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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221825/tuberculosis-and-immigration
#1
Adrián Sánchez-Montalvá, Fernando Salvador, Daniel Molina-Morant, Israel Molina
Tuberculosis continues to be a major public health problem in Spain. The incidence of tuberculosis in the native population has declined steadily in recent years. Migration flows have changed drastically since the beginning of the 21st century, with Spain becoming a recipient country for immigrants. Because most of the immigrants comes from countries with high incidence of tuberculosis, the contribution of the migrant population to new cases of tuberculosis is higher in relative terms than its weight in the total population...
December 5, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221541/the-global-health-nursing-imperative-using-competency-based-analysis-to-strengthen-accountability-for-population-focused-practice-education-and-research
#2
Barbara Joyce, Nancy Brown-Schott, Vicki Hicks, Regina Gina Johnson, Monica Harmon, Lucille Pilling
BACKGROUND: The Quad Council Competencies for Public Health Nurses are used to guide community and public health nursing course development in baccalaureate nursing programs. As clinical practice has expanded to global settings, the appropriateness of the 2011 Quad Council Public Health Nursing (PHN) Competencies to guide global clinical practice and evaluation was questioned. OBJECTIVE: To describe a comparison and analysis of three sets of competencies: PHN competencies, competencies for global health nurses, and interprofessional competencies for health professionals...
May 2017: Annals of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218843/potential-of-saprophage-diptera-to-acquire-culturable-livestock-associated-antibiotic-resistant-bacteria
#3
S M Russell, V A Chittick, D T Sangweme, E C Lampert
The increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance among bacteria is one of the most intractable challenges in 21st-century public health. Dipterans that associate with livestock, livestock waste products and cadavers have the potential to acquire livestock-associated antibiotic-resistant bacteria (LA-ARB) and transmit them to humans. In this study, piglet cadavers were used to attract saprophage dipterans from the environment and those dipterans were sampled for the presence of LA-ARB. In the first trial, culturable microbes resistant to both aminoglycoside and β-lactam antibiotics were found in all cadavers and masses of dipteran larvae, and in three-quarters of adult dipterans...
December 8, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186782/forging-a-frailty-ready-healthcare-system-to-meet-population-ageing
#4
Wee Shiong Lim, Sweet Fun Wong, Ian Leong, Philip Choo, Weng Sun Pang
The beginning of the 21st century has seen health systems worldwide struggling to deliver quality healthcare amidst challenges posed by ageing populations. The increasing prevalence of frailty with older age and accompanying complexities in physical, cognitive, social and psychological dimensions renders the present modus operandi of fragmented, facility-centric, doctor-based, and illness-centered care delivery as clearly unsustainable. In line with the public health framework for action in the World Health Organization's World Health and Ageing Report, meeting these challenges will require a systemic reform of healthcare delivery that is integrated, patient-centric, team-based, and health-centered...
November 24, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186478/randomized-controlled-trials-in-children-s-heart-surgery-in-the-21st-century-a-systematic-review
#5
Nigel E Drury, Akshay J Patel, Nicola K Oswald, Cher-Rin Chong, John Stickley, David J Barron, Timothy J Jones
OBJECTIVES: Randomized controlled trials are the gold standard for evaluating health care interventions, yet are uncommon in children's heart surgery. We conducted a systematic review of clinical trials in paediatric cardiac surgery to evaluate the scope and quality of the current international literature. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, CENTRAL and LILACS, and manually screened retrieved references and systematic reviews to identify all randomized controlled trials reporting the effect of any intervention on the conduct or outcomes of heart surgery in children published in any language since January 2000; secondary publications and those reporting inseparable adult data were excluded...
November 23, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171057/real-world-evidence-public-participation-and-the-fda
#6
Jason L Schwartz
For observers of pharmaceutical regulation and the Food and Drug Administration, these are uncertain times. Events in late 2016 raised concerns that the FDA's evidentiary standards were being weakened, compromising the agency's ability to adequately perform its regulatory and public health responsibilities. Two developments most directly contributed to these fears-the approval of eteplirsen, a treatment for Duchenne muscular dystrophy, against the recommendations of both FDA staff and an advisory committee and the December 2016 signing of the 21st Century Cures Act, which encouraged greater use by the FDA of "real-world" evidence not obtained through randomized controlled trials...
November 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162758/public-health-challenges-for-the-21st-century-convergence-of-demography-economics-environment-and-biology-nalanda-distinguished-lecture
#7
K M Venkat Narayan
The rapidly changing and interdependent world under the mega-force of globalization presents unique challenges and opportunities for public health. Focusing on the example of type 2 diabetes, I argue that an appreciation for the evolution of demographic and economic contexts is essential to appropriately address today's dynamic and complex health challenges. For the vast majority of the past 2000 years, India and China were the world's largest economies until the rise of western European nations in the 18th century and later the USA...
July 2017: National Medical Journal of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152578/middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-nonstructural-protein-16-is-necessary-for-interferon-resistance-and-viral-pathogenesis
#8
Vineet D Menachery, Lisa E Gralinski, Hugh D Mitchell, Kenneth H Dinnon, Sarah R Leist, Boyd L Yount, Rachel L Graham, Eileen T McAnarney, Kelly G Stratton, Adam S Cockrell, Kari Debbink, Amy C Sims, Katrina M Waters, Ralph S Baric
Coronaviruses (CoVs) encode a mixture of highly conserved and novel genes, as well as genetic elements necessary for infection and pathogenesis, raising the possibility of common targets for attenuation and therapeutic design. In this study, we focused on highly conserved nonstructural protein 16 (NSP16), a viral 2'O-methyltransferase (2'O-MTase) that encodes critical functions in immune modulation and infection. Using reverse genetics, we disrupted a key motif in the conserved KDKE motif of Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV) NSP16 (D130A) and evaluated the effect on viral infection and pathogenesis...
November 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151061/evolution-of-sanitary-epidemiological-services-in-poland-in-the-years-1944-2014
#9
Marek L Grabowski, Bożena Kosińska, Józef P Knap
This paper presents the history of sanitary-epidemiological services in the context of the health, economic and socio-political situation in Poland in the years 1944-2014, with a critical analysis of legal restraints, efficiency and achievements. Polish Sanitary Services, established in 1919, as a state service, have preserved for more than 95 years (also during World War II and the occupation) the continuity of its structures and essential objectives to enable their implementation in the field of public health protection...
November 8, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124683/the-21st-century-cures-act-implications-for-the-reduction-of-racial-health-disparities-in-the-us-criminal-justice-system-a-public-health-approach
#10
Donna M Cole, Dawna Marie Thomas, Kelsi Field, Amelia Wool, Taryn Lipiner, Natalie Massenberg, Barbara J Guthrie
Past drug epidemics have disproportionately criminalized drug addiction among African Americans, leading to disparate health outcomes, increased rates of HIV/AIDS, and mass incarceration. Conversely, the current opioid addiction crisis in the USA focuses primarily on white communities and is being addressed as a public health problem. The 21st Century Cures Act has the potential to reduce racial health disparities in the criminal justice system through the Act's public health approach to addiction and mental health issues...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108082/-old-and-new-public-health-structures-in-germany-plenary-lecture-of-the-forum-future-public-health-berlin-2016
#11
Manfred Wildner
Basic structures serving public health in Germany in the second decade of the 21st century are described. They are related to the governmental public health grant programs of the late 20th century and the successful re-introduction of public health competencies and capacities at universities and colleges. Structures under direct governmental responsibility, public law self-government and in the non-governmental for-profit and not-for-profit sector are described. Future challenges are sketched and a networked, three-dimensional model of research and development, politics and practice is suggested...
November 6, 2017: Das Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048963/a-21st-century-public-health-approach-to-abortion
#12
Sarah C M Roberts, Liza Fuentes, Nancy F Berglas, Amanda J Dennis
In the United States, groups advocating for and against abortion rights often deploy public health arguments to advance their positions. Recently, these arguments have evolved into state laws that use the government health department infrastructure to increase law enforcement and regulatory activities around abortion. Many major medical and public health associations oppose these new laws because they are not evidence-based and do not protect women's health. Yet state health departments have been defending these laws in court...
December 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030857/funding-blood-safety-in-the-21st-century
#13
Luke Ifland, Evan M Bloch, John P Pitman
BACKGROUND: Since 2000, there has been an historic increase in international development assistance, including blood safety projects. The result has been increased blood donations and infectious disease screening in many beneficiary countries. A comprehensive examination of international development assistance for blood safety has yet to be completed. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This report examines publicly available information, including donor agency websites and databases and data from the 2008 and 2012 World Health Organization Global Database on Blood Safety...
October 13, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027669/changes-in-public-attitudes-and-perceptions-about-homelessness-between-1990-and-2016
#14
Jack Tsai, Crystal Yun See Lee, Thomas Byrne, Robert H Pietrzak, Steven M Southwick
Public attitudes on homelessness can and has influenced policies and services for homeless populations. This study surveyed national public attitudes about homelessness in the 21st century and examined changes in attitudes in the past two decades. An online survey of public attitudes about homelessness was conducted with 541 U.S. adults across 47 states in November 2016 using Amazon Mechanical Turk. Survey results were compared to two public surveys conducted in 1990. Compared to previous surveys, the current sample endorsed more compassion, government support, and liberal attitudes about homelessness...
October 13, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981164/impact-of-federal-regulatory-changes-on-clinical-pharmacology-and-drug-development-the-common-rule-and-the-21st-century-cures-act
#15
REVIEW
James F Burris, J Thomas Puglisi
The Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects, generally referred to as the "Common Rule," is the basis for the human research protection policies of 16 signatory federal agencies and governs virtually all federally funded research involving humans. The Common Rule was originally published in 1991. It has been recognized that changes to the Common Rule are needed to accommodate changes in the research environment and advances in information technology. The Department of Health & Human Services (HHS) issued an Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking in the Federal Register in 2011 and a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking in 2015...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976871/the-terrorist-attacks-and-the-human-live-birth-sex-ratio-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
Gwinyai Masukume, Sinéad M O'Neill, Ali S Khashan, Louise C Kenny, Victor Grech
AIM: The live birth sex ratio is defined as male/total births (M/F). Terrorist attacks have been associated with a transient decline in M/F 3-5 months later with an excess of male losses in ongoing pregnancies. The early 21st century is replete with religious/politically instigated attacks. This study estimated the pooled effect size between exposure to attacks and M/F. Registration number CRD42016041220. METHODS: PubMed and Scopus were searched for ecological studies that evaluated the relationship between terrorist attacks from 1/1/2000 to 16/6/2016 and M/F...
2017: Acta Medica (Hradec Králové)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959246/recent-perspectives-on-genome-transmission-clinical-manifestation-diagnosis-therapeutic-strategies-vaccine-developments-and-challenges-of-zika-virus-research
#17
REVIEW
Apoorva Shankar, Amulya A Patil, Sinosh Skariyachan
One of the potential threats to public health microbiology in 21st century is the increased mortality rate caused by Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus. The severity of ZIKV infection urged World Health Organization (WHO) to declare this virus as a global concern. The limited knowledge on the structure, virulent factors, and replication mechanism of the virus posed as hindrance for vaccine development. Several vector and non-vector-borne mode of transmission are observed for spreading the disease...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923605/microbial-pathogenicity-and-virulence-mediated-by-integrons-on-gram-positive-microorganisms
#18
REVIEW
Yanmei Li, Ling Yang, Jie Fu, Muxia Yan, Dingqiang Chen, Li Zhang
Gram-positive microorganisms are one of leading pathogenic microorganisms in public health, including several typical "Super Bugs" as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase and vancomycin-resistant enterococci, which caused a increasement of infections, clinical failures and expenses. Regarded as a common genetic element responsible for horizontal gene transfer, integrons are widely distributed in various pathogens considered as a determinant in the acquisition and evolution of antibiotic resistance...
October 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914527/locally-induced-adipose-tissue-browning-by-microneedle-patch-for-obesity-treatment
#19
Yuqi Zhang, Qiongming Liu, Jicheng Yu, Shuangjiang Yu, Jinqiang Wang, Li Qiang, Zhen Gu
Obesity is one of the most serious public health problems in the 21st century that may lead to many comorbidities such as type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. Current treatments toward obesity including diet, physical exercise, pharmacological therapy, as well as surgeries are always associated with low effectiveness or undesired systematical side effects. In order to enhance treatment efficiency with minimized side effects, we developed a transcutaneous browning agent patch to locally induce adipose tissue transformation...
September 26, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905227/genomics-for-all-in-the-21st-century
#20
Martina C Cornel, Vence L Bonham
As the field of genomics enters the second decade after the completion of the International Human Genome Project, human genomics research is still far from reflective of the ancestral diversity found in global populations. This special issue of the Journal of Community Genetics brings together a global perspective on the need for researchers and health care professionals to support achievable milestones that will enhance global ancestral diversity in genomic research for the 21st century, and integrate the resulting knowledge into health care that benefits everyone...
October 2017: Journal of Community Genetics
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