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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629427/reference-values-for-shear-wave-elastography-of-neck-and-shoulder-muscles-in-healthy-individuals
#1
Caroline Ewertsen, Jonathan Carlsen, Mohammed Aftab Perveez, Henrik Schytz
Purpose: to establish reference values for ultrasound shear-wave elastography for pericranial muscles in healthy individuals (m. trapezius, m. splenius capitis, m. semispinalis capitis, m. sternocleidomastoideus and m. masseter). Also to evaluate day-to-day variations in the shear-wave speeds and evaluate the effect of the pennation of the muscle fibers, ie scanning parallel or perpendicularly to the fibers. Materials and Methods: 10 healthy individuals (5 males and 5 females) had their pericranial muscles examined with shear-wave elastography in two orthogonal planes on two different days for their dominant and non-dominant side...
January 2018: Ultrasound International Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626373/sex-dimorphism-of-substrate-utilization-differences-in-skeletal-muscle-mitochondrial-volume-density-and-function
#2
David Montero, Klavs Madsen, Anne-Kristine Meinild-Lundby, Fredrik Edin, Carsten Lundby
Fat oxidation during exercise is higher in females than males. We sought to determine whether sex differences in substrate metabolism are paralleled by distinct skeletal muscle mitochondrial volume density and oxidative capacity. Whole-body substrate (fat, carbohydrate (CHO)) utilization during submaximal treadmill running was assessed and skeletal muscle biopsies were taken to determine mitochondrial volume density (MitoVD ) and function in healthy young females (n = 12) and males (n = 12) matched by aerobic exercise capacity (VO2max ) and exercise performance...
April 6, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609386/lp-01-lp-11a-mode-converters-based-on-long-period-fiber-gratings-in-a-two-mode-polarization-maintaining-photonic-crystal-fiber
#3
Xiaohui Zhang, Yange Liu, Zhi Wang, Jie Yu, Hongwei Zhang
A long-period fiber grating (LPFG) mode converter based on a two-mode polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber (PM-PCF) is proposed and demonstrated. The mode converters realize conversions between the LP01 modes and LP11a modes with parallel polarization directions. Different from typical conventional mode converters, the PM-PCF-LPFG mode converters most notably can separate out two linearly polarized LP11a modes at different wavelengths. The highest mode-conversion efficiency is more than 99%. In addition, the bandwidth of the mode converter is adjustable by changing the grating number of the LPFG...
March 19, 2018: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603381/high-resolution-whole-brain-diffusion-mri-at-7t-using-radiofrequency-parallel-transmission
#4
Xiaoping Wu, Edward J Auerbach, An T Vu, Steen Moeller, Christophe Lenglet, Sebastian Schmitter, Pierre-François Van de Moortele, Essa Yacoub, Kâmil Uğurbil
PURPOSE: Investigating the utility of RF parallel transmission (pTx) for Human Connectome Project (HCP)-style whole-brain diffusion MRI (dMRI) data at 7 Tesla (7T). METHODS: Healthy subjects were scanned in pTx and single-transmit (1Tx) modes. Multiband (MB), single-spoke pTx pulses were designed to image sagittal slices. HCP-style dMRI data (i.e., 1.05-mm resolutions, MB2, b-values = 1000/2000 s/mm2 , 286 images and 40-min scan) and data with higher accelerations (MB3 and MB4) were acquired with pTx...
March 30, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602494/motor-coordination-and-synaptic-plasticity-deficits-are-associated-with-increased-cerebellar-activity-of-nadph-oxidase-camkii-and-pkc-at-preplaque-stage-in-the-tgcrnd8-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Roberto Russo, Fabio Cattaneo, Pellegrino Lippiello, Claudia Cristiano, Fabio Zurlo, Martina Castaldo, Carlo Irace, Tiziana Borsello, Rita Santamaria, Rosario Ammendola, Antonio Calignano, Maria Concetta Miniaci
Numerous studies indicate that the cerebellum undergoes structural and functional neurodegenerative changes in Alzheimer's disease. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent of cerebellar alterations at early, preplaque stage of the pathology in TgCRND8 mice through behavioral, electrophysiological, and molecular analysis. Balance beam test and foot-printing analysis revealed significant motor coordination and balance deficits in 2-month-old TgCRND8 mice compared to their littermates. Patch-clamp recordings performed on cerebellar slices of transgenic mice showed synaptic plasticity deficit and loss of noradrenergic modulation at parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapse suggesting an early dysfunction of the cerebellar circuitry due to amyloid precursor protein overexpression...
March 5, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601572/brugia-malayi-infection-in-ferrets-a-small-mammal-model-of-lymphatic-filariasis
#6
Belinda M Jackson-Thompson, So Young Kim, Shalini Jaiswal, Jessica R Scott, Scott R Jones, C Paul Morris, J Judd Fite, Karen Laurie, Andrew R Hoy, Bernard J Dardzinski, Edward Mitre
BACKGROUND: The lack of effective short-course therapies for treatment of the adult stage of filarial worms is a major limitation in the global effort to eliminate lymphatic filariasis. Studies using current small mammal models of lymphatic filariasis are limited by difficulties in quantifying adult worm numbers and in assessing lymphatic anatomy and function. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we re-established Brugia malayi infection of ferrets as a model for lymphatic filariasis and demonstrated parasitological, immunological, and histological parallels with human infection...
March 30, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590582/topotaxis-a-new-mechanism-of-directed-cell-migration-in-topographic-ecm-gradients
#7
REVIEW
JinSeok Park, Deok-Ho Kim, Andre Levchenko
Living cells orient the cytoskeleton polarity and directional migration in response to spatial gradients of multiple types of cues. The resulting tactic behaviors are critical for the proper cell localization in the context of complex single-cell and tissue behaviors. In this perspective, we highlight the recent discovery of, to our knowledge, a new -taxis phenomenon, the topotaxis, which mediates directional cell migration in response to the gradients of such topographic features as the density of extracellular matrix fibers...
March 27, 2018: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590195/the-neurochemistry-and-morphology-of-functionally-identified-corneal-polymodal-nociceptors-and-cold-thermoreceptors
#8
Abdulhakeem S Alamri, Rhiannon J Wood, Jason J Ivanusic, James A Brock
It is generally believed that the unencapsulated sensory nerve terminals of modality specific C- and Aδ-neurons lack structural specialization. Here we determined the morphology of functionally defined polymodal receptors and cold thermoreceptors in the guinea pig corneal epithelium. Polymodal receptors and cold thermoreceptors were identified by extracellular recording at the surface of the corneal epithelium. After marking the recording sites, corneas were processed to reveal immunoreactivity for the transient receptor potential channels TRPV1 (transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1) or TPRM8 (transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 8)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588658/from-nano-to-micrometer-scale-the-role-of-microwave-assisted-acid-and-alkali-pretreatments-in-the-sugarcane-biomass-structure
#9
Augusta Isaac, Jéssica de Paula, Carlos Martins Viana, Andréia Bicalho Henriques, Angelo Malachias, Luciano A Montoro
Background: To date, great strides have been made in elucidating the role of thermochemical pretreatments in the chemical and structural features of plant cell walls; however, there is no clear picture of the plant recalcitrance and its relationship to deconstruction. Previous studies precluded full answers due to the challenge of multiscale features of plant cell wall organization. Complementing the previous efforts, we undertook a systematic, multiscale, and integrated approach to track the effect of microwave-assisted H2 SO4 and NaOH treatments on the hierarchical structure of plants, i...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582755/occurrence-of-long-term-depression-in-the-cerebellar-flocculus-during-adaptation-of-optokinetic-response
#10
Takuma Inoshita, Tomoo Hirano
Long-term depression (LTD) at parallel fiber (PF) to Purkinje cell (PC) synapses has been considered as a main cellular mechanism for motor learning. However, the necessity of LTD for motor learning was challenged by demonstration of normal motor learning in the LTD-defective animals. Here, we addressed possible involvement of LTD in motor learning by examining whether LTD occurs during motor learning in the wild-type mice. As a model of motor learning, adaptation of optokinetic response (OKR) was used. OKR is a type of reflex eye movement to suppress blur of visual image during animal motion...
March 27, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577657/fast-uncertainty-quantification-of-activation-sequences-in-patient-specific-cardiac-electrophysiology-meeting-clinical-time-constraints
#11
A Quaglino, S Pezzuto, P-S Koutsourelakis, A Auricchio, R Krause
We present a fast, patient-specific methodology for uncertainty quantification in electrophysiology, aimed at meeting the time constraints of clinical practitioners. We focus on computing the statistics of the activation map, given the uncertainties associated with the conductivity tensor modeling the fibers orientation in the heart. We employ a fast parallel solution method implemented on a GPU for the eikonal approximation, in order to compute the activation map and to sample the random fiber field with correlation based on geodesic distances...
March 26, 2018: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554873/mapping-qtl-for-white-striping-in-relation-to-breast-muscle-yield-and-meat-quality-traits-in-broiler-chickens
#12
Eva Pampouille, Cécile Berri, Simon Boitard, Christelle Hennequet-Antier, Stéphane A Beauclercq, Estelle Godet, Christophe Praud, Yves Jégo, Elisabeth Le Bihan-Duval
BACKGROUND: White striping (WS) is an emerging muscular defect occurring on breast and thigh muscles of broiler chickens. It is characterized by the presence of white striations parallel to the muscle fibers and has significant consequences for meat quality. The etiology of WS remains poorly understood, even if previous studies demonstrated that the defect prevalence is related to broiler growth and muscle development. Moreover, recent studies showed moderate to high heritability values of WS, which emphasized the role of genetics in the expression of the muscle defect...
March 20, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552394/diffuse-optical-monitoring-of-peripheral-tissues-during-uncontrolled-internal-hemorrhage-in-a-porcine-model
#13
Karthik Vishwanath, Rajan Gurjar, David Wolf, Suzannah Riccardi, Michael Duggan, David King
Reliable, continuous and noninvasive blood flow and hemoglobin monitoring in trauma patients remains a critical, but generally unachieved goal. Two optical sensing methods - diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) - are used to monitor and detect internal hemorrhage. Specifically, we investigate if cutaneous perfusion measurements acquired using DCS and DRS in peripheral (thighs and ear-lobe) tissues could detect severe hemorrhagic shock in a porcine model. Four animals underwent high-grade hepato-portal injury in a closed abdomen, to induce uncontrolled hemorrhage and were subsequently allowed to bleed for 10 minutes before fluid resuscitation...
February 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535676/understanding-the-physiopathology-behind-axial-and-radial-diffusivity-changes-what-do-we-know
#14
REVIEW
Pawel J Winklewski, Agnieszka Sabisz, Patrycja Naumczyk, Krzysztof Jodzio, Edyta Szurowska, Arkadiusz Szarmach
The use of the diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is rapidly growing in the neuroimaging field. Nevertheless, rigorously performed quantitative validation of DTI pathologic metrics remains very limited owing to the difficulty in co-registering quantitative histology findings with magnetic resonance imaging. The aim of this review is to summarize the existing state-of-the-art knowledge with respect to axial (λ║ ) and radial (λ┴ ) diffusivity as DTI markers of axonal and myelin damage, respectively. First, we provide technical background for DTI and briefly discuss the specific organization of white matter in bundles of axonal fibers running in parallel; this is the natural target for imaging based on diffusion anisotropy...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528234/parallel-and-perpendicular-alignment-of-anisotropic-particles-in-free-liquid-micro-jets-and-emerging-micro-droplets
#15
Mathias Schlenk, Eddie Hofmann, Susanne Seibt, Sabine Rosenfeldt, Lukas Schrack, Markus Drechsler, Andre Rothkirch, Wiebke Ohm, Josef Breu, Stephan Gekle, Stephan Förster
Liquid micro-jets play a key role in fiber spinning, inkjet printing and coating processes. In all these applications, the liquid jets carry dispersed particles whose spatial and orientational distributions within the jet critically influence the properties of the fabricated structures. Despite its importance, there is currently no knowledge about the orientational distribution of particles within micro-jets and droplets. Here we demonstrate a microfluidic device that allows to de-termine the local particle distribution and orientation by X-ray scattering...
March 12, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523879/aav1-nt-3-gene-therapy-increases-muscle-fiber-diameter-through-activation-of-mtor-pathway-and-metabolic-remodeling-in-a-cmt-mouse-model
#16
Mehmet E Yalvac, Jakkrit Amornvit, Lei Chen, Kimberly M Shontz, Sarah Lewis, Zarife Sahenk
Neurotrophin 3 (NT-3) has well-recognized effects on peripheral nerve and Schwann cells, promoting axonal regeneration and associated myelination. In this study, we assessed the effects of AAV.NT-3 gene therapy on the oxidative state of the neurogenic muscle from the TremblerJ (TrJ ) mice at 16 weeks post-gene injection and found that the muscle fiber size increase was associated with a change in the oxidative state of muscle fibers towards normalization of the fiber type ratio seen in the wild type. NT-3-induced fiber size increase was most prominent for the fast twitch glycolytic fiber population...
March 9, 2018: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523816/purkinje-cell-bkchannel-ablation-induces-abnormal-rhythm-in-deep-cerebellar-nuclei-and-prevents-ltd
#17
Guy Cheron, Javier Márquez-Ruiz, Julian Cheron, Cynthia Prigogine, Claudia Ammann, Robert Lukowski, Peter Ruth, Bernard Dan
Purkinje cells (PC) control deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN), which in turn inhibit inferior olive nucleus, closing a positive feedback loop via climbing fibers. PC highly express potassium BK channels but their contribution to the olivo-cerebellar loop is not clear. Using multiple-unit recordings in alert mice we found in that selective deletion of BK channels in PC induces a decrease in their simple spike firing with a beta-range bursting pattern and fast intraburst frequency (~200 Hz). To determine the impact of this abnormal rhythm on the olivo-cerebellar loop we analyzed simultaneous rhythmicity in different cerebellar structures...
March 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523503/the-physiological-bases-of-hidden-noise-induced-hearing-loss-protocol-for-a-functional-neuroimaging-study
#18
Rebecca Susan Dewey, Deborah A Hall, Hannah Guest, Garreth Prendergast, Christopher J Plack, Susan T Francis
BACKGROUND: Rodent studies indicate that noise exposure can cause permanent damage to synapses between inner hair cells and high-threshold auditory nerve fibers, without permanently altering threshold sensitivity. These demonstrations of what is commonly known as hidden hearing loss have been confirmed in several rodent species, but the implications for human hearing are unclear. OBJECTIVE: Our Medical Research Council-funded program aims to address this unanswered question, by investigating functional consequences of the damage to the human peripheral and central auditory nervous system that results from cumulative lifetime noise exposure...
March 9, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522562/ancient-human-mitochondrial-dna-and-radiocarbon-analysis-of-archived-quids-from-the-mule-spring-rockshelter-nevada-usa
#19
Scott D Hamilton-Brehm, Lidia T Hristova, Susan R Edwards, Jeffrey R Wedding, Meradeth Snow, Brittany R Kruger, Duane P Moser
Chewed and expectorated quids, indigestible stringy fibers from the roasted inner pulp of agave or yucca root, have proven resilient over long periods of time in dry cave environments and correspondingly, although little studied, are common in archaeological archives. In the late 1960s, thousands of quids were recovered from Mule Spring Rockshelter (Nevada, USA) deposits and stored without consideration to DNA preservation in a museum collection, remaining unstudied for over fifty years. To assess the utility of these materials as repositories for genetic information about past inhabitants of the region and their movements, twenty-one quids were selected from arbitrary excavation depths for detailed analysis...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520893/morphology-of-the-core-fibrous-layer-of-the-cetacean-tail-fluke
#20
William T Gough, Frank E Fish, Dylan K Wainwright, Hilary Bart-Smith
The cetacean tail fluke blades are not supported by any vertebral elements. Instead, the majority of the blades are composed of a densely packed collagenous fiber matrix known as the core layer. Fluke blades from six species of odontocete cetaceans were examined to compare the morphology and orientation of fibers at different locations along the spanwise and chordwise fluke blade axes. The general fiber morphology was consistent with a three-dimensional structure comprised of two-dimensional sheets of fibers aligned tightly in a laminated configuration along the spanwise axis...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Morphology
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