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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231568/fiber-connections-of-the-caudal-corpus-cerebelli-with-special-reference-to-the-intrinsic-circuitry-in-a-teleost-oreochromis-niloticus
#1
Kosuke Imura, Naoyuki Yamamoto, Masami Yoshimoto, Masato Endo, Kengo Funakoshi, Hironobu Ito
The caudal part of the corpus cerebelli of Nile tilapia can be divided into dorsal and ventral regions. The granule cell layer of the dorsal (dGL) and ventral (vGL) regions of the caudal corpus cerebelli is known to receive indirect inputs from the telencephalon relayed by the nucleus paracommissuralis. The descending pathways are topographically organized, and the dGL and vGL receive inputs from different dorsal telencephalic parts. The caudal corpus cerebelli, in turn, projects extracerebellar efferents. However, it remains unknown how the descending telencephalic inputs are processed within the cerebellum...
February 24, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227773/whole-heart-modeling-spatiotemporal-dynamics-of-electrical-wave-conduction-and-propagation
#2
Hui Yang, Yun Chen, Fabio M Leonelli, Hui Yang, Yun Chen, Fabio M Leonelli, Hui Yang, Fabio M Leonelli, Yun Chen
Cardiac electrical activities are varying in both space and time. Human heart consists of a fractal network of muscle cells, Purkinje fibers, arteries and veins. Whole-heart modeling of electrical wave conduction and propagation involves a greater level of complexity. Our previous work developed a computer model of the anatomically realistic heart and simulated the electrical conduction with the use of cellular automata. However, simplistic assumptions and rules limit its ability to provide an accurate approximation of real-world dynamics on the complex heart surface, due to sensitive dependence of nonlinear dynamical systems on initial conditions...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226461/role-of-cytosolic-calcium-diffusion-in-cardiac-purkinje-cells
#3
Bijay Limbu, Kushal Shah, Makarand Deo, Bijay Limbu, Kushal Shah, Makarand Deo, Bijay Limbu, Makar Deo, Kushal Shah
The Cardiac Purkinje cells (PCs) exhibit distinct calcium (Ca(2)+) homeostasis than that in ventricular myocytes (VMs). Due to lack of t-tubules in PCs, the Ca(2)+ ions entering the cell have to diffuse through the cytoplasm to reach the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) before triggering Ca(2)+-induced-Ca(2)+-release (CICR). In recent experimental studies PCs have been shown to be more susceptible to action potential (AP) abnormalities than the VMs, however the exact mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, we utilize morphologically realistic detailed biophysical mathematical model of a murine PC to systematically examine the role intracellular Ca(2)+ diffusion in the APs of PCs...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220061/a-model-of-induction-of-cerebellar-long-term-depression-including-rkip-inactivation-of-raf-and-mek
#4
Iain Hepburn, Anant Jain, Himanshu Gangal, Yukio Yamamoto, Keiko Tanaka-Yamamoto, Erik De Schutter
We report an updated stochastic model of cerebellar Long Term Depression (LTD) with improved realism. Firstly, we verify experimentally that dissociation of Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) from Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) is required for cerebellar LTD and add this interaction to an earlier published model, along with the known requirement of dissociation of RKIP from Raf kinase. We update Ca(2+) dynamics as a constant-rate influx, which captures experimental input profiles accurately...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219683/the-c1q-complement-family-of-synaptic-organizers-not-just-complementary
#5
REVIEW
Michisuke Yuzaki
Molecules that regulate formation, differentiation, and maintenance of synapses are called synaptic organizers. Recently, various 'C1q family' proteins have been shown to be released from neurons, and serve as a new class of synaptic organizers. Cbln1 and C1ql1 proteins regulate the formation and maintenance of parallel fiber-Purkinje cell and climbing fiber-Purkinje cell synapses, respectively, in the cerebellum. Cbln1 also modulates the function of postsynaptic delta2 glutamate receptors to regulate synaptic plasticity...
February 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215558/optimal-degrees-of-synaptic-connectivity
#6
Ashok Litwin-Kumar, Kameron Decker Harris, Richard Axel, Haim Sompolinsky, L F Abbott
Synaptic connectivity varies widely across neuronal types. Cerebellar granule cells receive five orders of magnitude fewer inputs than the Purkinje cells they innervate, and cerebellum-like circuits, including the insect mushroom body, also exhibit large divergences in connectivity. In contrast, the number of inputs per neuron in cerebral cortex is more uniform and large. We investigate how the dimension of a representation formed by a population of neurons depends on how many inputs each neuron receives and what this implies for learning associations...
February 16, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214917/mtss1-promotes-maturation-and-maintenance-of-cerebellar-neurons-via-splice-variant-specific-effects
#7
Thorsten Sistig, Fanziska Lang, Sebastian Wrobel, Stephan L Baader, Karl Schilling, Britta Eiberger
Efficient coupling of the actin cytoskeleton to the cell membrane is crucial for histogenesis and maintenance of the nervous system. At this critical interface, BAR (Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs) proteins regulate membrane bending, shown to be instrumental for mobility and morphogenesis of individual cells. Yet, the systemic significance of these proteins remains largely unexplored. Here, we probe the role of a prominent member of this protein family, the inverse-BAR protein Mtss1, for the development and function of a paradigmatic neuronal circuit, the cerebellar cortex...
February 18, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205531/wnt5a-is-a-crucial-regulator-of-neurogenesis-during-cerebellum-development
#8
Chandramohan Subashini, Sivadasan Bindu Dhanesh, Chih-Ming Chen, Paul Ann Riya, Vadakkath Meera, Thulasi Sheela Divya, Rejji Kuruvilla, Kerstin Buttler, Jackson James
The role of Wnt5a has been extensively explored in various aspects of development but its role in cerebellar development remains elusive. Here, for the first time we unravel the expression pattern and functional significance of Wnt5a in cerebellar development using Wnt5a(-/-) and Nestin-Cre mediated conditional knockout mouse models. We demonstrate that loss of Wnt5a results in cerebellar hypoplasia and depletion of GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons. Besides, Purkinje cells of the mutants displayed stunted, poorly branched dendritic arbors...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202777/nodding-syndrome-may-be-an-autoimmune-reaction-to-the-parasitic-worm-onchocerca-volvulus
#9
Tory P Johnson, Richa Tyagi, Paul R Lee, Myoung-Hwa Lee, Kory R Johnson, Jeffrey Kowalak, Abdel Elkahloun, Marie Medynets, Alina Hategan, Joseph Kubofcik, James Sejvar, Jeffrey Ratto, Sudhir Bunga, Issa Makumbi, Jane R Aceng, Thomas B Nutman, Scott F Dowell, Avindra Nath
Nodding syndrome is an epileptic disorder of unknown etiology that occurs in children in East Africa. There is an epidemiological association with Onchocerca volvulus, the parasitic worm that causes onchocerciasis (river blindness), but there is limited evidence that the parasite itself is neuroinvasive. We hypothesized that nodding syndrome may be an autoimmune-mediated disease. Using protein chip methodology, we detected autoantibodies to leiomodin-1 more abundantly in patients with nodding syndrome compared to unaffected controls from the same village...
February 15, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198698/a-role-for-cerebellum-in-the-hereditary-dystonia-dyt1
#10
Rachel Fremont, Ambika Tewari, Chantal Angueyra, Kamran Khodakhah
DYT1 is a debilitating movement disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in torsinA. How these mutations cause dystonia remains unknown. Mouse models which have embryonically targeted torsinA have failed to recapitulate the dystonia seen in patients, possibly due to differential development compensation between rodents and humans. To address this issue, torsinA was acutely knocked down in select brain regions of adult mice using shRNAs. TorsinA knockdown in the cerebellum, but not in the basal ganglia, was sufficient to induce dystonia...
February 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194096/morphological-plasticity-of-emerging-purkinje-cells-in-response-to-exogenous-vegf
#11
Leonard Herrfurth, Verena Theis, Veronika Matschke, Caroline May, Katrin Marcus, Carsten Theiss
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is well known as the growth factor with wide-ranging functions even in the central nervous system (CNS). Presently, most attention is given to the investigation of its role in neuronal protection, growth and maturation processes, whereby most effects are mediated through VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR-2). The purpose of our current study is to provide new insights into the impact of VEGF on immature and mature Purkinje cells (PCs) in accordance with maturity and related receptor expression...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193238/transient-ikk2-activation-in-astrocytes-initiates-selective-non-cell-autonomous-neurodegeneration
#12
Michael Lattke, Stephanie N Reichel, Alexander Magnutzki, Alireza Abaei, Volker Rasche, Paul Walther, Dinis P Calado, Boris Ferger, Thomas Wirth, Bernd Baumann
BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammation is associated with a wide range of neurodegenerative disorders, however the specific contribution to individual disease pathogenesis and selective neuronal cell death is not well understood. Inflammatory cerebellar ataxias are neurodegenerative diseases occurring in various autoimmune/inflammatory conditions, e.g. paraneoplastic syndromes. However, how inflammatory insults can cause selective cerebellar neurodegeneration in the context of these diseases remains open, and appropriate animal models are lacking...
February 13, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191598/diacylglycerol-kinase-%C3%AE%C2%B5-localizes-to-subsurface-cisterns-of-cerebellar-purkinje-cells
#13
Yasukazu Hozumi, Hiroki Fujiwara, Kenya Kaneko, Satoshi Fujii, Matthew K Topham, Masahiko Watanabe, Kaoru Goto
Following activation of Gq protein-coupled receptors, phospholipase C yields a pair of second messengers: diacylglycerol (DG) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) phosphorylates DG to produce phosphatidic acid, another second messenger. Of the DGK family, DGKε is the only DGK isoform that exhibits substrate specificity for DG with an arachidonoyl acyl chain at the sn-2 position. Recently, we demonstrated that hydrophobic residues in the N-terminus of DGKε play an important role in targeting the endoplasmic reticulum in transfected cells...
February 13, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174028/immunoreactivity-pattern-of-calretinin-in-the-developing-human-cerebellar-cortex
#14
Valeria Pibiri, Clara Gerosa, Laura Vinci, Gavino Faa, Rossano Ambu
The immunohistochemical expression of the calcium-binding protein calretinin during human cerebellar development has been investigated in this study. Human cerebellum samples, obtained from 7 fetuses and newborns ranging from 11 to 38 weeks of gestation, were 10% formalin-fixed, routinely processed and paraffin-embedded. 3μm-tick sections were immunostained with an anti-calretinin antibody. Our study evidenced a different immunoreactivity for calretinin in Purkinje cells and in several cerebellar interneurons at different intrauterine developmental stages...
February 4, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173092/posterior-cerebellar-purkinje-cells-in-an-sca5-sparca1-mouse-model-are-especially-vulnerable-to-the-synergistic-effect-of-loss-of-%C3%AE-iii-spectrin-and-glast
#15
Emma M Perkins, Daumante Suminaite, Yvonne L Clarkson, Sin Kwan Lee, Alastair R Lyndon, Jeffrey D Rothstein, David J A Wyllie, Kohichi Tanaka, Mandy Jackson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 15, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152183/efficient-generation-of-cardiac-purkinje-like-cells-from-embryonic-stem-cells-by-activating-camp-signaling
#16
Su-Yi Tsai, Shuibing Chen, Todd Evans
Strategies to derive cardiac conduction system (CCS) cells including Purkinje cells (PC) would facilitate models for mechanistic studies and drug discovery, and also provide new cellular materials for regenerative therapies. However, using current cardiac differentiation protocols, the differentiation efficiency of CCS cells is extremely low, typically below 1% of the culture. High-throughput chemical screening is a powerful strategy for identifying small molecules that can activate signaling pathways to enhance embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation...
February 2, 2017: Current Protocols in Stem Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133547/accumulation-of-%C3%AE-synuclein-in-cerebellar-purkinje-cells-of-diabetic-rats-and-its-potential-relationship-with-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress-markers
#17
Volkan Solmaz, Hatice Köse Özlece, Hüseyin Avni Eroglu, Hüseyin Aktuğ, Oytun Erbaş, Dilek Taşkıran
Objective. The present study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between plasma oxidative stress markers such as malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH), inflammatory marker pentraxin-3 (PTX3), and cerebellar accumulation of α-synuclein in streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetes model in rats. Methods. Twelve rats were included in the study. Diabetes (n = 6) was induced with a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 60 mg/kg). Diabetes was verified after 48 h by measuring blood glucose levels...
2017: Neurology Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131213/gene-dosage-effect-in-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-6-homozygotes-a-clinical-and-neuropathological-study
#18
Kazumasa Soga, Kinya Ishikawa, Tokuro Furuya, Tadatsune Iida, Tetsuo Yamada, Noboru Ando, Kiyobumi Ota, Hiromi Kanno-Okada, Shinya Tanaka, Masayuki Shintaku, Yoshinobu Eishi, Hidehiro Mizusawa, Takanori Yokota
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder. However, it remains unclear whether SCA6 shows a gene dosage effect, defined by earlier age-of-onset in homozygotes than heterozygotes. Herein, we retrospectively analyzed four homozygous SCA6 subjects from our single institution cohort of 120 SCA6 subjects. We also performed a neuropathological investigation into an SCA6 individual with compound heterozygous expansions. In the 116 heterozygotes, there was an inverse correlation of age-of-onset with the number of CAG repeats in the expanded allele, and with the total number of CAG repeats, in both normal and expanded alleles...
February 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124605/increase-signaling-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway-and-presence-of-apoptosis-in-cerebellum-of-kindled-rats
#19
Carmen Rubio-Osornio, Artemio Rosiles-Abonce, Cristina Trejo-Solís, Moisés Rubio-Osornio, Cesar Mendoza, Verónica Custodio, Juan Carlos Martínez-Lazcano, Edith González, Carlos Paz
Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders in humans, and the role of the cerebellum in its physiopathology remains the subject of study. The Purkinje cells (PC), whose axons target the dentate and interpositus nuclei, form the main cerebellar output to forebrain structures involved in epilepsy. Cerebellar atrophy related to loss of PC has been reported in chronic epilepsy although its mechanism remains unclear. Taking in account that an overexpression of β-Catenin has been related with cell death, here we present the signaling of β-Catenin and the type of PC death in cerebellum of rats with chronic seizures induced by the amygdaloid kindling model...
January 17, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122232/vulnerability-of-purkinje-cells-generated-from-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-6-patient-derived-ipscs
#20
Yoshihito Ishida, Hideshi Kawakami, Hiroyuki Kitajima, Ayaka Nishiyama, Yoshiki Sasai, Haruhisa Inoue, Keiko Muguruma
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 24, 2017: Cell Reports
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