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Signalling pathways

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241219/yap-inhibits-the-apoptosis-and-migration-of-human-rectal-cancer-cells-via-suppression-of-jnk-drp1-mitochondrial-fission-htra2-omi-pathways
#1
Haijun Li, Fucheng He, Xin Zhao, Yuan Zhang, Xi Chu, Chunlan Hua, Yunhui Qu, Yu Duan, Liang Ming
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The Hippo-Yap pathway is associated with tumor development and progression. However, little evidence is available concerning its role in cancer cell apoptosis and migration via mitochondrial homeostasis. Here, we identify mitochondrial fission as a regulator of the Hippo-Yap pathway in human rectal cancer tumorigenesis and metastasis. METHODS: In this study, we performed loss-of function assays concerning Yap in RCC via shRNA. Cellular viability and apoptosis were measured via MTT, the TUNEL assay and trypan blue staining...
December 12, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241211/the-role-of-pannexin3-modified-human-dental-pulp-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-in-repairing-rat-cranial-critical-sized-bone-defects
#2
Fangfang Song, Hualing Sun, Liyuan Huang, Dongjie Fu, Cui Huang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Human dental pulp-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hDPSCs) are promising seed cells for tissue engineering due to their easy accessibility and multi-lineage differentiation. Pannexin3 (Panx3) plays crucial roles during bone development and differentiation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Panx3 on osteogenesis of hDPSCs and the underlying mechanism. METHODS: Utilizing qRT-PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry, we explored the change of Panx3 during osteogenic differentiation of hDPSCs...
December 13, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241183/leptin-suppresses-glutamate-induced-apoptosis-through-regulation-of-erk1-2-signaling-pathways-in-rat-primary-astrocytes
#3
Hyunju Park, So-Hee Ahn, Yieun Jung, Joo Chun Yoon, Youn-Hee Choi
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Leptin is a hormone expressed by adipose tissue that regulates body energy homeostasis and weight loss by activating leptin receptors in the hypothalamus. Leptin receptors are also expressed in astrocytes. An anti-apoptosis effect of leptin in brain has recently been reported. However, the anti-apoptosis mechanism of leptin in the brain is unknown. METHODS: To investigate whether leptin exerts protective effects against glutamate-induced apoptosis in astrocytes, we performed cell viability assays and apoptosis assays using rat primary astrocytes...
December 12, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241073/resveratrol-inhibits-proliferation-migration-and-invasion-via-akt-and-erk1-2-signaling-pathways-in-renal-cell-carcinoma-cells
#4
Yuwan Zhao, Huancheng Tang, Xin Zeng, Dongcai Ye, Jianjun Liu
Recent studies have shown that resveratrol (RES) inhibits cancer cell growth, migration and invasion. Here, we evaluated RES in two human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell lines, ACHN and A498. We investigated the effects of RES on proliferation, cell morphology, colony formation, migration, and invasion. We used a proliferation assay to demonstrate that RES inhibited cell growth with IC50 values 132.9±1.064μM in ACHN, and 112.8±1.191μM in A498, respectively. Using inverted contrast microscopy, we showed that RES reduced cell-to-cell contact and inhibited formation of filopodia...
December 11, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241070/protocatechuic-acid-ameliorates-high-glucose-induced-extracellular-matrix-accumulation-in-diabetic-nephropathy
#5
Yali Ma, Fang Chen, Suxia Yang, Baoping Chen, Jun Shi
Protocatechuic acid (PCA), a phenolic compound of anthocyanins, was reported to possess various pharmacologic properties, including anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptosis, anti-diabetic and anti-tumor activities. However, the role of PCA in diabetic nephropathy remains elusive. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of PCA on extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation in high glucose (HG)-induced human mesangial cells (MCs) and explore the possible mechanism. Our results demonstrated that PCA obviously inhibited HG-induced proliferation of MCs in a dose-dependent manner...
December 11, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241051/determination-of-lipid-profiles-in-serum-of-obese-ponies-before-and-after-weight-reduction-by-using-multi-one-dimensional-thin-layer-chromatography
#6
Ratchada Auyyuenyong, Andrea Henze, Julia Ungru, Florian J Schweigert, Jens Raila, Ingrid Vervuert
Obesity is a key component of equine metabolic syndrome, which is highly associated with laminitis. Feed restriction and/or exercise are known to alleviate the detrimental effects of insulin resistance in obese ponies. However, little is known about changes in the serum lipid patterns due to weight reduction and its association with disease outcomes. Therefore, the lipid patterns in the serum of 14 mature ponies before and after a 14-week body weight reduction program (BWRP) were investigated by multi-one-dimensional thin-layer chromatography (MOD-TLC)...
November 21, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241040/a-large-polysaccharide-produced-by-helicobacter-hepaticus-induces-an-anti-inflammatory-gene-signature-in-macrophages
#7
Camille Danne, Grigory Ryzhakov, Maria Martínez-López, Nicholas Edward Ilott, Fanny Franchini, Fiona Cuskin, Elisabeth C Lowe, Samuel J Bullers, J Simon C Arthur, Fiona Powrie
Interactions between the host and its microbiota are of mutual benefit and promote health. Complex molecular pathways underlie this dialog, but the identity of microbe-derived molecules that mediate the mutualistic state remains elusive. Helicobacter hepaticus is a member of the mouse intestinal microbiota that is tolerated by the host. In the absence of an intact IL-10 signaling, H. hepaticus induces an IL-23-driven inflammatory response in the intestine. Here we investigate the interactions between H. hepaticus and host immune cells that may promote mutualism, and the microbe-derived molecule(s) involved...
December 13, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241030/expression-profiles-of-genes-involved-in-tlrs-and-nlrs-signaling-pathways-of-water-buffaloes-infected-with-fasciola-gigantica
#8
Fu-Kai Zhang, Jun-Ling Hou, Ai-Jiang Guo, Ai-Ling Tian, Zhao-An Sheng, Wen-Bin Zheng, Wei-Yi Huang, Hany M Elsheikha, Xing-Quan Zhu
Infection of ruminants and humans with Fasciola gigantica is attracting increasing attention due to its economic impact and public health significance. However, little is known of innate immune responses during F. gigantica infection. Here, we investigated the expression profiles of genes involved in Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and NOD-like receptors (NLRs) signaling pathways in buffaloes infected with 500F. gigantica metacercariae. Serum, liver and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples were collected from infected and control buffaloes at 3, 10, 28, and 70days post infection (dpi)...
December 11, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241005/spatiotemporal-control-of-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling-with-light
#9
Yuchao Li, Minji Lee, Nury Kim, Guoyu Wu, Difan Deng, Xuedong Liu, Won Do Heo, Zhike Zi
Cells employ signaling pathways to make decisions in response to changes in their immediate environment. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is an important growth factor that regulates many cellular functions in development and disease. Although the molecular mechanisms of TGF-β signaling have been well studied, our understanding of this pathway is limited by the lack of tools that allow the control of TGF-β signaling with high spatiotemporal resolution. Here, we developed an optogenetic system (optoTGFBRs) that enables the precise control of TGF-β signaling in time and space...
December 14, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240990/wnt-signaling-loss-accelerates-the-appearance-of-neuropathological-hallmarks-of-alzheimer-s-disease-in-j20-app-transgenic-and-wild-type-mice
#10
Cheril Tapia-Rojas, Nibaldo C Inestrosa
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative pathology characterized by aggregates of amyloid-β (Aβ) and phosphorylated tau protein, synaptic dysfunction, and spatial memory impairment. The Wnt signaling pathway has several key functions in the adult brain and has been associated with AD, mainly as a neuroprotective factor against Aβ toxicity and tau phosphorylation. However, dysfunction of Wnt/β-catenin signaling might also play a role in the onset and development of the disease. J20 APPswInd transgenic (Tg) mouse model of AD was treated i...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240949/nitric-oxide-production-in-plants-an-update
#11
Jeremy Astier, Inonge Gross, Jörg Durner
Nitric oxide (NO) is a key signaling molecule in plant physiology. However, its production in photosynthetic organisms remains partially unresolved. The best characterized NO production route involves the reduction of nitrite to NO via different non-enzymatic or enzymatic mechanisms. Nitrate reductases (NRs), the mitochondrial electron transport chain, and the new complex between NR and NOFNiR (nitric oxide-forming nitrite reductase) described in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii are the main enzymatic systems that perform this reductive NO production in plants...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240948/early-cyclical-neuromuscular-electrical-stimulation-improves-strength-and-trophism-by-akt-pathway-signaling-in-partially-paralyzed-biceps-muscle-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#12
Gabriel R de Freitas, Caroline C do Espírito Santo, Nicolas A M M de Machado-Pereira, Franciane Bobinski, Adair R S Dos Santos, Jocemar Ilha
Background: Electrical stimulation is often used to treat weakness in people with spinal cord injury (SCI), however its efficacy to increase strength and trophism are weak and the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic benefits are unknown. Objective: The purpose of the study was to analyze the effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on muscle function, trophism and the Akt pathway signaling involved in muscular plasticity after incomplete-SCI in rats...
December 12, 2017: Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240947/a-fth1-gene-pseudogene-microrna-network-regulates-tumorigenesis-in-prostate-cancer
#13
Jia Jia Chan, Zhi Hao Kwok, Xiao Hong Chew, Bin Zhang, Chao Liu, Tuck Wah Soong, Henry Yang, Yvonne Tay
Non-coding RNAs play a vital role in diverse cellular processes. Pseudogenes, which are non-coding homologs of protein-coding genes, were once considered non-functional evolutional relics. However, recent studies have shown that pseudogene transcripts can regulate their parental transcripts by sequestering shared microRNAs (miRNAs), thus acting as competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs). In this study, we utilize an unbiased screen to identify the ferritin heavy chain 1 (FTH1) transcript and multiple FTH1 pseudogenes as targets of several oncogenic miRNAs in prostate cancer (PCa)...
December 12, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240824/high-abundance-of-arfgap1-found-in-the-mossy-fibers-in-hilus-of-the-dentate-gyrus-region-of-the-mouse-brain
#14
Sergiy Chornyy, Anna Parnis, Michael Shmoish, Dan Cassel
The Arf GTPase-activating protein ArfGAP1 and its brain-specific isoform ArfGAP1B play an important role in neurotransmission. Here we analyzed the distribution of ArfGAP1 in the mouse brain. We found high levels of ArfGAP1 in the mouse dentate gyrus where it displayed especially elevated level in the polymorph layer (hilus). Importantly, the ArfGAP1 signal follows the pathway of the granular cell axons so-called mossy fibers which extend from the dentate gyrus to CA3 via stratum lucidum and partially stratum oriens...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240812/effects-of-vaspin-on-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-secretion-via-pi3k-akt-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathways
#15
Shiwei Liu, Xin Li, Yaru Wu, Ruixue Duan, Jiaxin Zhang, Fang Du, Qi Zhang, Yuanbin Li, Naishi Li
Vaspin (visceral adipose tissue-derived serine protease inhibitor) is a recently discovered adipokine that has been implicated in diabetes mellitus and other metabolic disorders. However, the effects of vaspin on pancreatic β cell function and related mechanisms are not fully understood. Thus, the present study was performed to investigate the effects of vaspin on pancreatic β cell function and the potential underlying mechanisms. Both in vitro (rat insulinoma cells, INS-1) and in vivo (high fat diet fed rats) experiments were conducted...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240807/diversification-of-the-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-gene-in-mammals
#16
Peter Rotwein
Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), a small, secreted peptide growth factor, is involved in a variety of physiological and patho-physiological processes, including somatic growth, tissue repair, and metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids. IGF1 gene expression appears to be controlled by several different signaling cascades in the few species in which it has been evaluated, with growth hormone playing a major role by activating a pathway involving the Stat5b transcription factor. Here, genes encoding IGF1 have been evaluated in 25 different mammalian species representing 15 different orders and ranging over ~180 million years of evolutionary diversification...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240787/brd3-4-inhibition-and-flt3-ligand-deprivation-target-pathways-that-are-essential-for-the-survival-of-human-mll-af9-leukemic-cells
#17
Marco Carretta, Annet Z Brouwers-Vos, Matthieu Bosman, Sarah J Horton, Joost H A Martens, Edo Vellenga, Jan Jacob Schuringa
In the present work we aimed to identify targetable signaling networks in human MLL-AF9 leukemias. We show that MLL-AF9 cells critically depend on FLT3-ligand induced pathways as well as on BRD3/4 for their survival. We evaluated the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of the BRD3/4 inhibitor I-BET151 in various human MLL-AF9 (primary) models and patient samples and analyzed the transcriptome changes following treatment. To further understand the mode of action of BRD3/4 inhibition, we performed ChIP-seq experiments on the MLL-AF9 complex in THP1 cells and compared it to RNA-seq data of I-BET151 treated cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240764/selection-for-long-and-short-sleep-duration-in-drosophila-melanogaster-reveals-the-complex-genetic-network-underlying-natural-variation-in-sleep
#18
Susan T Harbison, Yazmin L Serrano Negron, Nancy F Hansen, Amanda S Lobell
Why do some individuals need more sleep than others? Forward mutagenesis screens in flies using engineered mutations have established a clear genetic component to sleep duration, revealing mutants that convey very long or short sleep. Whether such extreme long or short sleep could exist in natural populations was unknown. We applied artificial selection for high and low night sleep duration to an outbred population of Drosophila melanogaster for 13 generations. At the end of the selection procedure, night sleep duration diverged by 9...
December 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240761/microorganisms-in-the-human-placenta-are-associated-with-altered-cpg-methylation-of-immune-and-inflammation-related-genes
#19
Martha Scott Tomlinson, Paige A Bommarito, Elizabeth M Martin, Lisa Smeester, Raina N Fichorova, Andrew B Onderdonk, Karl C K Kuban, T Michael O'Shea, Rebecca C Fry
Microorganisms in the placenta have been linked to adverse pregnancy outcomes as well as neonatal illness. Inflammation in the placenta has been identified as a contributing factor in this association, but the underlying biological mechanisms are not yet fully understood. The placental epigenome may serve as an intermediate between placental microbes and inflammation, contributing to adverse outcomes in the offspring. In the present study, genome-wide DNA methylation (n = 486,428 CpG sites) of 84 placentas was analyzed in relation to 16 species of placental microorganisms using samples collected from the Extremely Low Gestation Age Newborns (ELGAN) cohort...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240760/novel-linear-motif-filtering-protocol-reveals-the-role-of-the-lc8-dynein-light-chain-in-the-hippo-pathway
#20
Gábor Erdős, Tamás Szaniszló, Mátyás Pajkos, Borbála Hajdu-Soltész, Bence Kiss, Gábor Pál, László Nyitray, Zsuzsanna Dosztányi
Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) formed between short linear motifs and globular domains play important roles in many regulatory and signaling processes but are highly underrepresented in current protein-protein interaction databases. These types of interactions are usually characterized by a specific binding motif that captures the key amino acids shared among the interaction partners. However, the computational proteome-level identification of interaction partners based on the known motif is hindered by the huge number of randomly occurring matches from which biologically relevant motif hits need to be extracted...
December 14, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
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