Read by QxMD icon Read

Public health in 21st century

Nina Holland
Environmental research and public health in the 21st century face serious challenges such as increased air pollution and global warming, widespread use of potentially harmful chemicals including pesticides, plasticizers, and other endocrine disruptors, and radical changes in nutrition and lifestyle typical of modern societies. In particular, exposure to environmental and occupational toxicants may contribute to the occurrence of adverse birth outcomes, neurodevelopmental deficits, and increased risk of cancer and other multifactorial diseases such as diabetes and asthma...
October 21, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
Maria Regina Torloni, Ana Pilar Betrán, José M Belizán
The Birth in Brazil study is the largest national hospital-based survey in Brazil regarding birth practices. Conducted in 2011-2012, it collected information from 266 public and private healthcare facilities and interviewed nearly 24,000 postpartum women. It is also the latest effort to map out how labor and delivery are managed in this county in the 21st century. The journal Reproductive Health has published a supplement including 10 articles presenting the results of a series of analyses using this valuable resource...
October 17, 2016: Reproductive Health
Sheryl Scott, Joanne D'Silva, Carol Hernandez, Nicole Toves Villaluz, Jaime Martinez, Chris Matter
While the reduction in the overall U.S. smoking prevalence has been declared one of the top 10 public health achievements of the past century, the growing disparity in smoking between American Indians and the general population is one of the biggest challenges of the 21st century. Minnesota in particular has very high smoking rates among American Indians (59%). Tribal Nations in Minnesota share a past of attempted cultural genocide and a present of restoring the strength of their cultural teachings, including the prominence of traditional tobacco as a sacred "first medicine...
October 14, 2016: Health Promotion Practice
Teresa Cimmino, Stéphanie Le Page, Didier Raoult, Jean-Marc Rolain
The dissemination of multi-drug resistant bacteria (MDRB) has become a major public health concern worldwide because of the increase in infections caused by MDRB, the difficulty in treating them, and expenditures in patient care. Areas covered: We have reviewed challenges and contemporary opportunities for rapidly confronting infections caused by MDRB in the 21st century, including surveillance, detection, identification of resistance mechanisms, and action steps. Expert commentary: In this context, the first critical point for clinical microbiologists is to be able to rapidly detect an abnormal event, an outbreak and/or the spread of a MDRB with surveillance tools so that healthcare policies and therapies adapted to a new stochastic event that will certainly occur again in the future can be implemented...
October 2, 2016: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
Angelo Moretto, Ammie Bachman, Alan Boobis, Keith R Solomon, Timothy P Pastoor, Martin F Wilks, Michelle R Embry
The ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) has developed a framework to support a transition in the way in which information for chemical risk assessment is obtained and used (RISK21). The approach is based on detailed problem formulation, where exposure drives the data acquisition process in order to enable informed decision-making on human health safety as soon as sufficient evidence is available. Information is evaluated in a transparent and consistent way with the aim of optimizing available resources...
August 11, 2016: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Billie Giles-Corti, Anne Vernez-Moudon, Rodrigo Reis, Gavin Turrell, Andrew L Dannenberg, Hannah Badland, Sarah Foster, Melanie Lowe, James F Sallis, Mark Stevenson, Neville Owen
Significant global health challenges are being confronted in the 21st century, prompting calls to rethink approaches to disease prevention. A key part of the solution is city planning that reduces non-communicable diseases and road trauma while also managing rapid urbanisation. This Series of papers considers the health impacts of city planning through transport mode choices. In this, the first paper, we identify eight integrated regional and local interventions that, when combined, encourage walking, cycling, and public transport use, while reducing private motor vehicle use...
September 19, 2016: Lancet
Ruofei Hu, Jorge Cancela, Maria Teresa Arredondo Waldmeyer, Gloria Cea, Elpis-Athina Vlachopapadopoulou, Dimitrios I Fotiadis, Giuseppe Fico
Childhood obesity is becoming one of the 21st century's most important public health problems. Nowadays, the main treatment of childhood obesity is behavior intervention that aims at improve children's lifestyle to arrest the disease. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have not been widely employed in this intervention, and most of existing ICTs systems are not having a long-term effect. The purpose of this paper is to define a system to support family-based intervention through a state-of-the-art analysis of family-based interventions and related technological solutions first, and then using the analytic hierarchy process to derive a childhood obesity family-based behavior intervention model, and finally to provide a prototype of a system called OB CITY...
2016: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
Jonathan M Fura, Sourav Sarkar, Sean E Pidgeon, Marcos M Pires
The discovery of antibiotics is one of the most significant milestones in modern medicine. Upon the advent of the antibiotic era, invasive surgical procedures, which were previously deemed too risky because of the possibility of bacterial infection, became a reality. In the process, medicine as a whole made great strides that led to the rise of the average human life span by almost three decades. Unfortunately, over the course of time bacteria have started to evolve resistance to antibiotic agents being administered, thus rendering many of these drugs ineffective (or on the verge of being ineffective)...
August 29, 2016: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Ian R H Rockett, Christa L Lilly, Haomiao Jia, Gregory L Larkin, Ted R Miller, Lewis S Nelson, Kurt B Nolte, Sandra L Putnam, Gordon S Smith, Eric D Caine
Importance: Fatal self-injury in the United States associated with deliberate behaviors is seriously underestimated owing to misclassification of poisoning suicides and mischaracterization of most drug poisoning deaths as "accidents" on death certificates. Objective: To compare national trends and patterns of self-injury mortality (SIM) with mortality from 3 proximally ranked top 10 causes of death: diabetes, influenza and pneumonia, and kidney disease. Data, Setting, and Participants: Underlying cause-of-death data from 1999 to 2014 were extracted for this observational study from death certificate data in the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Wide-Ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research online databases...
October 1, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
Pei-Chih Wu, Chi-Chen Lee
Climate change is the greatest threat to public health in the 21st century. The increasing health impact of heat waves, the increasing magnitudes and spatial expansions of vector and water-borne diseases epidemics, and the increasing medical burdens of biological allergic illnesses, worsening local air pollution, and other related issues are expected to continue to increase in severity in the near future. All of these issues are global problems that must be faced. Adaptation strategies and action plans related to climate change are needed and emerging...
August 2016: Hu Li za Zhi the Journal of Nursing
Sameer Imtiaz, Jürgen Rehm
An influential study from the United States generated considerable discussion and debate. This study documented rising morbidity and mortality in midlife among white non-Hispanic Americans in the 21st century, with clear linkages of all-cause mortality to increasing rates of poisonings, suicides and chronic liver disease deaths. All of these causes of deaths are strongly related to the use of legal and illegal substances, but the study stressed the importance of prescription opioids. Given the similarities between the United States and Canada in prescription opioid use, the assessment of similar all-cause mortality trends is relevant for Canada...
2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Stephen Sidney, Charles P Quesenberry, Marc G Jaffe, Michael Sorel, Mai N Nguyen-Huynh, Lawrence H Kushi, Alan S Go, Jamal S Rana
IMPORTANCE: Heart disease (HD) and cancer are the 2 leading causes of death in the United States. During the first decade of the 21st century, HD mortality declined at a much greater rate than cancer mortality and it appeared that cancer would overtake HD as the leading cause of death. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether changes in national trends had occurred in recent years in mortality rates due to all cardiovascular disease (CVD), HD, stroke, and cancer and to evaluate the gap between mortality rates from HD and cancer...
August 1, 2016: JAMA Cardiology
Michael D Barnes, Thomas L Heaton, Michael C Goates, Justin M Packer
The developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) theory and life course theory (LCT) are emerging fields of research that have significant implications for the public health and health promotion professions. Using a DOHaD/LCT perspective, social determinants of health (SDH) take on new critical meaning by which health promotion professionals can implement DOHaD/LCT guided interventions, including recommended policies. Through these interventions, public health could further address the sources of worldwide chronic disease epidemics and reduce such disease rates substantially if related policy, programs, and interdisciplinary and multi-sector collaboration are emphasized...
2016: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
Glenn Verner, Stefanie Schütte, Juliane Knop, Osman Sankoh, Rainer Sauerborn
BACKGROUND: Climate change has been recognized as both one of the biggest threats and the biggest opportunities for global health in the 21st century. This trend review seeks to assess and characterize the amount and type of scientific literature on the link between climate change and human health. DESIGN: We tracked the use of climate-related terms and their co-occurrence with health terms during the 25 years since the first Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report, from 1990 to 2014, in two scientific databases and in the IPCC reports...
2016: Global Health Action
Magnus Unemo, Carlos Del Rio, William M Shafer
Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a strictly human pathogen that is typically transmitted by sexual contact. The associated disease gonorrhea has plagued humankind for thousands of years, with a current estimated incidence of 78 million cases per year. Advances in antimicrobial discovery in the 1920s and 1930s leading to the discovery of sulfonamides and penicillin begun the era of effective antimicrobial treatment of gonorrhea. Unfortunately, the gonococcus developed decreased susceptibility or even resistance to these initially employed antibiotics, a trend that continued over subsequent decades with each new antibiotic that was brought into clinical practice...
June 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Peige Song, Xue Li, Danijela Gasevic, Ana Borges Flores, Zengli Yu
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity has become one of the most serious public health challenges in the 21st century in most developing countries. The percentile curve tool is useful for monitoring and screening obesity at population level, however, in China, no official recommendations on childhood body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) reference percentiles have been made in practice. AIMS: to construct the percentile reference values for BMI and WC, and then to calculate the prevalence of overall and abdominal obesity for Chinese children and adolescents...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Xiaojiang Tang, Jinqiu Zhu, Zhiyong Zhong, Minhui Luo, Guangxian Li, Zhihong Gong, Chenzi Zhang, Fan Fei, Xiaolin Ruan, Jinlin Zhou, Gaofeng Liu, Guoding Li, James Olson, Xuefeng Ren
Chronic exposure to cadmium compounds (Cd(2+)) is one of the major public health problems facing humans in the 21st century. Cd(2+) in the human body accumulates primarily in the kidneys which leads to renal dysfunction and other adverse health effects. Efforts to find a safe and effective drug for removing Cd(2+) from the kidneys have largely failed. We developed and synthesized a new chemical, sodium (S)-2-(dithiocarboxylato((2S,3R,4R,5R)-2,3,4,5,6 pentahydroxyhexyl)amino)-4-(methylthio) butanoate (GMDTC)...
August 15, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Ann Battrell, Ann Lynch, Pam Steinbach
UNLABELLED: With the dental hygiene profession undergoing tremendous transformation as greater and more diverse workplace opportunities present themselves, the American Dental Hygienists' Association (ADHA) is leading the effort to ensure that dental hygienists are prepared to take advantage of these growing opportunities in today's constantly evolving health care landscape. BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: ADHA's vision statement calls for the integration of dental hygienists into the health care delivery system as essential primary care providers to expand access to oral health care...
June 2016: Journal of Evidence-based Dental Practice
Oded Hammerman, David Mostofsky, Yona Louria, Gal Ifergane, Yacov Ezra
BACKGROUND: Behavioral Medicine is an inter-disciplinary field concerned with the integration of behavioral and biomedical knowledge for the purposes of diagnosis, prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of conditions pertaining to health and illness. Behavioral treatments (such as: hypnosis, relaxation training, meditation, biofeedback and cognitive-behavioral therapy) have been shown to be effective in reducing physical symptoms as well as improving health-related behaviors and quality of life across a wide variety of illnesses, such as: chronic pain, somatic symptoms, diabetes, inflammatory bowel diseases, coronary heart disease and more...
February 2016: Harefuah
D A B Lindberg, B L Humphreys
OBJECTIVE: To review and update the Preface to the 1998 Yearbook of Medical Informatics, which had as its Special Topic "Health Informatics and the Internet". METHOD: Assessment of the accuracy of predictions made in 1998 and consideration of key developments in informatics since that time. RESULTS: Predictions made in 1998 were generally accurate regarding reduced dependence on keyboards, expansion of multimedia, medical data privacy policy development, impact of molecular biology on knowledge and treatment of neoplasms, and use of imaging and informatics to advance understanding of brain structure and function...
2016: Yearbook of Medical Informatics
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"