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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934196/spatiotemporal-network-coding-of-physiological-mossy-fiber-inputs-by-the-cerebellar-granular-layer
#1
Shyam Kumar Sudhakar, Sungho Hong, Ivan Raikov, Rodrigo Publio, Claus Lang, Thomas Close, Daqing Guo, Mario Negrello, Erik De Schutter
The granular layer, which mainly consists of granule and Golgi cells, is the first stage of the cerebellar cortex and processes spatiotemporal information transmitted by mossy fiber inputs with a wide variety of firing patterns. To study its dynamics at multiple time scales in response to inputs approximating real spatiotemporal patterns, we constructed a large-scale 3D network model of the granular layer. Patterned mossy fiber activity induces rhythmic Golgi cell activity that is synchronized by shared parallel fiber input and by gap junctions...
September 21, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929998/calcaneal-tendon-collagen-fiber-morphometry-and-aging
#2
Daniel Hadraba, Jiri Janacek, Eva Filova, Frantisek Lopot, Rik Paesen, Ondrej Fanta, Anneliese Jarman, Alois Necas, Marcel Ameloot, Karel Jelen
Fibrillar collagen in tendons and its natural development in rabbits are discussed in this paper. Achilles tendons from newborn (~7 days) to elderly (~38 months) rabbits were monitored in intact (n tendons=24) and microtome sectioned (n tendons=11) states with label-free second harmonic generation microscopy. After sectioning, the collagen fiber pattern was irregular for the younger animals and remained oriented parallel to the load axis of the tendon for the older animals. In contrast, the collagen fiber pattern in the intact samples followed the load axis for all the age groups...
September 20, 2017: Microscopy and Microanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924105/the-successful-application-of-plasmapheresis-in-the-treatment-of-a-patient-with-opsoclonus-and-autoantibodies-to-glutamate-receptor-%C3%AE-2
#3
Kiyotaka Nakamagoe, Seitaro Nohara, Yukitoshi Takahashi, Mao Takiguchi, Rio Kawakami, Tadachika Koganezawa, Akira Tamaoka
Glutamate receptor δ2 (GluRδ2) is expressed in the neuronal postsynaptic densities at the junctions between the Purkinje cells and the parallel fibers. Recent reports have described patients with opsoclonus who possess anti-GluRδ2 antibodies. We report the case of a 53-year-old man with opsoclonus whose cerebrospinal fluid was positive for anti-GluRδ2 antibodies. Electronystagmography revealed abnormal sinusoidal eye movements, which were definitively identified as opsoclonus. The frequency and amplitude of saccadic oscillations diminished after plasmapheresis (PE)...
September 15, 2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922975/bioengineered-submucosal-organoids-for-in-vitro-modeling-of-colorectal-cancer
#4
Mahesh Devarasetty, Aleksander Skardal, Kyle Cowdrick, Frank Marini, Shay Soker
The physical nature of the tumor microenvironment significantly impacts tumor growth, invasion and response to drugs. Most in vitro tumor models are designed to study the effects of extracellular matrix (ECM) stiffness on tumor cells, while not addressing the effects of ECM's specific topography. In this study we bioengineered submucosal organoids, using primary smooth muscle cells (SMCs) embedded in collagen I (Col I) hydrogel, which produce aligned and parallel fiber topography similar to those found in vivo...
September 19, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919466/intrastriatally-injected-botulinum-neurotoxin-a-differently-effects-cholinergic-and-dopaminergic-fibers-in-c57bl-6-mice
#5
Alexander Hawlitschka, Carsten Holzmann, Sarah Witt, Juliane Spiewok, Anne-Marie Neumann, Oliver Schmitt, Andreas Wree, Veronica Antipova
Unilateral intrastriatal BoNT-A injection abolished apomorphine-induced rotational behavior in a rat model of hemiparkinsonism (hemi-PD) up to 6 months. It was hypothesized that the beneficial effect of botulinum neurotoxin-A (BoNT-A) grounded on the reduction of the Parkinson's diseases (PD) associated striatal hypercholinism. Intrastriatal injection of BoNT-A was not cytotoxic in rat brain, but neuronal fiber swellings in the BoNT-A infiltrated striata appeared and named BoNT-A-induced varicosities (BiVs)...
September 14, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916179/a-comparison-of-inhomogeneous-magnetization-transfer-myelin-volume-fraction-and-diffusion-tensor-imaging-measures-in-healthy-children
#6
REVIEW
Bryce L Geeraert, R Marc Lebel, Alyssa C Mah, Sean C Deoni, David C Alsop, Gopal Varma, Catherine Lebel
Sensitive and specific biomarkers of myelin can help define baseline brain health and development, identify and monitor disease pathology, and evaluate response to treatment where myelin content is affected. Diffusion measures such as radial diffusivity (RD) are commonly used to assess myelin content, but are not specific to myelin. Inhomogeneous magnetization transfer (ihMT) and multicomponent driven equilibrium single-pulse observation of T1 and T2 (mcDESPOT) offer quantitative parameters (qihMT and myelin volume fraction/VFm, respectively) which are suggested to have improved sensitivity to myelin...
September 12, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913594/developmental-trajectory-of-the-prefrontal-cortex-a-systematic-review-of-diffusion-tensor-imaging-studies
#7
Sónia S Sousa, Edson Amaro, Alberto Crego, Óscar F Gonçalves, Adriana Sampaio
Fluctuations in gray and white matter volumes in addition to the fibers' reorganization and refinement of synaptic connectivity apparently happen in a particular temporo-spatial sequence during the dynamic and prolonged process of cerebral maturation. These developmental events are associated with regional modifications of brain tissues and neural circuits, contributing to networks' specialization and enhanced cognitive processing. According to several studies, improvements in cognitive processes are possibly myelin-dependent and associated to white matter maturation...
September 15, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910157/photochemical-cross-linking-for-penetrating-corneal-wound-closure-in-enucleated-porcine-eyes
#8
Ti Wang, Lu Zhu, Yinbo Peng, Nianci Shen, Yan Yu, Min Yao, Jingyin Zhu
PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy of photochemical-induced tissue cross-linking (PCL), utilizing Rose Bengal (RB) and 532 nm green light irradiation (RB-PCL), with standard sutures for closure of penetrating corneal incision in porcine cadaver eyes. METHODS: A full-thickness penetrating incision, 3 mm in length parallel to the limbus and perpendicular to the corneal surface, was made in the enucleated porcine cornea. Photochemical cross-linking was performed with tropical RB application and irradiation of 532 nm green light (0...
September 14, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906571/photodynamic-therapy-for-glioblastoma-a-preliminary-approach-for-practical-application-of-light-propagation-models
#9
Clément Dupont, Anne-Sophie Vignion, Serge Mordon, Nicolas Reyns, Maximilien Vermandel
PURPOSE: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising treatment modality to be added in the management of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Light distribution modeling is required for planning and optimizing PDT. Several models have been developed to predict the light propagation inside biological tissues. In the present study, two analytical methods of light propagation emitted from a cylindrical fiber source were evaluated: a discrete and a continuous method. METHODS: The two analytical approaches were compared according to their fluence rate results...
September 14, 2017: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902469/time-dependent-changes-in-the-structure-of-calcified-fibrocartilage-in-the-rat-achilles-tendon-bone-interface-with-sciatic-denervation
#10
Hideaki Takahashi, Hiroyuki Tamaki, Mineo Oyama, Noriaki Yamamoto, Hideaki Onishi
The enthesis transmits a physiological load from soft to hard tissue via fibrocartilage. The histological alterations induced by this physiological loading remain unclear. This study was performed to examine the histomorphological alterations in the collagen fiber bundle alignment and depth of collagen interdigitation between the calcified fibrocartilage and the bone. We examined the Achilles enthesis of rats with sciatic denervation to explore the mechanical effects of structural changes in the enthesis. The parallelism of the collagen fiber bundles was significantly reduced 8 weeks after denervation...
September 13, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898725/maximum-insertion-torque-of-a-novel-implant-abutment-interface-design-for-peek-dental-implants
#11
Andreas Dominik Schwitalla, Tycho Zimmermann, Tobias Spintig, Mohamed Abou-Emara, Justus Lackmann, Wolf-Dieter Müller, Alireza Houshmand
Frequent reports attest to the various advantages of tapered implant/abutment interfaces (IAIs) compared to other types of interfaces. For this reason, a conical IAI was designed as part of the development of a PEEK (polyetheretherketone)-based dental implant. This IAI is equipped with an apically displaced anti-rotation lock with minimal space requirements in the form of an internal spline. The objective of this study was the determination of the average insertion torque (IT) at failure of this design, so as to determine its suitability for immediate loading, which requires a minimum IT of 32Ncm...
September 5, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893340/quantitative-studies-of-endothelial-cell-fibronectin-and-filamentous-actin-f-actin-coalignment-in-response-to-shear-stress
#12
Xianghui Gong, Xixi Zhao, Bin Li, Yan Sun, Meili Liu, Yan Huang, Xiaoling Jia, Jing Ji, Yubo Fan
Both fibronectin (FN) and filamentous actin (F-actin) fibers play a critical role for endothelial cells (ECs) in responding to shear stress and modulating cell alignment and functions. FN is dynamically coupled to the F-actin cytoskeleton via focal adhesions. However, it is unclear how ECs cooperatively remodel their subcellular FN matrix and intracellular F-actin cytoskeleton in response to shear stress. Current studies are hampered by the lack of a reliable and sensitive quantification method of FN orientation...
September 12, 2017: Microscopy and Microanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886998/propolis-reversed-cigarette-smoke-induced-emphysema-through-macrophage-alternative-activation-independent-of-nrf2
#13
Marina Valente Barroso, Isabella Cattani-Cavalieri, Lycia de Brito-Gitirana, Alain Fautrel, Vincent Lagente, Martina Schmidt, Luís Cristóvão Porto, Bruna Romana-Souza, Samuel Santos Valença, Manuella Lanzetti
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an incurable and progressive disease. Emphysema is the principal manifestation of COPD, and the main cause of this condition is cigarette smoke (CS). Natural products have shown antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that can prevent acute lung inflammation and emphysema, but there are few reports in the literature regarding therapeutic approaches to emphysema. We hypothesized that supplementation with natural extracts would repair lung damage in emphysema caused by CS exposure...
August 19, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877216/an-in-vitro-lung-model-to-assess-true-shunt-fraction-by-multiple-inert-gas-elimination
#14
Balamurugan Varadarajan, Andreas Vogt, Volker Hartwich, Rakesh Vasireddy, Jolanda Consiglio, Beate Hugi-Mayr, Balthasar Eberle
The Multiple Inert Gas Elimination Technique, based on Micropore Membrane Inlet Mass Spectrometry, (MMIMS-MIGET) has been designed as a rapid and direct method to assess the full range of ventilation-to-perfusion (V/Q) ratios. MMIMS-MIGET distributions have not been assessed in an experimental setup with predefined V/Q-distributions. We aimed (I) to construct a novel in vitro lung model (IVLM) for the simulation of predefined V/Q distributions with five gas exchange compartments and (II) to correlate shunt fractions derived from MMIMS-MIGET with preset reference shunt values of the IVLM...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870194/a-yeast-fermentate-improves-gastrointestinal-discomfort-and-constipation-by-modulation-of-the-gut-microbiome-results-from-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-pilot-trial
#15
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Iris Pinheiro, Larry Robinson, An Verhelst, Massimo Marzorati, Björn Winkens, Pieter Van den Abbeele, Sam Possemiers
BACKGROUND: Constipation and symptoms of gastrointestinal discomfort such as bloating are common among otherwise healthy individuals, but with significant impact on quality of life. Despite the recognized contribution of the gut microbiome to this pathology, little is known about which group(s) of microorganism(s) are playing a role. A previous study performed in vitro suggests that EpiCor® fermentate has prebiotic-like properties, being able to favorably modulate the composition of the gut microbiome...
September 4, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858219/a-novel-impedance-biosensor-for-measurement-of-trans-epithelial-resistance-in-cells-cultured-on-nanofiber-scaffolds
#16
Robert A Schramm, Matthew H Koslow, Deirdre A Nelson, Melinda Larsen, James Castracane
Nanofibrous scaffolds provide high surface area for cell attachment, and resemble the structure of the collagen fibers which naturally occur in the basement membrane and extracellular matrix. A label free and non-destructive method of assessing the interaction of cell tissue and scaffolds aids in the ability to discern the effective quality and magnitude of any scaffold modifications. Impedance cell spectroscopy is a biosensing method that employs a functional approach to assessing the cell monolayer. The electrical impedance barrier function of a cell monolayer represents the level of restriction to diffusion of charged species between all adjacent cells across an entire contiguous cellular monolayer...
August 31, 2017: Biosensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856055/wide-field-high-speed-space-division-multiplexing-optical-coherence-tomography-using-an-integrated-photonic-device
#17
Yongyang Huang, Mudabbir Badar, Arthur Nitkowski, Aaron Weinroth, Nelson Tansu, Chao Zhou
Space-division multiplexing optical coherence tomography (SDM-OCT) is a recently developed parallel OCT imaging method in order to achieve multi-fold speed improvement. However, the assembly of fiber optics components used in the first prototype system was labor-intensive and susceptible to errors. Here, we demonstrate a high-speed SDM-OCT system using an integrated photonic chip that can be reliably manufactured with high precisions and low per-unit cost. A three-layer cascade of 1 × 2 splitters was integrated in the photonic chip to split the incident light into 8 parallel imaging channels with ~3...
August 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839387/scanning-electron-microscopy-and-x-ray-microanalysis-of-reconstructive-hair-fibers
#18
Andrea Combalia, Albert Brugués, F Javier García-Veigas, Juan Ferrando
BACKGROUND: Reconstructive hair fibers are an innovative tool in cosmetic dermatology based on electrostatic adherent powder which bonds to the hair shaft and can disguise hair loss in men and women. AIM: This study aims to analyze and compare five different brands of organic hair fibers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to obtain amplified images of samples to study their shape and morphological structure...
April 2017: International Journal of Trichology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831345/characterization-of-the-capsule-surrounding-smooth-and-textured-tissue-expanders-and-correlation-with-contracture
#19
Erika Kuriyama, Hiroko Ochiai, Yoshikazu Inoue, Yoshiaki Sakamoto, Naoki Yamamoto, Toshiaki Utsumi, Kazuo Kishi, Takayuki Okumoto, Akihiro Matsuura
Capsular contracture is a common complication after breast augmentation surgery. This study pathologically evaluated the soft-tissue response to surface modifications in both smooth and textured tissue expander prostheses. METHODS: Smooth tissue expanders and textured tissue expanders in 5 cases each were used for breast reconstruction after mastectomy. Histological samples were harvested from the capsules when the tissue expanders were replaced by silicone implants. Collagen orientation and cellular responses were assessed histologically...
July 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821315/starch-entrapped-microsphere-fibers-improve-bowel-habit-but-do-not-exhibit-prebiotic-capacity-in-those-with-unsatisfactory-bowel-habits-a-phase-i-randomized-double-blind-controlled-human-trial
#20
Heather E Rasmussen, Bruce Hamaker, Kumar B Rajan, Ece Mutlu, Stefan J Green, Michael Brown, Amandeep Kaur, Ali Keshavarzian
Approximately one-third of individuals in the United States experience unsatisfactory bowel habits, and dietary intake, especially one low in fiber, could be partly responsible. We hypothesized that intake of a fermentable fiber (starch-entrapped microspheres, SM) that has a delayed, slow fermentation profile in vitro would improve bowel habit while exhibiting prebiotic capacity in those with self-described unsatisfactory bowel habits, all with minimal adverse effects. A total of 43 healthy volunteers completed a 3-month, double-blind, parallel-arm randomized clinical trial to assess the ability of a daily dose (9 or 12 g) of SM vs psyllium (12 g) to improve bowel habit, including stool consistency and frequency, and modify gut milieu through changes in stool microbiota and short-chain fatty acids while remaining tolerable through minimal gastrointestinal symptoms...
August 2017: Nutrition Research
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