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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921527/bumping-heart-and-sweaty-palms-physiological-hyperarousal-as-a-risk-factor-for-child-social-anxiety
#1
Milica Nikolić, Evin Aktar, Susan Bögels, Cristina Colonnesi, Wieke de Vente
BACKGROUND: Physiological hyperarousal in social situations is a characteristic of individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD), but so far it has been rarely studied as a biological risk for SAD. Here, we investigate whether children at high risk for SAD (because of their parents' SAD) display physiological hyperarousal while interacting with a stranger. Also, we examine whether early physiological hyperarousal is related to later child social anxiety. METHOD: One hundred and seventeen children took part in the stranger-approach task when they were 2...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888280/intergenerational-transmission-of-parent-child-relationship-quality-evidence-from-a-multi-actor-survey
#2
Karsten Hank, Veronika Salzburger, Merril Silverstein
Intergenerational transmission is a long-standing interest of social science research. However, little attention has been devoted to the study of transmission of relationship quality between several generations of family members. Exploiting multigenerational multi-actor data from the German Family Panel (pairfam), we estimate multilevel models to investigate whether, in three-generation families, relationship quality between the middle generation and the oldest (that is, grandparent) generation predicts relationship quality between the youngest generation of adolescent children and the middle generation...
September 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887774/social-inequality-life-course-transitions-and-adolescent-development-introduction-to-the-special-issue
#3
EDITORIAL
Marlis Buchmann, Annekatrin Steinhoff
Conceptualizing adolescent development within a life course framework that links the perspectives on social inequality and early life course transitions has largely been absent from previous research. Such a conceptual model is needed, however, in order to understand how the individual development of agentic capacities and the opportunities and constraints inherent in the social contexts of growing up interact and jointly affect young people's trajectories across the adolescent life stage. We present the corner stones of the conceptual "trident" of social inequality, life course transitions, and adolescent development and identify three major themes the eleven contributions to this special issue address within this conceptual framework: social and individual prerequisites and consequences of coping with life course transitions; intergenerational transmission belts of social inequality; socialization of agency in and outside the family home...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881065/the-intergenerational-transmission-of-at-risk-problem-gambling-the-moderating-role-of-parenting-practices
#4
Nicki A Dowling, Kerrie A Shandley, Erin Oldenhof, Julia M Affleck, George J Youssef, Erica Frydenberg, Shane A Thomas, Alun C Jackson
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although parenting practices are articulated as underlying mechanisms or protective factors in several theoretical models, their role in the intergenerational transmission of gambling problems has received limited research attention. This study therefore examined the degree to which parenting practices (positive parenting, parental involvement, and inconsistent discipline) moderated the intergenerational transmission of paternal and maternal problem gambling...
September 7, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869760/the-role-of-parental-posttraumatic-stress-marital-adjustment-and-dyadic-self-disclosure-in-intergenerational-transmission-of-trauma-a-family-system-approach
#5
Rahel Bachem, Yafit Levin, Xiao Zhou, Gadi Zerach, Zahava Solomon
Research indicates that posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) induced by war trauma may be transmitted to veterans' wives and offspring (secondary traumatic stress; STS). However, the interplay between family members' characteristics has not been accounted for in such processes. Taking a family systems perspective, we examine the contributions of fathers' PTSS, mothers' STS, marital adjustment, and self-disclosure of both parents to offspring's STS and test whether marital quality applies as a mechanism of parent-child transmission...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Marital and Family Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867938/environmental-transmission-of-generalized-anxiety-disorder-from-parents-to-children-worries-experiential-avoidance-and-intolerance-of-uncertainty
#6
Evin Aktar, Milica Nikolić, Susan M Bögels
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) runs in families. Building on recent theoretical approaches, this review focuses on potential environmental pathways for parent-to-child transmission of GAD. First, we address child acquisition of a generalized pattern of fearful/anxious and avoidant responding to potential threat from parents via verbal information and via modeling. Next, we address how parenting behaviors may contribute to maintenance of fearful/anxious and avoidant reactions in children. Finally, we consider intergenerational transmission of worries as a way of coping with experiential avoidance of strong negative emotions and with intolerance of uncertainty...
June 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862082/intergenerational-similarity-of-religiosity-over-the-family-life-course
#7
Joohong Min, Merril Silverstein, Tara L Gruenewald
OBJECTIVES: Research consistently shows that parents influence children's religiosity. However, few studies acknowledge that there is within-group variation in the intergenerational transmission of religiosity. In this article, we examine whether and how congruence in religiosity between generations changes over the family life course and identifies unique parent-child trajectory classes. METHOD: We used eight waves of data from the Longitudinal Study of Generations, including 1,084 parent-child dyads beginning in 1971 when the children were adolescents and young adults, followed up to 2005...
January 1, 2017: Research on Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860206/protecting-unauthorized-immigrant-mothers-improves-their-children-s-mental-health
#8
Jens Hainmueller, Duncan Lawrence, Linna Martén, Bernard Black, Lucila Figueroa, Michael Hotard, Tomás R Jiménez, Fernando Mendoza, Maria I Rodriguez, Jonas J Swartz, David D Laitin
The United States is embroiled in a debate about whether to protect or deport its estimated 11 million unauthorized immigrants, but the fact that these immigrants are also parents to more than 4 million U.S.-born children is often overlooked. We provide causal evidence of the impact of parents' unauthorized immigration status on the health of their U.S. citizen children. The Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program granted temporary protection from deportation to more than 780,000 unauthorized immigrants...
August 31, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842114/intergenerational-effect-of-maternal-exposure-to-childhood-maltreatment-on-newborn-brain-anatomy
#9
Nora K Moog, Sonja Entringer, Jerod M Rasmussen, Martin Styner, John H Gilmore, Norbert Kathmann, Christine M Heim, Pathik D Wadhwa, Claudia Buss
BACKGROUND: Childhood maltreatment (CM) confers deleterious long-term consequences, and growing evidence suggests some of these effects may be transmitted across generations. We examined the intergenerational effect of maternal CM exposure on child brain structure and also addressed the hypothesis that this effect may start during the child's intrauterine period of life. METHODS: A prospective longitudinal study was conducted in a clinical convenience sample of 80 mother-child dyads...
July 21, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836448/gender-differences-in-posttraumatic-stress-symptoms-among-former-prisoners-of-wars-adult-offspring
#10
Gadi Zerach, Zahava Solomon
OBJECTIVES: The lifetime risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and PTSD symptoms (PTSS) among primary and secondary female victims is known to be higher than for male. This study assessed gender differences in PTSS among former prisoners of war's (ex-POWs) adult offspring and the associations with their fathers' and mothers' PTSS and the parental bonding with them. DESIGN: A correlative study. METHODS: A sample of 79 Israeli father-mother-offspring ex-POW triads from the 1973 Yom Kippur War completed self-report measures...
August 24, 2017: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833059/parental-depression-and-parent-and-child-stress-physiology-moderation-by-parental-hostility
#11
Stephanie M Merwin, Katherine A Leppert, Victoria C Smith, Lea R Dougherty
This study examined the moderating role of parental hostility on the associations between parental depression and the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and morning cortisol levels of both parents and children. 148 parents and 148 preschool-aged children provided salivary cortisol samples at waking, 30 and 45 min post-waking on two consecutive days. Parental depression was assessed using a clinical interview, and parental hostility was assessed using an observational parent-child interaction task. Results indicated that the combination of parental lifetime depression and high parental hostility was associated with lower morning cortisol levels in both parents and children...
August 23, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813253/attachment-theory-progress-and-future-directions
#12
REVIEW
R M Pasco Fearon, Glenn I Roisman
Attachment is a key subfield in the area of parenting and parent-child relationships research. In this brief overview, we summarise what we consider to be the state-of-the-art of attachment research, focusing primarily on the nature and significance of attachment in infancy and early childhood. We review 4 major topics that are central issues in the scientific literature on attachment: (1) the role of the environment in the development of attachment, (2) the intergenerational transmission of patterns of attachment, (3) the stability of attachment patterns through early adulthood, and (4) the role of attachment in adjustment and maladjustment...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789794/does-high-optimism-protect-against-the-inter-generational-transmission-of-high-bmi-the-cardiovascular-risk-in-young-finns-study
#13
Anna Serlachius, Laura Pulkki-Råback, Markus Juonala, Matthew Sabin, Terho Lehtimäki, Olli Raitakari, Marko Elovainio
OBJECTIVE: The transmission of overweight from one generation to the next is well established, however little is known about what psychosocial factors may protect against this familial risk. The aim of this study was to examine whether optimism plays a role in the intergenerational transmission of obesity. METHODS: Our sample included 1043 participants from the prospective Cardiovascular Risk in Young FINNS Study. Optimism was measured in early adulthood (2001) when the cohort was aged 24-39years...
September 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769086/intergenerational-transmission-of-paternal-epigenetic-marks-mechanisms-influencing-susceptibility-to-post-concussion-symptomology-in-a-rodent-model
#14
Harleen Hehar, Irene Ma, Richelle Mychasiuk
Epigenetic transmission of phenotypic variance has been linked to paternal experiences prior to conception and during perinatal development. Previous reports indicate that paternal experiences increase phenotypic heterogeneity and may contribute to offspring susceptibility to post-concussive symptomology. This study sought to determine if epigenetic tags, specifically DNA methylation of promoter regions, are transmitted from rodent fathers to their sons. Using MethyLight, promoter methylation of specific genes involved in recovery from concussion and brain plasticity were analyzed in sperm and brain tissue...
August 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767657/maternal-ptsd-and-corresponding-neural-activity-mediate-effects-of-child-exposure-to-violence-on-child-ptsd-symptoms
#15
Daniel S Schechter, Dominik A Moser, Tatjana Aue, Marianne Gex-Fabry, Virginie C Pointet, Maria I Cordero, Francesca Suardi, Aurelia Manini, Marylène Vital, Ana Sancho Rossignol, Molly Rothenberg, Alexandre G Dayer, Francois Ansermet, Sandra Rusconi Serpa
The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of maternal interpersonal violence-related posttraumatic stress disorder (IPV-PTSD), associated neural activity in response to mother-child relational stimuli, and child psychopathology indicators at child ages 12-42 months and one year later. The study tested the hypothesis that decreased maternal neural activity in regions that subserve emotion regulation would be associated with child symptoms associated with emotional dysregulation at both time points...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745264/shared-genetic-influences-do-not-explain-the-association-between-parent-offspring-relationship-quality-and-offspring-internalizing-problems-results-from-a-children-of-twins-study
#16
L J Hannigan, F V Rijsdijk, J M Ganiban, D Reiss, E L Spotts, J M Neiderhiser, P Lichtenstein, T A McAdams, T C Eley
BACKGROUND: Associations between parenting and child outcomes are often interpreted as reflecting causal, social influences. However, such associations may be confounded by genes common to children and their biological parents. To the extent that these shared genes influence behaviours in both generations, a passive genetic mechanism may explain links between them. Here we aim to quantify the relative importance of passive genetic v. social mechanisms in the intergenerational association between parent-offspring relationship quality and offspring internalizing problems in adolescence...
July 26, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744703/pathways-of-intergenerational-transmission-of-advantages-during-adolescence-social-background-cognitive-ability-and-educational-attainment
#17
Wiebke Schulz, Reinhard Schunck, Martin Diewald, Wendy Johnson
Educational attainment in adolescence is of paramount importance for attaining higher education and for shaping subsequent life chances. Sociological accounts focus on the role of differences in socioeconomic resources in intergenerational reproduction of educational inequalities. These often disregard the intergenerational transmission of cognitive ability and the importance of children's cognitive ability to educational attainment. Psychological perspectives stress the importance of cognitive ability for educational attainment but underemphasize potentially different roles of specific socioeconomic resources in shaping educational outcomes, as well as individual differences in cognitive ability...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720162/maternal-pregnancy-c-reactive-protein-predicts-offspring-birth-size-and-body-composition-in-metropolitan-cebu-philippines
#18
C W Kuzawa, R L Fried, J B Borja, T W McDade
The gestational milieu is an important influence on fetal development and long-term disease risk. Here we assess relationships between maternal pregnancy inflammation, indicated by C-reactive protein (CRP), and offspring anthropometric outcomes measured soon after birth. Data come from female participants (n=327, age 24.4-30.2 years) in a longitudinal study located in Metropolitan Cebu, Philippines. Between 2009 and 2014, pregnancy interviews (n=429) were conducted during which questionnaire and anthropometric data were obtained along with dried blood spot cards for CRP measurement...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718053/family-interdependence-spiritual-perspective-self-transcendence-and-depression-among-korean-college-students
#19
Suk-Sun Kim, R David Hayward, Minji Gil
The purpose of this study was to examine the mechanisms that might account for the effects of spirituality and self-transcendence on Korean college students' depression among 197 Korean fathers, mothers, and children. A structural equation analysis indicated that spiritual perspective related to lower depression through the mediating pathway of self-transcendence for individuals. Mothers' spiritual perspective and self-transcendence related to their children's depression through the mediating pathway of their own depression, but the same was not true for fathers...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707154/personality-and-the-intergenerational-transmission-of-educational-attainment-evidence-from-germany
#20
Renee Ryberg, Shawn Bauldry, Michael A Schultz, Annekatrin Steinhoff, Michael Shanahan
Research based in the United States, with its relatively open educational system, has found that personality mediates the relationship between parents' and child's educational attainment and this mediational pattern is especially beneficial to students from less-educated households. Yet in highly structured, competitive educational systems, personality characteristics may not predict attainment or may be more or less consequential at different points in the educational career. We examine the salience of personality in the educational attainment process in the German educational system...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
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