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Parallel fiber

Rafael Falcón-Moya, Pilar Losada-Ruiz, Talvinder S Sihra, Antonio Rodríguez-Moreno
We elucidated the mechanisms underlying the kainate receptor (KAR)-mediated facilitatory modulation of synaptic transmission in the cerebellum. In cerebellar slices, KA (3 μM) increased the amplitude of evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (eEPSCs) at synapses between axon terminals of parallel fibers (PF) and Purkinje neurons. KA-mediated facilitation was antagonized by NBQX under condition where AMPA receptors were previously antagonized. Inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA) suppressed the effect of KA on glutamate release, which was also obviated by the prior stimulation of adenylyl cyclase (AC)...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Chidiebere Akusobi, Benjamin K Chan, Elizabeth S C P Williams, John E Wertz, Paul E Turner
The emergence of antibiotic resistance has sparked interest in phage therapy, which uses virulent phages as antibacterial agents. Bacteriophage PP01 has been studied for potential bio-control of Escherichia coli O157:H7, its natural host, but in the laboratory, PP01 can be inefficient at killing this bacterium. Thus, the goal of this study was to improve the therapeutic potential of PP01 through short-term experimental evolution. Four replicate populations of PP01 were serially passaged 21 times on non-evolving E...
June 20, 2018: Pharmaceuticals
Xingwang Deng, Qian Chen, Lijuan Qiang, Mingwei Chi, Nan Xie, Yinsheng Wu, Ming Yao, Dan Zhao, Jiaxiang Ma, Ning Zhang, Yan Xie
Hypertrophic scars formed after burns remain a challenge in clinical practice. Development of effective scar therapies relies on validated animal models that mimic human hypertrophic scars. A consistent porcine full-thickness burn hypertrophic scar model has yet to be developed. We have previously reported that Shikonin induces apoptosis and reduces collagen production in hypertrophic scar fibroblasts in vitro and may therefore hold potential as a novel scar remediation therapy. In this study, we aimed to validate the potential of Shikonin on scar remediation in vivo ...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Fan Wan, Shixiang Zhao, Rongjun Liu, Changrui Zhang, Thomas J Marrow
Deformation and mechanical damage in a three-dimensional braided carbon fiber reinforced carbon and silicon carbide ceramic composite, subjected to compressive loading, has been studied in situ by laboratory X-ray computed tomography. Dimensional change was measured and damage visualized by digital volume correlation analysis of tomographs. Cracks nucleated from defects within the fiber bundles and tended to propagate along the fiber bundle/matrix interface. For longitudinal compression, parallel to the fiber bundles, the initial elastic modulus decreased with increasing compressive strain while significant transverse tensile strains developed due to distributed cracking...
June 19, 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Jingjing Cao, Wenwu Zhao, Shuzhen Gao
Carbon fibers in situ prepared during the hot-pressed sintering in a vacuum is termed in situ transformed polyacrylonitrile-based (PAN-based) carbon fibers, and the fibrous precursors are the pre-oxidized PAN fibers. The properties and structure of in situ transformed PAN-based carbon fibers are investigated by Nano indenter, SEM, TEM, XRD, and Raman. The results showed that the microstructure of the fiber surface layer was compact, while the core was loose, with evenly-appearing microvoids. The elastic modulus and nanohardness of the fiber surface layer (303...
June 15, 2018: Materials
Sayed Masoud Hosseini, Hamid Gholami Pourbadie, Nima Naderi, Mohammad Sayyah, Mohammad Ismail Zibaii
INTRODUCTION: The vulnerability of hippocampal formation to ischemic insult has been documented in both humans and animal models. Ischemic injury induction through photothrombosis is an invasive and reproducible model of ischemic stroke which provides the ability to induce ischemia selectively in any desired area. In this study, we describe a method to induce selective unilateral hippocampal ischemia in rat through modified photothrombotic model. METHODS: Male wistar rats (n = 66) were subjected to stereotaxic surgery to insert a guide cannula just above the ascending part of hippocampal fissure...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
Egidio D'Angelo
The cerebellum is a central brain structure deeply integrated into major loops with the cerebral cortex, brainstem, and spinal cord. The cerebellum shows a complex regional organization consisting of modules with sagittal orientation. The cerebellum takes part in motor control and its lesions cause a movement incoordination syndrome called ataxia. Recent observations also imply involvement of the cerebellum in cognition and executive control, with an impact on pathologies like dyslexia and autism. The cerebellum operates as a forward controller learning to predict the precise timing of correlated events...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Amandine Palandri, Elodie Martin, Maria Russi, Michael Rera, Hervé Tricoire, Véronique Monnier
Friedreich's ataxia (FA) is caused by reduced levels of frataxin, a highly conserved mitochondrial protein. There is currently no effective treatment for this disease, characterized by progressive neurodegeneration and cardiomyopathy, the latter being the most common cause of death in patients. We previously developed a Drosophila melanogaster cardiac model of FA, in which the fly frataxin is inactivated specifically in the heart, leading to heart dilatation and impaired systolic function. Methylene Blue (MB) was highly efficient to prevent these cardiac dysfunctions...
June 13, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
Claudia Cristina Biguetti, Franco Cavalla, Elcia M Silveira, Angélica Cristina Fonseca, Andreia Espindola Vieira, Andre Petenuci Tabanez, Danieli C Rodrigues, Ana Paula Favaro Trombone, Gustavo Pompermaier Garlet
INTRODUCTION: Despite the successful clinical application of titanium (Ti) as a biomaterial, the exact cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for Ti osseointegration remains unclear, especially because of the limited methodological tools available in this field. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we present a microscopic and molecular characterization of an oral implant osseointegration model using C57Bl/6 mice. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-eight male wild-type mice received a Ti implant on the edentulous alveolar crest and the peri-implant sites were evaluated through microscopic (μCT, histological and birefringence) and molecular (RealTimePCRarray) analysis in different points in time after surgery (3, 7, 14 and 21 days)...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Applied Oral Science: Revista FOB
Romain Helleringer, Delphine Le Verger, Xia Li, Charlotte Izabelle, Rémi Chaussenot, Mehdi Belmaati-Cherkaoui, Raoudha Dammak, Paulette Decottignies, Hervé Daniel, Micaela Galante, Cyrille Vaillend
A recent focus has been placed on the role that cerebellar dysfunctions could play in the genesis of cognitive deficits in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). However, relevant genotype-phenotype analyses are missing to define whether cerebellar defects underlie the severe cases of intellectual deficiency, which have been associated with genetic loss of the smallest product of the dmd gene, the Dp71 dystrophin. To determine for the first time whether Dp71 loss could affect cerebellar physiology and functions, we have used patch-clamp electrophysiological recordings in acute cerebellar slices and a cerebellum-dependent behavioral test battery addressing cerebellum-dependent motor and non-motor functions in Dp71-null transgenic mice...
June 12, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
Christos Michael Suriano, David Bodznick
The majority of neurons in the mammalian brain reside within the cerebellum (Cb). Yet, the evolutionary origins of the Cb are not well understood. There are several sensory nuclei present across vertebrate phylogeny collectively termed cerebellum-like structures (CbLS) due to a shared anatomy and physiology with the Cb. Despite the similarities, the CbLS are clearly not phylogenetically homologous with the Cb. Common structure and function may arise due to a shared genetic and developmental toolkit. To examine this possibility, we used sequence analysis, western blotting, immunohistochemistry and RT-qPCR to test for the expression of three genes that are critical for mammalian cerebellar development in the Cb and CbLS of an elasmobranch fish, Leucoraja erinacea...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Eve-Ellen Govek, Zhuhao Wu, Devrim Acehan, Henrik Molina, Keith Rivera, Xiaodong Zhu, Yin Fang, Marc Tessier-Lavigne, Mary Elizabeth Hatten
CNS cortical histogenesis depends on polarity signaling pathways that regulate cell adhesion and motility. Here we report that conditional deletion of the Rho GTPase Cdc42 in cerebellar granule cell precursors (GCPs) results in abnormalities in cerebellar foliation revealed by iDISCO clearing methodology, a loss of columnar organization of proliferating GCPs in the external germinal layer (EGL), disordered parallel fiber organization in the molecular layer (ML), and a failure to extend a leading process and form a neuron-glial junction during migration along Bergmann glia (BG)...
March 23, 2018: iScience
Elena A Silantyeva, Wafaa Nasir, Jacqueline Carpenter, Olivia Manahan, Matthew L Becker, Rebecca K Willits
Substrates for embryonic stem cell culture are typified by poorly defined xenogenic, whole proteins or cellular components that are difficult and expensive to generate, characterize, and recapitulate. Herein, the generation of well-defined scaffolds of Gly-Tyr-Ile-Gly-Ser-Arg (GYIGSR) peptide-functionalized poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) aligned nanofibers are used to accelerate the neural lineage commitment and differentiation of D3 mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). Gene expression trends and immunocytochemistry analysis were similar to laminin-coated glass, and indicated an earlier differentiation progression than D3 mESCs on laminin...
June 4, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Akira Naito, Yugo Tasei, Akio Nishimura, Tetsuo Asakura
The wild silkworm and spider dragline silks have recently been paid considerable attention to potentially valuable biomedical materials. Samia cynthia ricini (S. c. ricini) is one of wild silkworms and the primary structure of the silk fibroin (SF) consists of tandemly repeated polyalanine (poly-A:(A)12,13 ). Here, we report unusual dynamical character observed in Ala Cβ groups in the poly-A region which forms anti-parallel-β-sheet structure with staggered packing arrangement. The 13 C spin-lattice relaxation (T1 's) and spin-spin relaxation times (T2 's) of Ala Cβ peaks in S...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Ye Tian, Zhongwei Niu
Rod-like nanoparticles show unique self-assembly behavior benefiting from their anisotropic properties. As a classic example of a one-dimensional (1D) rod-like plant virus, tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) can either assemble in a head-to-tail manner to form 1D long fibers, or align parallel to form crystal-like structures at interfaces or in solution. Here, the self-assembly behaviors of TMV at oil-water or air-liquid interfaces are summarized. In addition, the self-assembly of TMV with polymers in solution is also discussed in this chapter...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Miroslav L Djordjevic, Uros Bumbasirevic, Borko Stojanovic, Tamara Kravic Stevovic, Tamara Martinovic, Marta Bizic, Vladimir Kojovic
Autologous tissue engineering using biodegradable scaffolds as a carrier is a well-known procedure for penile girth enhancement. We evaluated a group of previously treated patients with the aim to analyze histomorphometric changes after tissue remodeling and to estimate the benefits of repeated procedure. Between February 2012 and December 2016, a group of 21 patients, aged 22-37 (mean 28.0) years, underwent a repeated penile girth enhancement procedure with biodegradable scaffolds. Procedure included insertion of two poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid scaffolds seeded with laboratory-prepared fibroblasts from scrotal tissue specimens...
June 1, 2018: Asian Journal of Andrology
Yi-Fan Li, Tie Li, Da-Wei Zhang, Hui Xue, Dong Chen, Chen Li, Fu-Chun Wang
The present study aimed to evaluate the role of the combination treatment of methylprednisolone (MP) and electroacupuncture (EA) in regeneration of nerve fibers and functional recovery in rats with spinal cord injury (SCI). Female Wistar rats were used for an SCI model by using a weight-drop hammer at levels T10 (spinal cord segment corresponding to the 10th thoracic vertebra). Four groups received different treatments for the study: SCI control, MP, MP and EA, and Sham. The growth of nerve fibers was examined by counting fluorescein positive nerve fibers...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Jia Liu, Pinggang Jia, Huixin Zhang, Xiaodan Tian, Hao Liang, Yingping Hong, Ting Liang, Wenyi Liu, Jijun Xiong
In this study, a novel batch-producible fiber-optic Fabry-Perot (FP) pressure sensor based on a low-temperature co-fired ceramic technology is proposed and experimentally demonstrated for high-temperature applications. The sensor is fabricated by inserting a well-cut single-mode fiber (SMF) into a zirconia fiber ferrule, followed by insertion of the overall structure into an alumina sensor head. The FP cavity in the sensor is formed by placing the end face of the SMF in parallel to the diaphragm. The external pressure can be detected by demodulating the FP cavity length of the sensor...
May 20, 2018: Applied Optics
Li-Qing Yu, Li-Ya Wang, Fei-Hong Su, Ping-Yu Hao, Huan Wang, Yun-Kai Lv
A stainless steel fiber was coated with a gate-opening controlled metal-organic framework ZIF-7 via a sol-gel method and applied to the solid-phase microextraction of aldehydes (hexanal, heptanal, octanal, nonanal, decanal) from exhaled breath by lung cancer patients. The effects of temperature and time on the sorption and desorption were optimized. Under optimum condition, the modified fiber displays enrichment factors (typically ranging from 300 to 10,000), low limits of detection (0.61-0.84 μg L-1 ), and wide linear ranges of hexanal, heptanal (5-500 μg L-1 ) and octanal, nonanal, decanal (10-1000 μg L-1 )...
May 22, 2018: Mikrochimica Acta
Hyun-Wook Kim, Seunghak Oh, Seung Hwan Lee, Sanghoon Lee, Ji-Eun Na, Kea Joo Lee, Im Joo Rhyu
Experience-dependent synapse remodeling is associated with information storage in the nervous system. Neuronal synapses show alteration in various neurological and cognitive disorders in their structure and function. At the ultrastructural level, parallel fiber boutons contacting multiple spines of Purkinje cells in the cerebellar cortex are commonly observed in physiologically enriched animals as well as pathological ataxic mutants. However, the dendritic origin of those spines on parallel fiber multiple-synapse boutons (MSBs) has been poorly understood...
May 18, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
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