Feldstein, Philip D Sloane, Cynthia Feltner
INTRODUCTION: Antibiotic stewardship programs (ASPs) are coordinated interventions promoting the appropriate use of antibiotics to improve patient outcomes and reduce microbial resistance. These programs are now mandated in nursing homes (NHs) but it is unclear if these programs improve resident outcomes. This systematic review evaluated the current evidence regarding outcomes of ASPs in the NH. METHODS: PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were systematically searched for intervention trials of ASPs performed in NHs that evaluated final health outcomes (mortality and Clostridium difficile infections), healthcare utilization outcomes (emergency department visits and hospital admissions) and intermediate health outcomes (number of antibiotics prescribed, adherence to recommended guidelines)...
August 7, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
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