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Nonsense suppression

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913587/suppressing-n-acetyl-l-aspartate-naa-synthesis-prevents-loss-of-neurons-in-a-murine-model-of-canavan-leukodystrophy
#1
Jiho Sohn, Peter Bannerman, Fuzheng Guo, Travis Burns, Laird Miers, Christopher Croteau, Naveen K Singhal, Jennifer A McDonough, David Pleasure
Canavan disease is a leukodystrophy caused by aspartoacylase (ASPA) deficiency. The lack of functional ASPA, an enzyme enriched in oligodendroglia that cleaves N-acetyl-L-aspartate (NAA) to acetate and L-aspartic acid, elevates brain NAA and causes "spongiform" vacuolation of superficial brain white matter and neighboring gray matter. In children with Canavan disease, neuroimaging shows early-onset dysmyelination and progressive brain atrophy. Neuron loss has been documented at autopsy in some cases. Prior studies have shown that mice homozygous for the Aspa nonsense mutation Nur7 also develop brain vacuolation...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905550/deep-sequencing-of-transcriptome-profiling-of-gstm2-knock-down-in-swine-testis-cells
#2
Yuqi Lv, Yi Jin, Yongqiang Zhou, Jianjun Jin, Zhenfa Ma, Zhuqing Ren
Glutathione-S-transferases mu 2 (GSTM2), a kind of important Phase II antioxidant enzyme of eukaryotes, is degraded by nonsense mediated mRNA decay due to a C27T substitution in the fifth exon of pigs. As a reproductive performance-related gene, GSTM2 is involved in embryo implantation, whereas, functional deficiency of GSTM2 induces pre- or post-natal death in piglets potentially. To have some insight into the role of GSTM2 in embryo development, high throughput RNA sequencing is performed using the swine testis cells (ST) with the deletion of GSTM2...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877110/forward-genetic-screen-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-suggests-f57a10-2-and-acp-4-as-suppressors-of-c9orf72-related-phenotypes
#3
Xin Wang, Limin Hao, Taixiang Saur, Katelyn Joyal, Ying Zhao, Desheng Zhai, Jie Li, Mochtar Pribadi, Giovanni Coppola, Bruce M Cohen, Edgar A Buttner
An abnormally expanded GGGGCC repeat in C9ORF72 is the most frequent causal mutation associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)/frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Both gain-of-function (gf) and loss-of-function (lf) mechanisms have been involved in C9ORF72 related ALS/FTLD. The gf mechanism of C9ORF72 has been studied in various animal models but not in C. elegans. In the present study, we described mutant C9ORF72 modeling in C. elegans and report the finding of two suppressor genes. We made transgenes containing 9 or 29 repeats of GGGGCC in C9ORF72, driven by either the hsp-16 promoters or the unc-119 promoter...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875971/therapeutic-suppression-of-nonsense-mutation-an-emerging-target-in-multiple-diseases-and-thrombotic-disorders
#4
Md Asiful Islam, Fahmida Alam, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Siew Hua Gan, Kah Keng Wong, Teguh Haryo Sasongko
Nonsense mutations contribute to approximately 10-30% of the total human inherited diseases via disruption of protein translation. If any of the three termination codons (UGA, UAG and UAA) emerges prematurely [known as premature termination codon (PTC)] before the natural canonical stop codon, truncated non-functional proteins or proteins with deleterious loss or gain-of-function activities are synthesized, followed by the development of nonsense mutation-mediated diseases. In the past decade, PTC-associated diseases captured much attention in biomedical research, especially as molecular therapeutic targets via nonsense suppression (i...
November 22, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874031/harnessing-short-poly-a-binding-protein-interacting-peptides-for-the-suppression-of-nonsense-mediated-mrna-decay
#5
Tobias Fatscher, Niels H Gehring
Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is a cellular process that eliminates messenger RNA (mRNA) substrates with premature translation termination codons (PTCs). In addition, NMD regulates the expression of a number of physiological mRNAs, for example transcripts containing long 3' UTRs. Current models implicate the interaction between cytoplasmic poly(A)-binding protein (PABPC1) and translation termination in NMD. Accordingly, PABPC1 present within close proximity of a termination codon antagonizes NMD. Here, we use reporter mRNAs with different NMD-inducing 3' UTRs to establish a general NMD-inhibiting property of PABPC1...
November 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830682/-identification-of-new-genes-that-affect-psi-prion-toxicity-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-yeast
#6
A G Matveenko, M V Belousov, S A Bondarev, S E Moskalenko, G A Zhouravleva
Translation termination is an important step in gene expression. Its correct processing is governed by eRF1 (Sup45) and eRF3 (Sup35) proteins. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mutations in the corresponding genes, as well as Sup35 aggregation in [PSI^(+)] cells that propagate the prion form of Sup35 lead to inaccurate stop codon recognition and, consequently, nonsense suppression. The presence of stronger prion variants results in the more efficient suppression of nonsense mutations. Previously, we proposed a synthetic lethality test that enables the identification of genes that may influence either translation termination factors or [PSI^(+)] manifestation...
September 2016: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814599/the-bad-the-good-and-eif3e-int6
#7
Julie Sesen, Joshua Casaos, Sarah J Scotland, Cathy Seva, T S Karin Eisinger-Mathason, Nicolas Skuli
Recent research on translation and protein synthesis in several pathologies, including cancer, peripheral artery disease, and wound healing, demonstrates the key role played by translational factors in tumorigenic and angiogenic processes. This review will focus on one specific translational factor, eIF3e also called INT6, the "e" subunit of the translation initiation factor eIF3. INT6/eIF3e has recently been described as a multifunction protein playing a role in translation, protein degradation, DNA repair, nonsense-mediated mRNA decay, cell cycle and control of cell response to low oxygen (hypoxia or ischemia) through modulation of the Hypoxia Inducible Factors (HIFs)...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789543/a-nonsense-mutation-in-mycobacterium-marinum-that-is-suppressible-by-a-novel-mechanism
#8
Emily A Williams, Felix Mba Medie, Rachel E Bosserman, Benjamin K Johnson, Cristal Reyna, Micah J Ferrell, Matthew M Champion, Robert B Abramovitch, Patricia A Champion
Mycobacterial pathogens use the ESAT-6 system 1 (Esx-1) exporter to promote virulence. Previously, we used gene disruption and complementation to conclude that the MMAR_0039 gene in Mycobacterium marinum was required to promote Esx-1 export. Here we applied molecular genetics, proteomics and whole genome sequencing to demonstrate that the MMAR_0039 gene is not required for Esx-1 secretion or virulence. These findings suggest we initially observed an indirect mechanism of genetic complementation. We identified a spontaneous nonsense mutation in a known Esx-1-associated gene which causes a loss of Esx-1 activity...
October 24, 2016: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762395/differential-protein-structural-disturbances-and-suppression-of-assembly-partners-produced-by-nonsense-gabrg2-epilepsy-mutations-implications-for-disease-phenotypic-heterogeneity
#9
Juexin Wang, Dingding Shen, Geqing Xia, Wangzhen Shen, Robert L Macdonald, Dong Xu, Jing-Qiong Kang
Mutations in GABAA receptor subunit genes are frequently associated with epilepsy, and nonsense mutations in GABRG2 are associated with several epilepsy syndromes including childhood absence epilepsy, generalized tonic clonic seizures and the epileptic encephalopathy, Dravet syndrome. The molecular basis for the phenotypic heterogeneity of mutations is unclear. Here we focused on three nonsense mutations in GABRG2 (GABRG2(R136*), GABRG2(Q390*) and GABRG2(W429*)) associated with epilepsies of different severities...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734597/sfp1-mediated-prion-dependent-lethality-is-caused-by-increased-sup35-aggregation-and-alleviated-by-sis1
#10
Andrew G Matveenko, Polina B Drozdova, Mikhail V Belousov, Svetlana E Moskalenko, Stanislav A Bondarev, Yury A Barbitoff, Anton A Nizhnikov, Galina A Zhouravleva
[PSI(+) ] is the prion form of the translation termination factor Sup35 (eRF3); [PSI(+) ] strains display nonsense suppression. Another prion-like element, [ISP(+) ], is linked to antisuppression in a specific background. Transcriptional regulator Sfp1 was shown to be responsible for [ISP(+) ] propagation. In this work, we identified SFP1 as a multicopy inducer of [PSI(+) ]-dependent lethality. Sfp1 is likely to up-regulate transcription of genes encoding release factors; however, its overproduction increases Sup35, but not Sup45 protein level...
October 12, 2016: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27710770/atomic-mutagenesis-in-ion-channels-with-engineered-stoichiometry
#11
John D Lueck, Adam L Mackey, Daniel T Infield, Jason D Galpin, Jing Li, Benoît Roux, Christopher A Ahern
C-type inactivation of potassium channels fine-tunes the electrical signaling in excitable cells through an internal timing mechanism that is mediated by a hydrogen bond network in the channels' selectively filter. Previously, we used nonsense suppression to highlight the role of the conserved Trp434-Asp447 indole hydrogen bond in Shaker potassium channels with a non-hydrogen bonding homologue of tryptophan, Ind (Pless et al., 2013). Here, molecular dynamics simulations indicate that the Trp434Ind hydrogen bonding partner, Asp447, unexpectedly 'flips out' towards the extracellular environment, allowing water to penetrate the space behind the selectivity filter while simultaneously reducing the local negative electrostatic charge...
October 6, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702906/ataluren-stimulates-ribosomal-selection-of-near-cognate-trnas-to-promote-nonsense-suppression
#12
Bijoyita Roy, Westley J Friesen, Yuki Tomizawa, John D Leszyk, Jin Zhuo, Briana Johnson, Jumana Dakka, Christopher R Trotta, Xiaojiao Xue, Venkateshwar Mutyam, Kim M Keeling, James A Mobley, Steven M Rowe, David M Bedwell, Ellen M Welch, Allan Jacobson
A premature termination codon (PTC) in the ORF of an mRNA generally leads to production of a truncated polypeptide, accelerated degradation of the mRNA, and depression of overall mRNA expression. Accordingly, nonsense mutations cause some of the most severe forms of inherited disorders. The small-molecule drug ataluren promotes therapeutic nonsense suppression and has been thought to mediate the insertion of near-cognate tRNAs at PTCs. However, direct evidence for this activity has been lacking. Here, we expressed multiple nonsense mutation reporters in human cells and yeast and identified the amino acids inserted when a PTC occupies the ribosomal A site in control, ataluren-treated, and aminoglycoside-treated cells...
November 1, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27645242/the-expression-of-antibiotic-resistance-methyltransferase-correlates-with-mrna-stability-independently-of-ribosome-stalling
#13
Ekaterina Dzyubak, M N Yap
Members of the Erm methyltransferase family modify 23S rRNA of the bacterial ribosome and render cross-resistance to macrolides and multiple distantly related antibiotics. Previous studies have shown that the expression of erm is activated when a macrolide-bound ribosome stalls the translation of the leader peptide preceding the cotranscribed erm Ribosome stalling is thought to destabilize the inhibitory stem-loop mRNA structure and exposes the erm Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequence for translational initiation. Paradoxically, mutations that abolish ribosome stalling are routinely found in hyper-resistant clinical isolates; however, the significance of the stalling-dead leader sequence is largely unknown...
December 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638609/suppression-of-galactocerebrosidase-premature-termination-codon-and-rescue-of-galactocerebrosidase-activity-in-twitcher-cells
#14
Alice Luddi, Laura Crifasi, Angela Capaldo, Paola Piomboni, Elvira Costantino-Ceccarini
Krabbe's disease (KD) is a degenerative lysosomal storage disease resulting from deficiency of β-galactocerebrosidase activity. Over 100 mutations are known to cause the disease, and these usually occur in compound heterozygote patterns. In affected patients, nonsense mutations leading to a nonfunctional enzyme are often found associated with other mutations. The twitcher mouse is a naturally occurring model of KD, containing in β-galactocerebrosidase a premature stop codon, W339X. Recent studies have shown that selected compounds may induce the ribosomal bypass of premature stop codons without affecting the normal termination codons...
November 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27524897/current-and-emerging-treatment-strategies-for-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#15
REVIEW
Jean K Mah
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common form of muscular dystrophy in childhood. It is caused by mutations of the DMD gene, leading to progressive muscle weakness, loss of independent ambulation by early teens, and premature death due to cardiorespiratory complications. The diagnosis can usually be made after careful review of the history and examination of affected boys presenting with developmental delay, proximal weakness, and elevated serum creatine kinase, plus confirmation by muscle biopsy or genetic testing...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27485743/dysregulated-function-of-normal-human-epidermal-keratinocytes-in-the-absence-of-filaggrin
#16
Ningning Dang, Xiaoli Ma, Xianguang Meng, Liguo An, Shuguang Pang
The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of filaggrin knockdown on the function of normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs). Filaggrin expression levels in NHEKs were knocked down by lentivirus (LV) encoding small hairpin RNA (shRNA), with control cells infected with nonsense shRNA or not infected. Cell migration and invasion were assayed using Transwell inserts, cell adhesion and proliferation by the Cell Counting kit‑8 assay, and apoptosis and cell cycle progression by flow cytometry...
September 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27482814/mice-with-missense-and-nonsense-nf1-mutations-display-divergent-phenotypes-compared-with-human-neurofibromatosis-type-i
#17
Kairong Li, Ashley N Turner, Min Chen, Stephanie N Brosius, Trenton R Schoeb, Ludwine M Messiaen, David M Bedwell, Kurt R Zinn, Corina Anastasaki, David H Gutmann, Bruce R Korf, Robert A Kesterson
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common genetic disorder characterized by the occurrence of nerve sheath tumors and considerable clinical heterogeneity. Some translational studies have been limited by the lack of animal models available for assessing patient-specific mutations. In order to test therapeutic approaches that might restore function to the mutated gene or gene product, we developed mice harboring NF1 patient-specific mutations including a nonsense mutation (c.2041C>T; p.Arg681*) and a missense mutation (c...
July 1, 2016: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27473591/microrna-433-regulates-nonsense-mediated-mrna-decay-by-targeting-smg5-mrna
#18
Yi Jin, Fang Zhang, Zhenfa Ma, Zhuqing Ren
BACKGROUND: Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is a RNA quality surveillance system for eukaryotes. It prevents cells from generating deleterious truncated proteins by degrading abnormal mRNAs that harbor premature termination codon (PTC). However, little is known about the molecular regulation mechanism underlying the inhibition of NMD by microRNAs. RESULTS: The present study demonstrated that miR-433 was involved in NMD pathway via negatively regulating SMG5. We provided evidence that (1) overexpression of miR-433 significantly suppressed the expression of SMG5 (P < 0...
2016: BMC Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27409835/deletion-of-14-3-3%C3%AF-sensitizes-mice-to-dmba-tpa-induced-papillomatosis
#19
Markus Winter, Dmitri Lodygin, Berlinda Verdoodt, Heiko Hermeking
The p53-inducible cell cycle regulator 14-3-3σ exhibits tumor suppressive functions and is highly expressed in differentiating layers of the epidermis and hair follicles. 14-3-3σ/SFN/stratifin is frequently silenced in human epithelial cancers, and experimental down-regulation of 14-3-3σ expression immortalizes primary human keratinocytes. In the repeated-epilation (ER) mouse model, a heterozygous nonsense mutation of 14-3-3σ causes repeated hair-loss, hyper-proliferative epidermis, and spontaneous development of papillomas and squamous cell carcinomas in aging mice...
July 7, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27404557/exploring-the-readthrough-of-nonsense-mutations-by-non-acidic-ataluren-analogues-selected-by-ligand-based-virtual-screening
#20
Ivana Pibiri, Laura Lentini, Marco Tutone, Raffaella Melfi, Andrea Pace, Aldo Di Leonardo
Ataluren, also known as PTC124, is a 5-(fluorophenyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazolyl-benzoic acid suggested to suppress nonsense mutations by readthrough of premature stop codons in the mRNA. Potential interaction of PTC124 with mRNA has been recently studied by molecular dynamics simulations highlighting the importance of H-bonding and stacking π-π interactions. A series of non-acidic analogues of PTC124 were selected from a large database via a ligand-based virtual screening approach. Eight of them were synthesized and tested for their readthrough activity using the Fluc reporter harboring the UGA premature stop codon...
October 21, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
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