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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926833/conformational-plasticity-in-the-transsynaptic-neurexin-cerebellin-glutamate-receptor-adhesion-complex
#1
Shouqiang Cheng, Alpay B Seven, Jing Wang, Georgios Skiniotis, Engin Özkan
Synaptic specificity is a defining property of neural networks. In the cerebellum, synapses between parallel fiber neurons and Purkinje cells are specified by the simultaneous interactions of secreted protein cerebellin with pre-synaptic neurexin and post-synaptic delta-type glutamate receptors (GluD). Here, we determined the crystal structures of the trimeric C1q-like domain of rat cerebellin-1, and the first complete ectodomain of a GluD, rat GluD2. Cerebellin binds to the LNS6 domain of α- and β-neurexin-1 through a high-affinity interaction that involves its highly flexible N-terminal domain...
December 6, 2016: Structure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919453/dietary-tartary-buckwheat-intake-attenuates-insulin-resistance-and-improves-lipid-profiles-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Ju Qiu, Yanping Liu, Yanfen Yue, Yuchang Qin, Zaigui Li
Tartary buckwheat (TB) is rich in protein, dietary fiber, and flavonoids and has been reported to affect type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in animal experiments, but limited information on the benefit of TB as a whole food in T2DM patients is available. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that a daily replacement of a portion of the staple food with TB will improve risk factors of T2DM, including fasting glucose, insulin resistance, and lipid profile. In a parallel, randomized, open-label, controlled trial, 165 T2DM patients were randomly assigned to a control diet group (DC group; systematic diet plans and intensive nutritional education) or a TB intervention group (TB group; daily replacement of a portion of staple food with TB food)...
November 17, 2016: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911798/stretchable-multichannel-antennas-in-soft-wireless-optoelectronic-implants-for-optogenetics
#3
Sung Il Park, Gunchul Shin, Jordan G McCall, Ream Al-Hasani, Aaron Norris, Li Xia, Daniel S Brenner, Kyung Nim Noh, Sang Yun Bang, Dionnet L Bhatti, Kyung-In Jang, Seung-Kyun Kang, Aaron D Mickle, Gregory Dussor, Theodore J Price, Robert W Gereau, Michael R Bruchas, John A Rogers
Optogenetic methods to modulate cells and signaling pathways via targeted expression and activation of light-sensitive proteins have greatly accelerated the process of mapping complex neural circuits and defining their roles in physiological and pathological contexts. Recently demonstrated technologies based on injectable, microscale inorganic light-emitting diodes (μ-ILEDs) with wireless control and power delivery strategies offer important functionality in such experiments, by eliminating the external tethers associated with traditional fiber optic approaches...
November 28, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906811/measurement-of-radial-peripapillary-capillary-density-in-the-normal-human-retina-using-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography
#4
Tarannum Mansoori, Jayanthi Sivaswamy, Jahnavi Sai Gamalapati, Satish Gooty Agraharam, Nagalla Balakrishna
AIM: To image the radial peripapillary capillary (RPC) network with optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and measure its capillary density (CD) in the normal human retina. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-two normal participants underwent OCTA imaging with RTVue XR 100 Avanti OCT. The angioflow enface RPCs network was extracted from OCTA and 8 peripapillary sectors with a sector angle of 45 degrees were selected for quantitative analysis: superior nasal, superior temporal, temporal upper, temporal lower, nasal upper, nasal lower, inferior nasal, and inferior temporal...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906332/rapid-k-space-linear-wavelength-scanning-laser-source-based-on-recirculating-frequency-shifter
#5
Minggui Wan, Lin Wang, Feng Li, Yuan Cao, Xudong Wang, Xinhuan Feng, Bai-Ou Guan, P K A Wai
We propose and successfully demonstrate a k-space linear and self-clocked wavelength scanning fiber laser source based on recirculating frequency shifting (RFS). The RFS is realized with a high speed electro-optic dual parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator operating at the state of carrier suppressed single sideband modulation. A gated short pulse is injected into an amplified RFS loop to generate the wavelength scanning pulse train. We find that the accumulation of in-band amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise over multiple scanning periods will saturate the erbium-doped fiber amplifier and impede the amplification to the pulse signal in the RFS loop...
November 28, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904578/low-energy-density-diet-weight-loss-maintenance-and-risk-of-cardiovascular-disease-following-a-recent-weight-reduction-program-a-randomized-control-trial
#6
Golgis Karimi, Leila Azadbakht, Fahimeh Haghighatdoost, Ahmad Esmaillzadeh
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the effects of a low energy dense diet on weight maintenance and cardiovascular risks following a recent weight reduction. Therefore, we assessed if weight maintenance, lipid profiles, and glycemic control differ between low energy density (LED) diet and usual diet consumers following a recent weight reduction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this randomized controlled clinical trial study in a parallel design, we recruited 70 patients with the history of weight reduction in the recent 1 year...
2016: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904497/preparation-of-polypyrrole-embedded-electrospun-poly-lactic-acid-nanofibrous-scaffolds-for-nerve-tissue-engineering
#7
Jun-Feng Zhou, Yi-Guo Wang, Liang Cheng, Zhao Wu, Xiao-Dan Sun, Jiang Peng
Polypyrrole (PPy) is a biocompatible polymer with good conductivity. Studies combining PPy with electrospinning have been reported; however, the associated decrease in PPy conductivity has not yet been resolved. We embedded PPy into poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanofibers via electrospinning and fabricated a PLA/PPy nanofibrous scaffold containing 15% PPy with sustained conductivity and aligned topography. There was good biocompatibility between the scaffold and human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells as well as Schwann cells...
October 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881309/survey-of-dentists-to-determine-contemporary-use-of-endodontic-posts
#8
Sumitha N Ahmed, Terry E Donovan, Taneet Ghuman
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Although the scientific literature provides sound decision-making tools for the restoration of endodontically treated teeth, dentists have different opinions on the rationale for the use of endodontic posts (dowels) and selection of post systems. The decision to place a post is at times contrary to the literature. Updated information on the treatment of endodontically treated teeth among general dentists is lacking. PURPOSE: The purpose of this survey was to gain insight into the rationale for choice of endodontic posts and the different endodontic post systems currently used by dental practitioners...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875209/jacobi-fiber-surfaces-for-bivariate-reeb-space-computation
#9
Julien Tierny, Hamish Carr
This paper presents an efficient algorithm for the computation of the Reeb space of an input bivariate piecewise linear scalar function f defined on a tetrahedral mesh. By extending and generalizing algorithmic concepts from the univariate case to the bivariate one, we report the first practical, output-sensitive algorithm for the exact computation of such a Reeb space. The algorithm starts by identifying the Jacobi set of f, the bivariate analogs of critical points in the univariate case. Next, the Reeb space is computed by segmenting the input mesh along the new notion of Jacobi Fiber Surfaces, the bivariate analog of critical contours in the univariate case...
January 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874140/carbon-nanotube-fibers-and-films-synthesis-applications-and-perspectives-of-the-direct-spinning-method
#10
REVIEW
Dawid Janas, Krzysztof K Koziol
The direct-spinning method of creation of CNT macroassemblies has received a lot of attention because of its simplicity to produce high-performance material without apparent limits to its size. CNT fibers or films have shown unparalleled properties and opened new areas of research and commercial development. The process designed more than a decade ago has already given interesting information about the basic science of nanomaterials, which in parallel led to the creation of the first prototypes with high potential of implementation in everyday life...
December 1, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868076/synovial-c-shaped-tibial-footprint-of-the-anterior-cruciate-ligament
#11
César Janovsky, Camila Cohen Kaleka, Maria Teresa Seixas Alves, Mario Ferretti, Moises Cohen
BACKGROUND: Although numerous anatomic studies about the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) structure and attachments have been performed, these studies have not reached consensus on the ACL footprint. PURPOSE: To investigate the existing controversy regarding the morphology of the tibial ACL insertion (footprint) and confirm histologically that the tibial ACL footprint is not completely filled with ligament tissue. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive laboratory study...
November 2016: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864972/a-morphological-and-morphometric-study-of-bite-marks-caused-by-mice-mus-musculus-on-different-baits-for-forensic-purposes
#12
Víctor A Toledo, Gabriel M Fonseca, Paula A González, Luis Ibarra, Francisco J Torres, Pedro L Sáez
In animal bites, the dental attributes can be fundamental in identifying the marks made by various species on different matrices. Although rodent bite marks have been studied in the context of postmortem interference, little research has used different baits to analyze these marks linking not only specific behavior patterns but also the possibility of structural damage. Twenty mice (Mus musculus) were exposed to different baits to study their bite marks in a controlled model. The known pattern of parallel and multiple grooves has been seen in all baits, but polyvinyl chloride and fiber-optic cable were significantly different between each other and the other baits...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857688/modulation-plasticity-and-pathophysiology-of-the-parallel-fiber-purkinje-cell-synapse
#13
REVIEW
Eriola Hoxha, Filippo Tempia, Pellegrino Lippiello, Maria Concetta Miniaci
The parallel fiber-Purkinje cell (PF-PC) synapse represents the point of maximal signal divergence in the cerebellar cortex with an estimated number of about 60 billion synaptic contacts in the rat and 100,000 billions in humans. At the same time, the Purkinje cell dendritic tree is a site of remarkable convergence of more than 100,000 parallel fiber synapses. Parallel fiber activity generates fast postsynaptic currents via α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors, and slower signals, mediated by mGlu1 receptors, resulting in Purkinje cell depolarization accompanied by sharp calcium elevation within dendritic regions...
2016: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852787/roles-of-cbln1-in-non-motor-functions-of-mice
#14
Shintaro Otsuka, Kohtarou Konno, Manabu Abe, Junko Motohashi, Kazuhisa Kohda, Kenji Sakimura, Masahiko Watanabe, Michisuke Yuzaki
: The cerebellum is thought to be involved in cognitive functions in addition to its well established role in motor coordination and motor learning in humans. Cerebellin 1 (Cbln1) is predominantly expressed in cerebellar granule cells and plays a crucial role in the formation and function of parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses. Although genes encoding Cbln1 and its postsynaptic receptor, the delta2 glutamate receptor (GluD2), are suggested to be associated with autistic-like traits and many psychiatric disorders, whether such cognitive impairments are caused by cerebellar dysfunction remains unclear...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845167/synapse-organization-and-modulation-via-c1q-family-proteins-and-their-receptors-in-the-central-nervous-system
#15
REVIEW
Keiko Matsuda
Several C1q family members, related to the C1q complement component are highly and predominantly expressed in the central nervous system. Cbln1, which belongs to the Cbln subfamily of C1q proteins, is released from cerebellar granule cells and plays a crucial role in the formation and function of parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses. This is achieved by formation of a trans-synaptic tripartite complex which is composed of one unit of the Cbln1 hexamer, monomeric neurexin (NRX) containing a splice site 4 insertion at presynaptic terminals and the postsynaptic GluD2 dimers...
November 11, 2016: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843719/cranial-bone-histology-of-metoposaurus-krasiejowensis-amphibia-temnospondyli-from-the-late-triassic-of-poland
#16
Kamil Gruntmejer, Dorota Konietzko-Meier, Adam Bodzioch
In this study, 21 skull bones of Metoposaurus krasiejowensis from the Late Triassic of Poland were investigated histologically. Dermal bones show a diploë structure, with an ornamented external surface. The ridges consist of mostly well vascularized parallel-fibered bone; the valleys are built of an avascular layer of lamellar bone. The thick middle region consists of cancellous bone, with varying porosity. The thin and less vascularized internal cortex consists of parallel-fibered bone. The numerous Sharpey's fibers and ISF are present in all bones...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832859/dietary-fat-drives-whole-body-insulin-resistance-and-promotes-intestinal-inflammation-independent-of-body-weight-gain
#17
Benjamin A H Jensen, Thomas S Nielsen, Andreas M Fritzen, Jacob B Holm, Even Fjære, Annette K Serup, Kamil Borkowski, Steve Risis, Simone I Pærregaard, Ida Søgaard, Audrey Poupeau, Michelle Poulsen, Tao Ma, Christian Sina, Bente Kiens, Lise Madsen, Karsten Kristiansen, Jonas T Treebak
BACKGROUND: The obesogenic potential of high-fat diets (HFD) in rodents is attenuated when the protein:carbohydrate ratio is increased. However, it is not known if intake of an HFD irrespective of the protein:carbohydrate ratio and in the absence of weight gain, affects glucose homeostasis and the gut microbiota. METHODS: We fed C57BL6/J mice 3 different HFDs with decreasing protein:carbohydrate ratios for 8weeks and compared the results to a LFD reference group...
December 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830322/configuration-of-the-extrinsic-muscles-of-the-tongue-and-their-spatial-interrelationships
#18
Yujiro Sakamoto
PURPOSE: The tongue is a highly muscular organ, and the extrinsic muscles of the tongue overlap one another, which makes their configuration intricate. The aim was to clarify their spatial interrelationships. METHODS: The extrinsic muscles of the tongue were gross anatomically investigated in 42 cadavers. RESULTS: The hyoglossus consisted of two parts arising from the hyoid body and the greater horn, respectively. They ascended to the tongue external to the genioglossus...
November 9, 2016: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829457/combined-effect-of-new-complete-dentures-and-simple-dietary-advice-on-nutritional-status-in-edentulous-patients-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Yuriko Komagamine, Manabu Kanazawa, Maiko Iwaki, Ayami Jo, Hiroyuki Suzuki, Noriko Amagai, Shunsuke Minakuchi
BACKGROUND: Individuals who are edentulous have a lower intake of fruit, vegetables, fiber, and protein compared with their dentate counterparts because tooth loss is accompanied by a decrease in ability to chew. Whether or not a combination of prosthetic rehabilitation and simple dietary advice produces improvement in dietary intake among edentulous persons is unclear. We aim to investigate the effect of a simultaneous combination of simple dietary advice delivered by dentists and provision of new complete dentures on dietary intake in edentulous individuals who request new dentures...
November 9, 2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828415/trellis-based-feed-forward-carrier-recovery-for-coherent-optical-systems
#20
Mahdi Zamani, Hossein Najafi, Demin Yao, Jeebak Mitra, Xuefeng Tang, Chuandong Li, Zhuhong Zhang
An efficient trellis-based phase noise mitigation algorithm is proposed to highly improve the performance of coherent transmission systems, especially in high order modulation formats. The proposed method targets the coherent optical systems where the performance is limited by various sources of phase noise including laser line-width, fiber non-linearity, and phase noise induced by phase-locked loop. Considering hardware limitations of ultra-high data rate processing in optical systems, a hardware-efficient parallelized and pipelined architecture is utilized...
October 3, 2016: Optics Express
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