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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102462/cerebellar-pathways-in-mouse-model-of-purkinje-cell-degeneration-detected-by-high-angular-resolution-diffusion-imaging-tractography
#1
Yuri Kanamaru, Jianxue Li, Natalie Stewart, Richard L Sidman, Emi Takahashi
Cerebellar MR imaging has several challenging aspects, due to the fine, repetitive layered structure of cortical folia with underlying axonal pathways. In this MR study, we imaged with high-angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) abnormal cerebellar cortical structure (gray matter) and myelinated axonal pathways (white matter) of a mouse spontaneous mutation, Purkinje cell degeneration (pcd), in which almost all Purkinje neurons degenerate, mainly between postnatal days 20 and 35. Mouse brains at postnatal day 20 (P20) and at 8 months were scanned, and known or expected abnormalities, such as reduction of the white matter volume, disorganized pathways likely linked to parallel fibers, mossy fibers, and other fibers running from/to the cerebellar cortex were observed in mutant mice...
January 19, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099850/synaptotagmin-2-is-the-fast-ca-2-sensor-at-a-central-inhibitory-synapse
#2
Chong Chen, Itaru Arai, Rachel Satterfield, Samuel M Young, Peter Jonas
GABAergic synapses in brain circuits generate inhibitory output signals with submillisecond latency and temporal precision. Whether the molecular identity of the release sensor contributes to these signaling properties remains unclear. Here, we examined the Ca(2+) sensor of exocytosis at GABAergic basket cell (BC) to Purkinje cell (PC) synapses in cerebellum. Immunolabeling suggested that BC terminals selectively expressed synaptotagmin 2 (Syt2), whereas synaptotagmin 1 (Syt1) was enriched in excitatory terminals...
January 17, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097597/self-powered-active-sensor-with-concentric-topography-of-piezoelectric-fibers
#3
Yiin Kuen Fuh, Zih Ming Huang, Bo Sheng Wang, Shan Chien Li
In this study, we demonstrated a flexible and self-powered sensor based on piezoelectric fibers in the diameter range of nano- and micro-scales. Our work is distinctively different from previous electrospinning research; we fabricated this apparatus precisely via near-field electrospinning which has a spectacular performance to harvest mechanical deformation in arbitrary direction and a novel concentrically circular topography. There are many piezoelectric devices based on electrospinning polymeric fibers. However, the fibers were mostly patterned in parallel lines and they could be actuated in limited direction only...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097017/study-of-myoblast-differentiation-using-multi-dimensional-scaffolds-consisting-of-nano-and-micropatterns
#4
Sung Ho Cha, Hyun Jong Lee, Won-Gun Koh
BACKGROUND: The topographical cue is major influence on skeletal muscle cell culture because the structure is highly organized and consists of long parallel bundles of multinucleated myotubes that are formed by differentiation and fusion of myoblast satellite cells. In this technical report, we fabricated a multiscale scaffold using electrospinning and poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel micropatterns to monitor the cell behaviors on nano- and micro-alignment combined scaffolds with different combinations of angles...
2017: Biomaterials Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096474/junb-regulates-angiogenesis-and-neurovascular-parallel-alignment-in-mouse-embryonic-skin
#5
Yasuo Yoshitomi, Takayuki Ikeda, Hidehito Saito, Yoshino Yoshitake, Yasuhito Ishigaki, Toshihisa Hatta, Nobuo Kato, Hideto Yonekura
Blood vessels and nerve fibers are often closely arranged in parallel throughout the body. Therefore, neurovascular interactions have been suggested to be important for the development of vascular networks. However, the molecular mechanisms and genes regulating this process remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the genes that are activated in endothelial cells (ECs) following interactions with neurons during vascular development. Microarray analyses of human primary microvascular ECs co-cultured with mouse primary dorsal root ganglion cells showed that JunB is strongly upregulated in ECs by neurovascular interactions...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091578/temporal-dynamics-of-cerebellar-and-motor-cortex-physiological-processes-during-motor-skill-learning
#6
D Spampinato, P Celnik
Learning motor tasks involves distinct physiological processes in the cerebellum (CB) and primary motor cortex (M1). Previous studies have shown that motor learning results in at least two important neurophysiological changes: modulation of cerebellar output mediated in-part by long-term depression of parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapse and induction of long-term plasticity (LTP) in M1, leading to transient occlusion of additional LTP-like plasticity. However, little is known about the temporal dynamics of these two physiological mechanisms during motor skill learning...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090602/probabilistic-tractography-for-topographically-organized-connectomes
#7
Dogu Baran Aydogan, Yonggang Shi
While tractography is widely used in brain imaging research, its quantitative validation is highly difficult. Many fiber systems, however, have well-known topographic organization which can even be quantitatively mapped such as the retinotopy of visual pathway. Motivated by this previously untapped anatomical knowledge, we develop a novel tractography method that preserves both topographic and geometric regularity of fiber systems. For topographic preservation, we propose a novel likelihood function that tests the match between parallel curves and fiber orientation distributions...
October 2016: Medical Image Computing and Computer-assisted Intervention: MICCAI ..
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071842/tip-enhanced-raman-spectroscopy-to-distinguish-toxic-oligomers-from-a%C3%AE-1-42-fibrils-at-the-nanometer-scale
#8
Sébastien Bonhommeau, David Talaga, Julien Hunel, Christophe Cullin, Sophie Lecomte
For the first time, natural Aβ1-42 fibrils (WT) implicated in Alzheimer's disease, as well as two synthetic mutants forming less toxic amyloid fibrils (L34T) and highly toxic oligomers (oG37C), are chemically characterized at the scale of a single structure using tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS). While the proportion of TERS features associated with amino acid residues is similar for the three peptides, a careful examination of amide I and amide III bands allows us to clearly distinguish WT and L34T fibers organized in parallel β-sheets from the small and more toxic oG37C oligomers organized in anti-parallel β-sheets...
January 10, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068296/orientation-selective-deep-brain-stimulation
#9
Lauri J Lehto, Julia P Slopsema, Matthew D Johnson, Artem Shatillo, Benjamin A Teplitzky, Lynn Utecht, Gregor Adriany, Silvia Mangia, Alejandra Sierra, Walter C Low, Olli Gröhn, Shalom Michaeli
OBJECTIVE: Target selectivity of deep brain stimulation (DBS) therapy is critical, as the precise locus and pattern of the stimulation dictates the degree to which desired treatment responses are achieved and adverse side effects are avoided. There is a clear clinical need to improve DBS technology beyond currently available stimulation steering and shaping approaches. We introduce orientation selective neural stimulation as a concept to increase the specificity of target selection in DBS...
February 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067299/fabrication-and-characterization-of-dual-functional-ultrafine-composite-fibers-with-phase-change-energy-storage-and-luminescence-properties
#10
Peng Xi, Tianxiang Zhao, Lei Xia, Dengkun Shu, Menjiao Ma, Bowen Cheng
Ultrafine composite fibers consisting of a thermoplastic polyurethane solid-solid phase-change material and organic lanthanide luminescent materials were prepared through a parallel electrospinning technique as an innovative type of ultrafine, dual-functional fibers containing phase-change and luminescent properties. The morphology and structure, thermal energy storage, and luminescent properties of parallel electrospun ultrafine fibers were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that the parallel electrospun ultrafine fibers possessed the desired morphologies with smaller average fiber diameters than those of traditional mixed electrospun ultrafine fibers...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064005/three-dimensional-functional-human-neuronal-networks-in-uncompressed-low-density-electrospun-fiber-scaffolds
#11
Albin Jakobsson, Maximilian Ottosson, Marina Castro Zalis, David O'Carroll, Ulrica Englund Johansson, Fredrik Johansson
We demonstrate an artificial three-dimensional (3D) electrical active human neuronal network system, by the growth of brain neural progenitors in highly porous low density electrospun poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) fiber scaffolds. In neuroscience research cell-based assays are important experimental instruments for studying neuronal function in health and disease. Traditional cell culture at 2D-surfaces induces abnormal cell-cell contacts and network formation. Hence, there is a tremendous need to explore in vivo-resembling 3D neural cell culture approaches...
January 4, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063645/anisotropy-and-inter-condyle-heterogeneity-of-cartilage-under-large-strain-shear
#12
Stephany Santos, Franz Maier, David M Pierce
We were the first to examine the mechanical responses of skeletally mature bovine femoral cartilage under large-strain simple shear (up to ±20%) using a multiaxial shear testing device. Since shear loading is critical in both tissue failure and chondrocyte responses, we aimed to probe (1) anisotropy with respect to the split-line direction (principal alignment of the collagen fibers near the articulating surface), (2) heterogeneity between femoral condyles, and (3) the influence of local cartilage thickness...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052645/double-labeling-of-vagal-preganglionic-and-sympathetic-postganglionic-fibers-in-celiac-ganglion-superior-mesenteric-arteries-and-myenteric-plexus
#13
Shi-Jane Ting, Chih-Kuan Kao, Feng-Bin Wang
Sympathetic efferents regulate the “fight-or-flight” response and sympathetic and vagal fibers have been suggested to retrogradely and centrally spread pathogens associated with Parkinson’s disease. To examine the arrangement of the vagal and sympathetic motor fibers in the celiac ganglion (CG), gastrointestinal tract, and along the superior mesenteric artery and its sub-branches, we double-labeled the vagal efferents by injecting Dextran-Texas Red into the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus and the sympathetic postganglionics with tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry in male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 18)...
28, 2017: Chinese Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047913/su-f-t-424-mitigation-of-increased-surface-dose-when-treating-through-a-carbon-fiber-couch-top
#14
E Johnson, F Misgina
PURPOSE: To study the effect of the Varian carbon fiber couch top on surface dose for patients being treated using single PA beams in the supine position and to identify simple methods for surface dose reduction. METHODS: Measurements of surface dose were obtained in Solid Water phantoms using both a parallel plate ionization chamber (PTW Advanced Markus) and EBT2 Radiochromic films for both 6 and 10MV photons. All measurements were referenced to a depth considered a typical for PA Spine fields...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047599/su-f-t-515-increased-skin-dose-in-supine-craniospinal-irradiation-due-to-carbon-fiber-couch-and-vacuum-bag-immobilization-device
#15
D Robertson, Z Zhao, X Wang, J Yang
PURPOSE: To measure the surface dose for supine craniospinal irradiation employing posterior beams, treating through an imaging couch and BlueBag immobilization device. METHODS: The percentage depth dose (PDD) in the buildup region of a clinical 6 MV photon beam was measured using an Advanced Markus parallel plate ionization chamber in a solid water phantom. The PDD from a 10×10 cm(2) anterior beam was measured at 100 cm SSD, simulating a traditional prone craniospinal technique...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045231/needleless-electrohydrodynamic-cojetting-of-bicompartmental-particles-and-fibers-from-an-extended-fluid-interface
#16
Jacob H Jordahl, Stacy Ramcharan, Jason V Gregory, Joerg Lahann
Electrohydrodynamic cojetting can result in fibers (electrospinning) and particles (electrospraying) with complex, bicompartmental architectures. An important consideration for application of bicompartmental particles and fibers is the limited throughput derived from the use of parallel capillaries, which require laminar flow to form a multifluidic interface. Here, a novel synthesis approach that takes advantage of an extended bicompartmental fluid interface formed at the sharp edge of a 2D plate is reported...
January 2017: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042345/biomimetic-microstructure-morphology-in-electrospun-fiber-mats-is-critical-for-maintaining-healthy-cardiomyocyte-phenotype
#17
Rutwik Rath, Jung Bok Lee, Truc-Linh Tran, Sean F Lenihan, Cristi L Galindo, Yan Ru Su, Tarek Absi, Leon M Bellan, Douglas B Sawyer, Hak-Joon Sung
Despite recent advances in biomimetic substrates, there is still only limited understanding of how the extracellular matrix (ECM) functions in the maintenance of cardiomyocyte (CM) phenotype. In this study, we designed electrospun substrates inspired by morphologic features of non-failing and failing human heart ECM, and examined how these substrates regulate phenotypes of adult and neonatal rat ventricular CMs (ARVM and NRVM, respectively). We found that poly(ε-caprolactone) fiber substrates designed to mimic the organized ECM of a non-failing human heart maintained healthy CM phenotype (evidenced by cell morphology, organized actin/myomesin bands and expression of β-MYH7 and SCN5A...
March 2016: Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040948/fiber-based-modulated-optical-reflectance-configuration-allowing-for-offset-pump-and-probe-beams
#18
A Fleming, C Folsom, C Jensen, H Ban
A new fiber-based modulated optical reflectance configuration is developed in this work. The technique maintains the fiber-based heating laser (pump) and detection laser (probe) in close proximity at a fixed separation distance in a ceramic ferrule. The pump beam periodically heats the sample inducing thermal waves into the sample. The probe beam measures the temperature response at a known distance from the pump beam over a range of heating modulation frequencies. The thermal diffusivity of the sample may be calculated from the phase response between the input heat flux and the temperature response of a sample having a reflective surface...
December 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035373/cancer-associated-peritoneal-mesothelial-cells-lead-the-formation-of-pancreatic-cancer-peritoneal-dissemination
#19
Toshiya Abe, Kenoki Ohuchida, Kazuhiro Koikawa, Sho Endo, Takashi Okumura, Masafumi Sada, Kohei Horioka, Biao Zheng, Taiki Moriyama, Kohei Nakata, Yoshihiro Miyasaka, Tatsuya Manabe, Takao Ohtsuka, Eishi Nagai, Kazuhiro Mizumoto, Makoto Hashizume, Masafumi Nakamura
The interaction between the cancer cells and the peritoneal mesothelial cells (PMCs) plays an important role in the peritoneal dissemination in several types of cancer. However, the role of PMCs in the peritoneal dissemination of pancreatic cancer remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the interaction between the pancreatic cancer cells (PCCs) and the PMCs in the formation of peritoneal dissemination in vitro and in vivo. The tumor-stromal interaction of PCCs and PMCs significantly enhanced their mobility and invasiveness and enhanced the proliferation and anoikis resistance of PCCs...
February 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032320/no-medium-term-spinocerebellar-input-plasticity-in-deep-cerebellar-nuclear-neurons-in-vivo
#20
Hannes Mogensen, Fredrik Bengtsson, Henrik Jörntell
The existence of input plasticity in the deep cerebellar nuclear (DCN) cells of the adult cerebellum could have profound implications for our understanding of cerebellar function. Whereas the existence of plastic changes in mossy fiber (mf) synaptic responses in DCN neurons has been demonstrated in juvenile slices, there has so far been no direct demonstration of this form of plasticity in the adult cerebellum in vivo. In the present paper, we recorded from neurons in the anterior interposed nucleus (AIN) and stimulated the spinocerebellar tracts (SCT) directly or via the skin to obtain mf activation and the inferior olive to activate climbing fibers (cfs) in the nonanesthetized, adult, decerebrated cat...
December 28, 2016: Cerebellum
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