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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231293/photoacoustic-imaging-features-of-intraocular-tumors-retinoblastoma-and-uveal-melanoma
#1
Guan Xu, Yafang Xue, Zeynep Gürsel Özkurt, Naziha Slimani, Zizhong Hu, Xueding Wang, Kewen Xia, Teng Ma, Qifa Zhou, Hakan Demirci
The purpose of this study is to examine the capability of photoacoustic (PA) imaging (PAI) in assessing the unique molecular and architectural features in ocular tumors. A real-time PA and ultrasonography (US) parallel imaging system based on a research US platform was developed to examine retinoblastoma in mice in vivo and human retinoblastoma and uveal melanoma ex vivo. PA signals were generated by optical illumination at 720, 750, 800, 850, 900 and 950 nm delivered through a fiber optical bundle. The optical absorption spectra of the tumors were derived from the PA images...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227307/estimating-the-progression-of-muscle-fatigue-based-on-dependence-between-motor-units-using-high-density-surface-electromyogram
#2
Adrian Bingham, Sridhar P Arjunan, Dinesh K Kumar, Adrian Bingham, Sridhar P Arjunan, Dinesh K Kumar, Adrian Bingham, Dinesh K Kumar, Sridhar P Arjunan
In this study we have tested the hypothesis regarding the increase in synchronization with the onset of muscle fatigue. For this aim, we have investigated the difference in the synchronicity between high density surface electromyogram (sEMG) channels of the rested muscles and when at the limit of endurance. Synchronization was measured by computing and normalizing the mutual information between the sEMG signals recorded from the high-density array electrode locations. Ten volunteers (Age range: 21 and 35 years; Mean age = 26 years; Male = 6, Female = 4) participated in our experiment...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219683/the-c1q-complement-family-of-synaptic-organizers-not-just-complementary
#3
REVIEW
Michisuke Yuzaki
Molecules that regulate formation, differentiation, and maintenance of synapses are called synaptic organizers. Recently, various 'C1q family' proteins have been shown to be released from neurons, and serve as a new class of synaptic organizers. Cbln1 and C1ql1 proteins regulate the formation and maintenance of parallel fiber-Purkinje cell and climbing fiber-Purkinje cell synapses, respectively, in the cerebellum. Cbln1 also modulates the function of postsynaptic delta2 glutamate receptors to regulate synaptic plasticity...
February 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215504/a-case-of-in-vivo-iontophoresis-assisted-corneal-collagen-cross-linking-for-keratoconus-an-immunohistochemical-study
#4
Mirko Manetti, Eleonora Favuzza, Eleonora Sgambati, Rita Mencucci, Mirca Marini
The standard corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL), that includes the removal of corneal epithelium to permit adequate penetration of riboflavin in the stroma, is an established procedure to halting keratoconus progression. However, as epithelial removal may cause postoperative pain and an increased risk of corneal infection, new therapeutic approaches have been proposed. Iontophoresis is a recently developed non-invasive technique which provides the use of electrical current during CXL to enhance transepithelial penetration of riboflavin into the corneal stroma...
February 15, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203009/-digital-imaging-fiber-optic-transillumination-difoti-method-for-determining-the-depth-of-cavity
#5
J L Yu, R T Tang, L Feng, Y M Dong
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the accuracy of the digital imaging fiber optic transillumination (DIFOTI) on diagnosis of caries lesions depth using DIAGNOcam system. METHODS: This experiment adopted self-matching design. Seventy-four extracted teeth (molar: sixty-six, premolar: eight) with one caries lesions in proximity which were not damaged in surface marginal ridge were selected. Dental calculus and dental stains were removed from the extracted teeth for standby application...
February 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202686/simvastatin-pre-treatment-improves-survival-and-mitochondrial-function-in-a-three-day-fluid-resuscitated-rat-model-of-sepsis
#6
Jerome Morel, Iain Hargreaves, David Brealey, Viruna Neergheen, Janne T Backman, Sandro Lindig, Marcus Bläss, Michael Bauer, Daniel F McAuley, Mervyn Singer
Statins may offer protective effects in sepsis through anti-inflammatory, mitochondrial protection and other actions. We thus evaluated the effects of simvastatin on survival, organ and mitochondrial function, tissue and plasma ubiquinone levels and liver transcriptomics in a 3-day rat model of sepsis. Comparisons of rat plasma simvastatin and ubiquinone levels were made against levels sampled in blood from patients with acute lung injury (ALI) enrolled into a trial of statin therapy. Animals received simvastatin by gavage either pre- or post-induction of faecal peritonitis...
February 15, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196086/nopal-feeding-reduces-adiposity-intestinal-inflammation-and-shifts-the-cecal-microbiota-and-metabolism-in-high-fat-fed-rats
#7
Sofia Moran-Ramos, Xuan He, Elizabeth L Chin, Armando R Tovar, Nimbe Torres, Carolyn M Slupsky, Helen E Raybould
Nopal is a cactus plant widely consumed in Mexico that has been used in traditional medicine to aid in the treatment of type-2 diabetes. We previously showed that chronic consumption of dehydrated nopal ameliorated hepatic steatosis in obese (fa/fa) rats; however, description of the effects on other tissues is sparse. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of nopal cladode consumption on intestinal physiology, microbial community structure, adipose tissue, and serum biochemistry in diet-induced obese rats...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179223/substituting-whole-grains-for-refined-grains-in-a-6-wk-randomized-trial-favorably-affects-energy-balance-metrics-in-healthy-men-and-postmenopausal-women
#8
J Philip Karl, Mohsen Meydani, Junaidah B Barnett, Sally M Vanegas, Barry Goldin, Anne Kane, Helen Rasmussen, Edward Saltzman, Pajau Vangay, Dan Knights, C-Y Oliver Chen, Sai Krupa Das, Satya S Jonnalagadda, Simin N Meydani, Susan B Roberts
Background: The effect of whole grains on the regulation of energy balance remains controversial.Objective: We aimed to determine the effects of substituting whole grains for refined grains, independent of body weight changes, on energy-metabolism metrics and glycemic control.Design: The study was a randomized, controlled, parallel-arm controlled-feeding trial that was conducted in 81 men and postmenopausal women [49 men and 32 women; age range: 40-65 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): <35.0]. After a 2-wk run-in period, participants were randomly assigned to consume 1 of 2 weight-maintenance diets for 6 wk...
February 8, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161248/how-is-chronic-pain-related-to-sympathetic-dysfunction-and-autonomic-dysreflexia-following-spinal-cord-injury
#9
Edgar T Walters
Autonomic dysreflexia (AD) and neuropathic pain occur after severe injury to higher levels of the spinal cord. Mechanisms underlying these problems have rarely been integrated in proposed models of spinal cord injury (SCI). Several parallels suggest significant overlap of these mechanisms, although the relationships between sympathetic function (dysregulated in AD) and nociceptive function (dysregulated in neuropathic pain) are complex. One general mechanism likely to be shared is central sensitization - enhanced responsiveness and synaptic reorganization of spinal circuits that mediate sympathetic reflexes or that process and relay pain-related information to the brain...
January 27, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145573/static-osteogenesis-does-not-precede-dynamic-osteogenesis-in-periosteal-ossification-of-pleurodeles-caudata-amphibia-and-pogona-squamata-lepidosauria
#10
Jorge Cubo, Mylaine Hui, François Clarac, Alexandra Quilhac
Two successive mechanisms have been described in perichondral ossification: (1) in static osteogenesis, mesenchymal cells differentiate into stationary osteoblasts oriented randomly, which differentiate into osteocytes in the same site; (2) in dynamic osteogenesis, mesenchymal cells differentiate into osteoblasts that are all oriented in the same direction and move back as they secrete collagen fibers. This study is aimed at testing the hypothesis that the ontogenetic sequence static then dynamic osteogenesis observed in the chicken and in the rabbit is homologous and was acquired by the last common ancestor of amniotes or at a more inclusive node...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114110/effects-of-tissue-mechanical-and-acoustic-anisotropies-on-the-performance-of-a-cross-correlation-based-ultrasound-strain-imaging-method
#11
He Li, Wei-Ning Lee
The anisotropic mechanical properties (mechanical anisotropy) and view-dependent ultrasonic backscattering (acoustic anisotropy) of striated muscle due to the underlying myofiber arrangement have been well documented, but whether they impact on ultrasound strain imaging (USI) techniques remains unclear. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the performance of a cross-correlation-based two-dimensional (2D) USI method in anisotropic media under controlled quasi-static compression in silico and in vitro...
February 21, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106555/optical-coherence-tomography-reveals-retinal-neuroaxonal-thinning-in-frontotemporal-dementia-as-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Laura Ferrari, Su-Chun Huang, Giuseppe Magnani, Alessandro Ambrosi, Giancarlo Comi, Letizia Leocani
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are leading causes of cognitive decline. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) allows the measurement of thickness of retinal neuroaxonal layers. While in AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thinning is frequently reported, less information is available on ganglion cell layer-inner plexiform layer (GCL-IPL). Data on FTD are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To obtain cross-sectional information on RNFL and GCL-IPL thickness among MCI, AD, FTD, and healthy controls (HC), and their correlations with dementia severity...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104751/exercise-training-decreases-nadph-oxidase-activity-and-restores-skeletal-muscle-mass-in-heart-failure-rats
#13
Telma F Cunha, Luiz Roberto Grassman Bechara, Aline V N Bacurau, Paulo R Jannig, Vanessa Azevedo Voltarelli, Paulo M Dourado, Andrea R Vasconcelos, Cristóforo Scavone, Julio C B Ferreira, Patricia C Brum
We have recently demonstrated that NADPH oxidase hyperactivity, NF-κB activation and increased p38 phosphorylation lead to atrophy of glycolytic muscle in heart failure (HF). Aerobic exercise training (AET) is an efficient strategy to counteract skeletal muscle atrophy in this syndrome. Therefore, we tested whether AET would regulate muscle redox balance and protein degradation by decreasing NADPH oxidase hyperactivity, reestablishing NF-κB signaling, p38 phosphorylation and proteasome activity in plantaris muscle of myocardial infarcted-induced HF (MI) rats...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103576/a-new-model-of-multi-visceral-and-bone-metastatic-prostate-cancer-with-perivascular-niche-targeting-by-a-novel-endothelial-specific-adenoviral-vector
#14
Zhi Hong Lu, Sergey Kaliberov, Rebecca E Sohn, Lyudmila Kaliberova, Yingqiu Du, Julie L Prior, Daniel J Leib, Anne Chauchereau, Jennifer K Sehn, David T Curiel, Jeffrey M Arbeit
While modern therapies for metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) have improved survival they are associated with an increasingly prevalent entity, aggressive variant PCa (AVPCa), lacking androgen receptor (AR) expression, enriched for cancer stem cells (CSCs), and evidencing epithelial-mesenchymal plasticity with a varying extent of neuroendocrine transdifferentiation. Parallel work revealed that endothelial cells (ECs) create a perivascular CSC niche mediated by juxtacrine and membrane tethered signaling. There is increasing interest in pharmacological metastatic niche targeting, however, targeted access has been impossible...
January 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103481/motor-learning-requires-purkinje-cell-synaptic-potentiation-through-activation-of-ampa-receptor-subunit-glua3
#15
Nicolas Gutierrez-Castellanos, Carla M Da Silva-Matos, Kuikui Zhou, Cathrin B Canto, Maria C Renner, Linda M C Koene, Ozgecan Ozyildirim, Rolf Sprengel, Helmut W Kessels, Chris I De Zeeuw
Accumulating evidence indicates that cerebellar long-term potentiation (LTP) is necessary for procedural learning. However, little is known about its underlying molecular mechanisms. Whereas AMPA receptor (AMPAR) subunit rules for synaptic plasticity have been extensively studied in relation to declarative learning, it is unclear whether these rules apply to cerebellum-dependent motor learning. Here we show that LTP at the parallel-fiber-to-Purkinje-cell synapse and adaptation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex depend not on GluA1- but on GluA3-containing AMPARs...
January 18, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102462/cerebellar-pathways-in-mouse-model-of-purkinje-cell-degeneration-detected-by-high-angular-resolution-diffusion-imaging-tractography
#16
Yuri Kanamaru, Jianxue Li, Natalie Stewart, Richard L Sidman, Emi Takahashi
Cerebellar MR imaging has several challenging aspects, due to the fine, repetitive layered structure of cortical folia with underlying axonal pathways. In this MR study, we imaged with high-angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) abnormal cerebellar cortical structure (gray matter) and myelinated axonal pathways (white matter) of a mouse spontaneous mutation, Purkinje cell degeneration (pcd), in which almost all Purkinje neurons degenerate, mainly between postnatal days 20 and 35. Mouse brains at postnatal day 20 (P20) and at 8 months were scanned, and known or expected abnormalities, such as reduction of the white matter volume, disorganized pathways likely linked to parallel fibers, mossy fibers, and other fibers running from/to the cerebellar cortex were observed in mutant mice...
January 19, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099850/synaptotagmin-2-is-the-fast-ca-2-sensor-at-a-central-inhibitory-synapse
#17
Chong Chen, Itaru Arai, Rachel Satterfield, Samuel M Young, Peter Jonas
GABAergic synapses in brain circuits generate inhibitory output signals with submillisecond latency and temporal precision. Whether the molecular identity of the release sensor contributes to these signaling properties remains unclear. Here, we examined the Ca(2+) sensor of exocytosis at GABAergic basket cell (BC) to Purkinje cell (PC) synapses in cerebellum. Immunolabeling suggested that BC terminals selectively expressed synaptotagmin 2 (Syt2), whereas synaptotagmin 1 (Syt1) was enriched in excitatory terminals...
January 17, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097597/self-powered-active-sensor-with-concentric-topography-of-piezoelectric-fibers
#18
Yiin Kuen Fuh, Zih Ming Huang, Bo Sheng Wang, Shan Chien Li
In this study, we demonstrated a flexible and self-powered sensor based on piezoelectric fibers in the diameter range of nano- and micro-scales. Our work is distinctively different from previous electrospinning research; we fabricated this apparatus precisely via near-field electrospinning which has a spectacular performance to harvest mechanical deformation in arbitrary direction and a novel concentrically circular topography. There are many piezoelectric devices based on electrospinning polymeric fibers. However, the fibers were mostly patterned in parallel lines and they could be actuated in limited direction only...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097017/study-of-myoblast-differentiation-using-multi-dimensional-scaffolds-consisting-of-nano-and-micropatterns
#19
Sung Ho Cha, Hyun Jong Lee, Won-Gun Koh
BACKGROUND: The topographical cue is major influence on skeletal muscle cell culture because the structure is highly organized and consists of long parallel bundles of multinucleated myotubes that are formed by differentiation and fusion of myoblast satellite cells. In this technical report, we fabricated a multiscale scaffold using electrospinning and poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel micropatterns to monitor the cell behaviors on nano- and micro-alignment combined scaffolds with different combinations of angles...
2017: Biomaterials Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096474/junb-regulates-angiogenesis-and-neurovascular-parallel-alignment-in-mouse-embryonic-skin
#20
Yasuo Yoshitomi, Takayuki Ikeda, Hidehito Saito, Yoshino Yoshitake, Yasuhito Ishigaki, Toshihisa Hatta, Nobuo Kato, Hideto Yonekura
Blood vessels and nerve fibers are often closely arranged in parallel throughout the body. Therefore, neurovascular interactions have been suggested to be important for the development of vascular networks. However, the molecular mechanisms and genes regulating this process remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the genes that are activated in endothelial cells (ECs) following interactions with neurons during vascular development. Microarray analyses of human primary microvascular ECs co-cultured with mouse primary dorsal root ganglion cells showed that JunB is strongly upregulated in ECs by neurovascular interactions...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
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