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Intergenerational transmission

David Matthew Doyle, Pam Factor-Litvak, Bruce G Link
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to test a life course model in which racial disparities in physical health between Caucasian and African Americans are driven by disparities in close relationship functioning. This model also examined relative evidence for intergenerational transmission of relationship functioning and ongoing exposure to prejudice and discrimination as two pathways that might shape adult relationship functioning. METHOD: A sample of 523 Caucasian and African American men and women were prospectively tracked from a birth cohort initiated in the 1960s...
February 3, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Marinus H van IJzendoorn, Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg
Attachment is transmitted from one generation to the next. Adult attachment has been shown to predict the security or insecurity of children's attachment relationship with their parents. In search for the mechanism of intergenerational transmission of attachment sensitive parenting has been the main focus of research during the past four decades. Meta-analytic work confirmed the role of sensitive parenting, but a large explanatory gap remains to be explained. Parental mentalization has not yet fulfilled its promise as a bridge across the transmission gap...
February 27, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Stephanie M Merwin, Chelsey Barrios, Victoria C Smith, Edward P Lemay, Lea R Dougherty
This study examined the impact of parent-child attunement of morning cortisol on parenting and child outcomes in dyads with and without parental depression. Participants included 142 parent-child dyads (3-5 years-old) who provided morning cortisol samples at Wave 1, and 98 dyads returned for the 3-year follow-up at Wave 2. Results indicated that for parents with a history of depression and for female children, stronger attunement predicted increases in parental hostility from Wave 1 to Wave 2. For females only, stronger attunement was related to children's depressive symptoms at Wave 1 and Wave 2...
March 12, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
Jerica M Berge, Megan R Winkler, Nicole Larson, Jonathan Miller, Ann F Haynos, Dianne Neumark-Sztainer
BACKGROUND: Although previous cross-sectional research has revealed potential harmful outcomes associated with parent encouragement to diet, it is unclear whether these effects are long lasting and whether they are transmitted to the next generation. The main aim of the current study was to examine longitudinal associations between exposure to parent encouragement to diet in adolescence and weight-related and emotional health outcomes in adulthood and to examine whether intergenerational transmission of encouragement to diet occurs...
March 6, 2018: Pediatrics
R Barouki, E Melén, Z Herceg, J Beckers, J Chen, M Karagas, A Puga, Y Xia, L Chadwick, W Yan, K Audouze, R Slama, J Heindel, P Grandjean, T Kawamoto, K Nohara
A variety of experimental and epidemiological studies lend support to the Developmental Origin of Health and Disease (DOHaD) concept. Yet, the actual mechanisms accounting for mid- and long-term effects of early-life exposures remain unclear. Epigenetic alterations such as changes in DNA methylation, histone modifications and the expression of certain RNAs have been suggested as possible mediators of long-term health effects of environmental stressors. This report captures discussions and conclusions debated during the last Prenatal Programming and Toxicity meeting held in Japan...
February 27, 2018: Environment International
Ylva B Almquist, Lars Brännström
Children whose parents experience adverse social, economic, or health-related living conditions are more likely to face similar types of disadvantage in their adult life. However, a limitation of many earlier studies is that they do not account for the multidimensionality of the concept of living conditions, and that the child generation's life courses are targeted as static and independent from the societal context in which they are imbedded. The current investigation addressed these aspects by focusing on the complexity, duration, and timing of disadvantage with regard to how adverse circumstances in the family of origin are associated with trajectories of social, economic, and health-related living conditions across adulthood...
2018: Social Indicators Research
Stefanie Berger, Marianne Ronovsky, Orsolya Horvath, Angelika Berger, Daniela D Pollak
Maternal immune activation (MIA) is a well-established model for the investigation of the deleterious effects of gestational infection on offspring mental health later in life. Hence, MIA represents a critical environmental variable determining brain development and the depending neural and behavioral functions in the progeny. Transgenerational transmission of some of the effects of MIA has been recently reported using the Polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (Poly (I:C)) MIA model in C57BL/6 (C57) inbred mice. However, little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms and the possible relevance of the specific genetic make-up of the inbred mouse strain used...
February 23, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Sabine Pirchio, Ylenia Passiatore, Angelo Panno, Fridanna Maricchiolo, Giuseppe Carrus
The increasing flow of immigrants in many European countries and the growing presence of children from immigrant families in schools makes it relevant to study the development of prejudice in children. Parents play an important role in shaping children's values and their attitudes toward members of other ethnic groups; an intergenerational transmission of prejudice has been found in a number of studies targeting adolescents. The present study aims to investigate the intergenerational transmission of ethnic prejudice in 3- to 9- year-old children and its relations to parenting styles...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Pamela Scorza, Cristiane S Duarte, Alison E Hipwell, Jonathan Posner, Ana Ortin, Glorisa Canino, Catherine Monk
BACKGROUND: For decades, economists and sociologists have documented intergenerational transmission of socioeconomic disadvantage, demonstrating that economic, political, and social factors contribute to 'inherited hardship'. Drawing on biological factors, the developmental origins of adult health and disease model posits that fetal exposure to maternal prenatal distress associated with socioeconomic disadvantage compromises offspring's neurodevelopment, affecting short- and long-term physical and mental health, and thereby psychosocial standing and resources...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Nini Wu, Yang Hou, Qian Wang, Chengfu Yu
Parents' educational aspirations for youth play an important role in shaping youth's own educational aspirations; however, little is known about how and in what context parents may transmit their aspirations to youth effectively. This is of particular interest and import to be examined in Chinese families, given Chinese cultural emphasis on educational achievement and Chinese youth's outstanding academic performance internationally. By integrating several key theories of motivation and parental socialization (i...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
Shermel Sherman, Nadeen Sarsour, Marziyeh Salehi, Allen Schroering, Blair Mell, Bina Joe, Jennifer W Hill
BACKGROUND: Conditions of excess androgen in women, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), often exhibit intergenerational transmission. One way in which the risk for PCOS may be increased in daughters of affected women is through exposure to elevated androgens in utero. Hyperandrogenemic conditions have serious health consequences, including increased risk for hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Recently, gut dysbiosis has been found to induce hypertension in rats, such that blood pressure can be normalized through fecal microbial transplant...
February 22, 2018: Gut Microbes
Hein M Tun, Sarah L Bridgman, Radha Chari, Catherine J Field, David S Guttman, Allan B Becker, Piush J Mandhane, Stuart E Turvey, Padmaja Subbarao, Malcolm R Sears, James A Scott, Anita L Kozyrskyj
Importance: Maternal overweight, which often results in cesarean delivery, is a strong risk factor for child overweight. Little is known about the joint contribution of birth mode and microbiota in the infant gut to the association between maternal prepregnancy overweight and child overweight. Objective: To investigate the association of birth mode with microbiota in the infant gut, and whether this mediates the association between maternal and child overweight...
February 19, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
Giulia Paolella, Pietro Vajro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 19, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
Steven Elías Alvarado
Research on residential inequality focuses heavily on adult economic outcomes as crucial components of the intergenerational transmission of poverty. Yet, empirical evidence on whether youth neighborhoods have a lasting impact on adult economic outcomes at the national level is scarce. Further, we know little about how youth neighborhood effects on adult economic outcomes manifest. This study uses 26 years (14 waves) of restricted panel data from the NLSY79 and the NLSY Children and Young Adults cohorts - data that have never been used to analyze long-term neighborhood effects - to examine whether youth neighborhood disadvantage impacts adult economic outcomes through sensitive years in childhood, teen socialization, duration effects, or cumulative effects...
February 2018: Social Science Research
M Rohaa Langenhof, Jan Komdeur
Understanding the ways in which individuals cope with threats, respond to challenges, make use of opportunities and mediate the harmful effects of their surroundings is important for predicting their ability to function in a rapidly changing world. Perhaps one of the most essential drivers of coping behaviour of adults is the environment experienced during their early-life development. Although the study of coping, defined as behaviours displayed in response to environmental challenges, has a long and rich research history in biology, recent literature has repeatedly pointed out that the processes through which coping behaviours develop in individuals are still largely unknown...
2018: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
Mengcen Qian, Shin-Yi Chou, Mary E Deily, Jin-Tan Liu
We estimate a gender differential in the intergenerational transmission of adverse birth outcomes. We link Taiwan birth certificates from 1978 to 2006 to create a sample of children born in the period 1999-2006 that includes information about their parents and their maternal grandmothers. We use maternal-sibling fixed effects to control for unobserved family-linked factors that may be correlated with birth outcomes across generations, and define adverse birth outcomes as small for gestational age. We find that when a mother is in the 5th percentile of birth weight for her gestational age, then her female children are 49-53% more likely to experience the same adverse birth outcome compared to other female children, while her male children are 27-32% more likely to experience this relative to other male children...
January 31, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Jack Hearn, Franklin Wang-Ngai Chow, Harriet Barton, Matthew Tung, Phil Wilson, Mark Blaxter, Amy Buck, Tom J Little
Maternal effects, where the performance of offspring is determined by the condition of their mother, are widespread and may in some cases be adaptive. The crustacean Daphnia magna shows strong maternal effects: offspring size at birth and other proxies for fitness are altered when their mothers are older or when mothers have experienced dietary restriction. The mechanisms for this transgenerational transmission of maternal experience are unknown, but could include changes in epigenetic patterning. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are regulators of gene expression that have been shown to play roles in intergenerational information transfer, and here we test whether miRNAs are involved in D...
February 8, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Tim Morris, David Manley, Maarten Van Ham
Neighbourhood effects studies have demonstrated an association between area deprivation and smoking behaviour whereby people living in deprived neighbourhoods are more likely to smoke than those in non-deprived neighbourhoods. This evidence though is based largely upon data that ignores long term exposures to neighbourhood contexts and is confounded by neighbourhood selection bias. In this study, we investigate the temporal ordering of exposure to neighbourhood deprivation throughout childhood and whether associations between neighbourhood deprivation and cigarette smoking are due to compositional or contextual neighbourhood effects...
2018: PloS One
Lucia Mangiavacchi, Luca Piccoli
This study analyses whether an excessive parental alcohol consumption during childhood can affect long run children's educational attainments. Using 19 waves of the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS), where individuals and their families are followed from childhood to adulthood, this study analyses parental alcohol consumption during childhood (between 1994 and 2001) and its relation with children's educational attainment about twelve years later (from 2005 to 2014). Panel estimations show that mother's excessive alcohol consumption during childhood is consistently negatively associated with children educational outcomes, as years of education, the highest education grade achieved and the probability of having a tertiary education degree, a finding that is robust to possible endogeneity issues...
December 29, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
Hua Niu, Li Liu, Meifang Wang
The present study examined the intergenerational transmission of harsh discipline (psychological aggression and corporal punishment) and the moderating effects of parenting stress and parent gender in Chinese societies. Utilizing a sample of 634 Chinese father-mother dyads with preschoolers, findings revealed that both mothers' and fathers' harsh discipline were transmitted across generations and the strength of transmission varied by the severity of harsh discipline and the parent gender. For both mothers and fathers, high parenting stress intensified the intergenerational transmission of psychological aggression and corporal punishment, whereas low parenting stress weakened the transmission of psychological aggression and even disrupted the transmission of corporal punishment...
January 26, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
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