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Public health in 21st century

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207079/the-growing-threat-of-antimicrobial-resistance
#1
Jose M Munita, Samuel Shelburne, David E Greenberg, Cesar A Arias
The emergence and widespread dissemination of multidrug-resistant organisms is considered one of the three most important public health threats for humankind in the 21st century and jeopardizes the practice of modern medicine. Failure to tackle this problem in a comprehensive fashion could result in a dire post-antibiotic era, impairing the future development of treatments against important diseases, such as cancer, and transplant medicine, among others. Here, we provide a global perspective of the problem and describe some of the most important antibiotic-resistant organisms affecting the health of our patients...
February 1, 2017: Texas Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196493/factors-that-influence-full-time-mph-students-willingness-in-china-would-you-apply-again-for-an-mph-graduate-degree-if-you-had-another-opportunity
#2
Nan Wang, Jinzhong Jia, Ke Wu, Yuanyuan Wang, Chi Zhang, Wei Cao, Liping Duan, Zhifeng Wang
BACKGROUND: Current and emerging challenges to public health in the 21st century are vastly different from those faced in previous centuries. And the shortage of health personnel and their low level of educational qualifications hindered the development of Chinese public health services. In order to fulfill this requirement, the Ministry of Education initiated a full-time, Master of Public Health (MPH) graduate programme in 2009. This study aimed to evaluate the level of graduate students' satisfaction with full-time Master of Public Health (MPH) education in China, and whether they would apply again for an MPH graduate degree if they had another opportunity to do so, as well as to identify the factors influencing their decision-making process...
February 14, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194329/understanding-breast-cancer-the-long-and-winding-road
#3
REVIEW
Kiven Erique Lukong
BACKGROUND: Despite a remarkable increase in the depth of our understanding and management of breast cancer in the past 50 years, the disease is still a major public health problem worldwide and poses significant challenges. The palpability of breast tumors has facilitated diagnosis and documentation since ancient times. The earliest descriptions of breast cancer date back to around 3500 BCE. For centuries to follow, theories by Hippocrates (460 BCE) and Galen (200 CE), attributing the cause of breast cancer to an "excess of black bile" and treatment options including the use of opium and castor oil, prevailed...
June 2017: BBA Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141833/anthropogenically-driven-environmental-changes-shift-the-ecological-dynamics-of-hemorrhagic-fever-with-renal-syndrome
#4
Huaiyu Tian, Pengbo Yu, Ottar N Bjørnstad, Bernard Cazelles, Jing Yang, Hua Tan, Shanqian Huang, Yujun Cui, Lu Dong, Chaofeng Ma, Changan Ma, Sen Zhou, Marko Laine, Xiaoxu Wu, Yanyun Zhang, Jingjun Wang, Ruifu Yang, Nils Chr Stenseth, Bing Xu
Zoonoses are increasingly recognized as an important burden on global public health in the 21st century. High-resolution, long-term field studies are critical for assessing both the baseline and future risk scenarios in a world of rapid changes. We have used a three-decade-long field study on hantavirus, a rodent-borne zoonotic pathogen distributed worldwide, coupled with epidemiological data from an endemic area of China, and show that the shift in the ecological dynamics of Hantaan virus was closely linked to environmental fluctuations at the human-wildlife interface...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134756/urban-place-and-health-equity-critical-issues-and-practices
#5
Jason Corburn
Urban places and health equity are two of the most challenging concepts for 21st century environmental health. More people live in cities than at any other time in human history and health inequities are increasing. Health inequities are avoidable differences in the social, environmental and political conditions that shape morbidity and mortality, and disproportionately burden the poor, racial, ethnic and religious minorities and migrants. By linking urban place and health inequities, research and action brings into sharp relief the challenges of achieving urban environmental justice...
January 26, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128812/the-2009-pandemic-in-mexico-experience-and-lessons-regarding-national-preparedness-policies-for-seasonal-and%C3%A2-epidemic-influenza
#6
Jose A Cordova-Villalobos, Alejandro E Macias, Mauricio Hernandez-Avila, Guillermo Dominguez-Cherit, Hugo Lopez-Gatell, Celia Alpuche-Aranda, Samuel Ponce de León-Rosales
Influenza is a viral respiratory disease capable of causing epidemics that represent a threat for global security. Mexico was the first country to notify the WHO of an outbreak of what later became the first influenza pandemic of the 21st Century, caused by the virus A(H1N1)2009. Before this event Mexico had a national pandemic influenza preparedness plan, which included seasonal influenza vaccination, stockpiles of personal protection equipment and strategic drugs, and risk communication strategies. During the epidemic, the national public health laboratory network and case surveillance systems were strengthened together with surge capacities for intensive care and delivery of antiviral drugs...
January 2017: Gaceta Médica de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127931/public-attitudes-towards-psychiatry-and-psychiatric-treatment-at-the-beginning-of-the-21st-century-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-population-surveys
#7
Matthias C Angermeyer, Sandra van der Auwera, Mauro G Carta, Georg Schomerus
Public attitudes towards psychiatry are crucial determinants of help-seeking for mental illness. It has been argued that psychiatry as a discipline enjoys low esteem among the public, and a "crisis" of psychiatry has been noted. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of population studies examining public attitudes towards various aspects of psychiatric care. Our search in PubMed, Web of Science, PsychINFO and bibliographies yielded 162 papers based on population surveys conducted since 2000 and published no later than 2015...
February 2017: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107337/e-cigarettes-and-smoking-cessation-a-primer-for-oncology-clinicians
#8
Yanina Zborovskaya
BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarettes 
(e-cigarettes) are a psychosocial phenomenon of the 21st century with serious implications to public and individual health. The significant increase of their popularity and use has raised concerns in the healthcare community regarding their potential benefits and harm, particularly their use as a smoking cessation methodology. OBJECTIVES: Current knowledge is presented about e-cigarettes, including the clinical implications of their use, and associated controversies are analyzed...
1, 2017: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028953/opinions-of-old-age-according-to-residents-of-polish-public-nursing-homes-and-members-of-the-universities-of-the-third-age
#9
Mateusz Cybulski, Elżbieta Krajewska-Kułak, Jacek Jamiołkowski
BACKGROUND: Statistical data from the turn of the 21st century shows a significant increase in the average human life span and, what follows, an extension of old age. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to become familiar with the opinions submitted by respondents regarding aging and old age, health problems connected with aging and preferred health behaviors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The research was conducted between January 3rd 2013 and February 15th 2014 on a group of 200 residents of public nursing homes and 200 members of the University of the Third Age using a questionnaire created by the authors...
September 2016: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005547/the-legal-strength-of-international-health-instruments-what-it-brings-to-global-health-governance
#10
Haik Nikogosian, Ilona Kickbusch
Public health instruments have been under constant development and renewal for decades. International legal instruments, with their binding character and strength, have a special place in this development. The start of the 21st century saw, in particular, the birth of the first World Health Organization (WHO)-era health treaties - the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) and its first Protocol. The authors analyze the potential impact of these instruments on global health governance and public health, beyond the traditional view of their impact on tobacco control...
September 4, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001198/-cigarette-taxes-and-demand-in-colombia
#11
Norman Maldonado, Blanca Llorente, Javier Deaza
Objective: Estimate price and income elasticities of aggregate demand for cigarettes in Colombia, by controlling for structural market changes since the late 1990s, to identify policy opportunities for taxes that could improve public health and increase tax revenues. Methods: Measurement of aggregate demand for cigarettes using gross income reported on value-added tax returns submitted to Colombia's National Tax and Customs Office (DIAN is the acronym in Spanish) by the tobacco product manufacturing industry, subtracting exports...
October 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990679/new-competencies-for-the-21st-century-dental-public-health-specialist
#12
Donald Altman, Ana Karina Mascarenhas
The American Board of Dental Public Health (ABDPH) currently recognizes 10 core competencies, which identify the skills, knowledge and understanding expected of all dental public health specialists. The last update to the competencies was 1998. The American Board of Dental Public Health, along with the American Association of Public Health Dentistry and its many partners, initiated a process to revise the competencies. This report presents the process and the new competencies for the dental public health specialist of the 21(st) century...
September 2016: Journal of Public Health Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976605/measuring-diet-in-the-21st-century-use-of-new-technologies
#13
Janet E Cade
The advent of the internet and smartphone technology has allowed dietary assessment to reach the 21st century! The variety of foods available on the supermarket shelf is now greater than ever before. New approaches to measuring diet may help to reduce measurement error and advance our understanding of nutritional determinants of disease. This advance provides the potential to capture detailed dietary data on large numbers of individuals without the need for costly and time-consuming manual nutrition coding...
December 15, 2016: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938383/drug-related-celebrity-deaths-a-cross-sectional-study
#14
Johannes M Just, Markus Bleckwenn, Rieke Schnakenberg, Philipp Skatulla, Klaus Weckbecker
BACKGROUND: Celebrities are at risk for premature mortality as well as drug-related death. Despite being a vulnerable patient group, celebrities influence people's health behaviours through biological, psychological and social processes. Therefore, celebrity endorsement of the topic could be one way to challenge the current "opioid endemic". Our aim was to better understand the factors surrounding drug-related celebrity deaths by investigating the incidence as well as substances used between 1970 and 2015 using a cross-sectional study design...
December 9, 2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881930/psychological-consequences-of-childhood-obesity-psychiatric-comorbidity-and-prevention
#15
REVIEW
Jean Rankin, Lynsay Matthews, Stephen Cobley, Ahreum Han, Ross Sanders, Huw D Wiltshire, Julien S Baker
Childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century with far-reaching and enduring adverse consequences for health outcomes. Over 42 million children <5 years worldwide are estimated to be overweight (OW) or obese (OB), and if current trends continue, then an estimated 70 million children will be OW or OB by 2025. The purpose of this review was to focus on psychiatric, psychological, and psychosocial consequences of childhood obesity (OBy) to include a broad range of international studies...
2016: Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881085/the-ebola-outbreak-catalyzing-a-shift-in-global-health-governance
#16
Tim K Mackey
BACKGROUND: As the 2014 Ebola virus disease outbreak (EVD) transitions to its post-endemic phase, its impact on the future of global public health, particularly the World Health Organization (WHO), is the subject of continued debate. Criticism of WHO's performance grew louder in the outbreak's wake, placing this international health UN-specialized agency in the difficult position of navigating a complex series of reform recommendations put forth by different stakeholders. Decisions on WHO governance reform and the broader role of the United Nations could very well shape the future landscape of 21st century global health and how the international community responds to health emergencies...
November 24, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849238/diabetes-mellitus-in-childhood-an-emerging-condition-in-the-21st-century
#17
Thais Della Manna, Nuvarte Setian, Roberta Diaz Savoldelli, Dulce Rondina Guedes, Hilton Kuperman, Hamilton Cabral Menezes, Leandra Steinmetz, Louise Cominato, Vaê Dichtchekenian, Durval Damiani
The International Diabetes Federation (IDF-2015) estimates the existence of 30,900 children under 15 years old with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) in Brazil, and an increase of 3.0% per year is expected. This review focused on meta-analysis and pediatric diabetes update articles in order to draw attention to the need of planning coping strategies to support this serious public health problem in coming years. DM1 is considered an immuno-mediated disease with a complex transmission influenced by genetic and environmental factors responsible for a gradual destruction of the insulin producing pancreatic beta cells...
September 2016: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836014/is-the-un-convention-on-the-rights-of-persons-with-disabilities-impacting-mental-health-laws-and-policies-in-high-income-countries-a-case-study-of-implementation-in-canada
#18
EDITORIAL
Steven J Hoffman, Lathika Sritharan, Ali Tejpar
BACKGROUND: Persons with psychosocial disabilities face disparate access to healthcare and social services worldwide, along with systemic discrimination, structural inequalities, and widespread human rights abuses. Accordingly, many people have looked to international human rights law to help address mental health challenges. On December 13, 2006, the United Nations formally adopted the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) - the first human rights treaty of the 21st century and the fastest ever negotiated...
November 11, 2016: BMC International Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828680/from-health-plan-companies-to-international-insurance-companies-changes-in-the-accumulation-regime-and-repercussions-on-the-healthcare-system-in-brazil
#19
Ligia Bahia, Mario Scheffer, Leandro Reis Tavares, Iale Falleiros Braga
The concentration and internationalization of health plan companies in Brazil gave them a clearly financial face. Based on the need to understand the health care industry's capital accumulation patterns, the current study examines health plan companies' expansion strategies through the classification of their supply and demand characteristics by recent historical periods and an analysis of recent shareholding trends in one of the leading corporations in the Brazilian health care industry. The 1960s to 2000s witnessed changes in the scale of demands for health plans and adherence by companies to long-term accumulation strategies...
November 3, 2016: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819246/21st-century-pharmacovigilance-efforts-roles-and-responsibilities
#20
REVIEW
Peter J Pitts, Hervé Le Louet, Yola Moride, Rena M Conti
In an era when the number of expedited and conditional review pathways for newly available brand-name drugs and biosimilar medicines to treat serious and life-threatening diseases is increasing, defining pharmacovigilance has never been more crucial. 21st century pharmacovigilance is not merely about uncovering, reporting, and addressing adverse events associated with already approved and marketed agents, but can be described as the systematic monitoring of the process of pre-market review and post-market surveillance, which includes the use of medicines in everyday practice...
November 2016: Lancet Oncology
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