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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451817/the-impact-of-pulse-pressure-on-cerebrovascular-events-leading-to-age-related-cognitive-decline
#1
Nathalie Thorin-Trescases, Olivia de Montgolfier, Anthony Pinçon, Adeline Raignault, Laurie Caland, Pauline Labbé, Eric Thorin
Aging is a modern concept: human life expectancy has more than doubled in less than 150 years in Western countries. Longer lifespan, however, reveals age-related diseases, including cerebrovascular diseases. The vascular system is a prime target of aging: the "wear and tear" of large elastic arteries exposed to a life-long pulsatile pressure causes arterial stiffening by fragmentation of elastin fibers and replacement by stiffer collagen. This arterial stiffening increases in return the amplitude of the pulse pressure (PP), its wave penetrating deeper into the microcirculation of low resistance, high flow organs such as the brain...
February 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437376/-brick-and-mortar-nanostructured-interphase-for-glass-fiber-reinforced-polymer-composites
#2
Francois De Luca, Giorgio Sernicola, Milo S P Shaffer, Alexander Bismarck
The fiber-matrix interface plays a critical role in determining composite mechanical properties. While a strong interface tends to provide high strength, a weak interface enables extensive debonding, leading to a high degree of energy absorption. Balancing these conflicting requirements by engineering composite interfaces to improve strength and toughness simultaneously still remains a great challenge. Here, a nanostructured fiber coating was realized to manifest the critical characteristics of natural nacre, at a reduced length scale, consistent with the surface curvature of fibers...
February 13, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432755/pelvic-muscles-mechanical-response-to-strains-in-the-absence-and-presence-of-pregnancy-induced-adaptations-in-a-rat-model
#3
Tatiana Catanzarite, Shannon Bremner, Caitlin L Barlow, Laura Bou-Malham, Shawn O'Connor, Marianna Alperin
BACKGROUND: Maternal birth trauma to the pelvic floor muscles is thought to be consequent to mechanical demands placed on these muscles during fetal delivery that exceed muscle physiological limits. The above is consistent with studies of striated limb muscles that identify hyperelongation of sarcomeres, the functional muscle units, as the primary cause of mechanical muscle injury and resultant muscle dysfunction. However, pelvic floor muscles' mechanical response to strains have not been examined at a tissue level...
February 9, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432335/extracellular-matrix-regulation-and-dysregulation-in-exfoliation-syndrome
#4
Matthias Zenkel
Several lines of evidence, such as ultrastructural signs for activated fibrillogenesis and excessive production of elastic microfibrillar components in the anterior segment of the eye and throughout the body, indicate that exfoliation syndrome (XFS) is an elastic microfibrillopathy, leading to the accumulation of an abnormal extracellular fibrillar material (XFM). The upregulation of elastic microfibrillar components is paralleled by the selective upregulation of the cross-linking enzyme lysyl oxidase-like 1 (LOXL1) in the early phase of the disease, suggesting that LOXL1 participates in the stabilization of newly synthesized elastic proteins and finally in the stable accumulation of XFM...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430734/gaba-and-serotonin-expressing-neurons-take-part-in-inhibitory-as-well-as-excitatory-input-pathways-to-the-circadian-clock-of-the-madeira-cockroach-rhyparobia-maderae
#5
Maria Giese, Julia Gestrich, Azar Massah, Jonas Peterle, HongYing Wei, Monika Stengl
In the Madeira cockroach pigment-dispersing factor-immunoreactive (PDF-ir) neurons innervating the circadian clock, the accessory medulla (AME) in the brain's optic lobes, control circadian behavior. Circadian activity rhythms are entrained to daily light-dark cycles only by compound eye photoreceptors terminating in the lamina and medulla. Still, it is unknown which neurons connect the photoreceptors to the clock to allow for light-entrainment. Here, we characterized by multiple-label immunocytochemistry the serotonin (5-HT)-ir anterior fiber fan and GABA-ir pathways connecting the AME- and optic lobe neuropils...
February 11, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29418123/why-do-knuckle-walking-african-apes-knuckle-walk
#6
Scott W Simpson, Bruce Latimer, C Owen Lovejoy
Among living mammals, only the African apes and some anteaters adopt knuckle-walking as their primary locomotor behavior. That Pan and Gorilla both knuckle-walk has been cited as evidence of their common ancestry and a primitive condition for a combined Homo, Pan, and Gorilla clade. Recent research on forelimb ontogeny and anatomy, in addition to recently described hominin fossils, indicate that knuckle-walking was independently acquired after divergence of the Pan and Gorilla lineages. Although the large-bodied, largely suspensory orangutan shares some aspects of the African ape bauplan, it does not regularly knuckle-walk when terrestrial...
March 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414077/triplex%C3%A2-waveguide-based-fluorescence-biosensor-for-multichannel-environmental-contaminants-detection
#7
Lanhua Liu, Didi Shan, Xiaohong Zhou, Hanchang Shi, Baodong Song, Floris Falke, Arne Leinse, René Heideman
In order to realize the multi-analyte assays for environmental contaminants, an optical biosensor utilizing laser-induced fluorescence-based detection via the binding of biomolecules to the surface of an integrated TriPleX™ waveguide chip on a glass substrate (fused silica, FS) is described. As far as we know, this is the first demonstration of using the TriPleX™ technology to fabricate the waveguide chip on a FS substrate. The sensor consists of 32 individually addressable sensor patches, which were formed on the chip surface by exploiting 3 Y-junction splitters, creating four equal rows of eight evanescently excited windows in parallel...
February 1, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410089/linking-multiscale-deformation-to-microstructure-in-cortical-bone-using-in-situ-loading-digital-image-correlation-and-synchrotron-x-ray-scattering
#8
Anna Gustafsson, Neashan Mathavan, Mikael J Turunen, Jonas Engqvist, Hanifeh Khayyeri, Stephen A Hall, Hanna Isaksson
The incidence of fragility fractures is expected to increase in the near future due to an aging population. Therefore, improved tools for fracture prediction are required to treat and prevent these injuries efficiently. For such tools to succeed, a better understanding of the deformation mechanisms in bone over different length scales is needed. In this study, an experimental setup including mechanical tensile testing in combination with digital image correlation (DIC) and small/wide angle x-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS) was used to study deformation at multiple length scales in bovine cortical bone...
February 1, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405034/revisiting-the-gamma-loop-in-als
#9
Fiona Limanaqi, Stefano Gambardella, Gloria Lazzeri, Michela Ferrucci, Stefano Ruggieri, Francesco Fornai
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a fast progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by muscle denervation, weakening and atrophy, which eventually culminates into death, mainly due to respiratory failure. The traditional view of ALS as a disorder affecting selectively motor neurons throughout the central nervous system has been progressively dispelled by innumerous lines of evidence indicating that other cells but motor neurons may be affected as well. Remarkably, this disorder is not limited to the motor system but rather configures as a systemic disease yielding a plethora of clinical signs...
December 1, 2017: Archives Italiennes de Biologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401935/intrinsic-loss-of-few-mode-fibers
#10
Yaping Liu, Zhiqun Yang, Jian Zhao, Lin Zhang, Zhihong Li, Guifang Li
We summarize theoretical formulae for determining the intrinsic loss of few-mode fibers and compare intrinsic losses among step-index and parabolic graded-index few-mode fibers (FMF) with different dopants, and with single-mode fibers (SMF). The low-loss characteristics of pure-silica-core FMFs, in comparison with SMFs, give rise to additional motivations for pursuing mode-division multiplexed transmission over parallel-SMF transmission, and quasi-single-mode (QSM) transmission over ultra-large-area SMF transmission...
January 22, 2018: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401868/multi-format-signal-generation-using-a-frequency-tunable-optoelectronic-oscillator
#11
Yang Chen, Shifeng Liu, Shilong Pan
A novel photonic approach for multi-format signal generation based on a frequency-tunable optoelectronic oscillator (OEO) is proposed using a dual-polarization quadrature phase shift-keying (DP-QPSK) modulator. The upper dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator (DP-MZM) integrated in the DP-QPSK modulator is properly biased to serve as an equivalent phase modulator, which functions in conjunction with a phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating (PS-FBG) in the OEO loop as a high-Q microwave photonic band-pass filter. The lower DP-MZM in the DP-QPSK modulator injected by the oscillation signal functions as a frequency multiplier, a phase-coded microwave signal generator or an optical frequency comb generator, respectively, with different signal injection methods...
February 5, 2018: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401793/probing-changes-in-tilt-angle-with-20-nanoradian-resolution-using-an-extrinsic-fabry-perot-interferometer-based-optical-fiber-inclinometer
#12
Yiyang Zhuang, Yizheng Chen, Chen Zhu, Rex E Gerald, Jie Huang
In this paper, we introduce and demonstrate a novel optical fiber extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer (EFPI) for tilt measurements with 20 nrad resolution. Compared with in-line optical fiber inclinometers, an extrinsic sensing structure is used in the inclinometer reported herein. Our design greatly improves on the tilt angle resolution, the temperature stability, and the mechanical robustness of inclinometers with advanced designs. An EFPI cavity, which is formed between endfaces of a suspended rectangular mass block and a fixed optical fiber, is packaged inside a rectangular container box with an oscillation dampening mechanism...
February 5, 2018: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397723/increased-potency-and-selectivity-for-group-iii-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-agonists-binding-at-dual-sites
#13
Selvam Chelliah, Isabelle A Lemasson, Isabelle Brabet, Nadia Oueslati, Berin Karaman, Alexandre Cabaye, Am Eacute Lie Tora, Bruno Commare, Tiphanie Courtiol, Sara Cesarini, Isabelle McCort-Tranchepain, Delphine Rigault, Laetitia Mony, Thomas Bessiron, Heather McLean, Frédéric R Leroux, Françoise Colobert, Hervé Daniel, Anne Goupil-Lamy, Hugues-Olivier Bertrand, Cyril Goudet, Jean-Philippe Pin, Francine Clemy Acher
A group-III metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptor agonist (PCEP) was identified by virtual HTS. This orthosteric ligand is composed by an L-AP4-derived fragment that mimics glutamate and a chain that binds into a neighboring pocket, offering possibilities to improve affinity and selectivity. Herein we describe a series of derivatives where the distal chain is replaced by an aromatic or heteroaromatic group. Potent agonists were identified, including some with mGlu4 subtype preference e.g. 17m (LSP1-2111) and 16g (LSP4-2022)...
February 4, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393337/extracorporeal-shock-wave-therapy-with-low-energy-flux-density-inhibits-hypertrophic-scar-formation-in-an-animal-model
#14
Jing-Chun Zhao, Bo-Ru Zhang, Lei Hong, Kai Shi, Wei-Wei Wu, Jia-Ao Yu
Hypertrophic scar is characterized by excessive deposits of collagen during skin wound healing, which could become a challenge to clinicians. This study assessed the effects of the extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) on hypertrophic scar formation and the underlying gene regu-lation. A rabbit ear hypertrophic scar model was generated and randomly divided into three groups: L-ESWT group to receive L-ESWT (energy flux density of 0.1 mJ/mm2), H-ESWT (energy flux density of 0.2 mJ/mm2) and sham ESWT group (S-ESWT)...
January 29, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390684/cryogenic-positioning-and-alignment-with-micrometer-precision-in-a-magnetic-resonance-force-microscope
#15
Corinne E Isaac, Elizabeth A Curley, Paméla T Nasr, Hoang L Nguyen, John A Marohn
Aligning a microcantilever to an area of interest on a sample is a critical step in many scanning probe microscopy experiments, particularly those carried out on devices and rare, precious samples. We report a series of protocols that rapidly and reproducibly align a high-compliance microcantilever to a <10 μm sample feature under high vacuum and at cryogenic temperatures. The first set of protocols, applicable to a cantilever oscillating parallel to the sample surface, involve monitoring the cantilever resonance frequency while laterally scanning the tip to map the sample substrate through electrostatic interactions of the substrate with the cantilever...
January 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387637/three-dimensional-architecture-of-the-ligamentum-teres-in-the-human-hip-joint
#16
Nobuhiro Kaku, Tatsuo Shimada, Tomonori Tabata, Hiroaki Tagomori, Tetsutaro Abe, Juan Juan Zhang, Hiroshi Tsumura
Background: We aimed to investigate the three-dimensional structure of the collagenous fibers of the ligamentum teres (LT) of the human hip and clarify the LT micro-anatomy at the attachment of the femoral head. Methods: Femoral heads and LT were collected during hip arthroplasty. Specimens were cut into 5-10-mm squares, prepared, developed, and observed under a light microscope. Next, specimens were prepared and examined under a scanning electron microscope (SEM)...
July 2017: Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381778/local-estrogen-synthesis-regulates-parallel-fiber-purkinje-cell-neurotransmission-within-the-cerebellar-cortex
#17
Valerie L Hedges, Gang Chen, Lei Yu, Amanda A Krentzel, Joseph R Starrett, Jing-Ning Zhu, Piratheepan Suntharalingam, Luke Remage-Healey, Jian-Jun Wang, Timothy J Ebner, Paul G Mermelstein
Estrogens affect cerebellar activity and cerebellar-based behaviors. Within the adult rodent cerebellum, the best-characterized action of estradiol is to enhance glutamatergic signaling. However, the mechanism(s) by which estradiol promotes glutamatergic neurotransmission remain unknown. Within the mouse cerebellum, we find that estrogen receptor activation of mGluR1a strongly enhances neurotransmission at the parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapse. The blockade of local estrogen synthesis within the cerebellum results in a diminution of glutamatergic neurotransmission...
January 25, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369624/heterogeneous-amyloid-%C3%AE-sheet-polymorphs-identified-on-hydrogen-bond-promoting-surfaces-using-2d-sfg-spectroscopy
#18
Jia-Jung Ho, Ayanjeet Ghosh, Tianqi O Zhang, Martin T Zanni
Two-dimensional sum-frequency generation spectroscopy (2D SFG) is used to study the structures of the pentapeptide FGAIL on hydrogen bond promoting surfaces. FGAIL is the most amyloidogenic portion of the human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP or amylin). In the presence of a pure gold surface, FGAIL does not form ordered structures. When the gold is coated with a self-assembled monolayer of mercaptobenzoic acid (MBA), 2D SFG spectra reveal features associated with β-sheets. Also observed are cross peaks between the FGAIL peptides and the carboxylic acid groups of the MBA monolayer, indicating that the peptides are in close contact with the surface headgroups...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361758/effect-of-aspect-ratio-on-the-permittivity-of-graphite-fiber-in-microwave-heating
#19
Jun Fukushima, Shuntaro Tsubaki, Tomoki Matsuzawa, Keiichiro Kashimura, Tomohiko Mitani, Tomoaki Namioka, Satoshi Fujii, Naoki Shinohara, Hirotsugu Takizawa, Yuji Wada
Microwave (MW) heating has received attention as a new heating source for various industrial processes. Some materials are expected to be a more effective absorber of MW, and graphite is observed as a possible candidate for high-temperature application. We investigated the dependence of the aspect ratio of graphite fibers on both their heating behavior and permittivity under a 2.45 GHz MW electric field. In these experiments, both loss tangent and MW heating behavior indicated that the MW absorption of conductive fibers increases with their aspect ratio...
January 22, 2018: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360168/activity-dependent-plasticity-of-presynaptic-gabab-receptors-at-parallel-fiber-synapses
#20
Adeline Orts-Del'Immagine, Jason R Pugh
Parallel fiber synapses in the cerebellum express a wide range of presynaptic receptors. However, presynaptic receptor expression at individual parallel fiber synapses is quite heterogeneous, suggesting physiological mechanisms regulate presynaptic receptor expression. We investigated changes in presynaptic GABAB receptors at parallel fiber-stellate cell synapses in acute cerebellar slices from juvenile mice. GABAB receptor-mediated inhibition of EPSCs is remarkably diverse at these synapses, with transmitter release at some synapses inhibited by more than 50% and little or no inhibition at others...
January 23, 2018: Synapse
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