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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030857/funding-blood-safety-in-the-21st-century
#1
Luke Ifland, Evan M Bloch, John P Pitman
BACKGROUND: Since 2000, there has been an historic increase in international development assistance, including blood safety projects. The result has been increased blood donations and infectious disease screening in many beneficiary countries. A comprehensive examination of international development assistance for blood safety has yet to be completed. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This report examines publicly available information, including donor agency websites and databases and data from the 2008 and 2012 World Health Organization Global Database on Blood Safety...
October 13, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027669/changes-in-public-attitudes-and-perceptions-about-homelessness-between-1990-and-2016
#2
Jack Tsai, Crystal Yun See Lee, Thomas Byrne, Robert H Pietrzak, Steven M Southwick
Public attitudes on homelessness can and has influenced policies and services for homeless populations. This study surveyed national public attitudes about homelessness in the 21st century and examined changes in attitudes in the past two decades. An online survey of public attitudes about homelessness was conducted with 541 U.S. adults across 47 states in November 2016 using Amazon Mechanical Turk. Survey results were compared to two public surveys conducted in 1990. Compared to previous surveys, the current sample endorsed more compassion, government support, and liberal attitudes about homelessness...
October 13, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981164/impact-of-federal-regulatory-changes-on-clinical-pharmacology-and-drug-development-the-common-rule-and-the-21st-century-cures-act
#3
REVIEW
James F Burris, J Thomas Puglisi
The Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects, generally referred to as the "Common Rule," is the basis for the human research protection policies of 16 signatory federal agencies and governs virtually all federally funded research involving humans. The Common Rule was originally published in 1991. It has been recognized that changes to the Common Rule are needed to accommodate changes in the research environment and advances in information technology. The Department of Health & Human Services (HHS) issued an Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking in the Federal Register in 2011 and a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking in 2015...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976871/the-terrorist-attacks-and-the-human-live-birth-sex-ratio-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Gwinyai Masukume, Sinéad M O'Neill, Ali S Khashan, Louise C Kenny, Victor Grech
AIM: The live birth sex ratio is defined as male/total births (M/F). Terrorist attacks have been associated with a transient decline in M/F 3-5 months later with an excess of male losses in ongoing pregnancies. The early 21st century is replete with religious/politically instigated attacks. This study estimated the pooled effect size between exposure to attacks and M/F. Registration number CRD42016041220. METHODS: PubMed and Scopus were searched for ecological studies that evaluated the relationship between terrorist attacks from 1/1/2000 to 16/6/2016 and M/F...
2017: Acta Medica (Hradec Králové)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959246/recent-perspectives-on-genome-transmission-clinical-manifestation-diagnosis-therapeutic-strategies-vaccine-developments-and-challenges-of-zika-virus-research
#5
REVIEW
Apoorva Shankar, Amulya A Patil, Sinosh Skariyachan
One of the potential threats to public health microbiology in 21st century is the increased mortality rate caused by Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus. The severity of ZIKV infection urged World Health Organization (WHO) to declare this virus as a global concern. The limited knowledge on the structure, virulent factors, and replication mechanism of the virus posed as hindrance for vaccine development. Several vector and non-vector-borne mode of transmission are observed for spreading the disease...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923605/microbial-pathogenicity-and-virulence-mediated-by-integrons-on-gram-positive-microorganisms
#6
REVIEW
Yanmei Li, Ling Yang, Jie Fu, Muxia Yan, Dingqiang Chen, Li Zhang
Gram-positive microorganisms are one of leading pathogenic microorganisms in public health, including several typical "Super Bugs" as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase and vancomycin-resistant enterococci, which caused a increasement of infections, clinical failures and expenses. Regarded as a common genetic element responsible for horizontal gene transfer, integrons are widely distributed in various pathogens considered as a determinant in the acquisition and evolution of antibiotic resistance...
October 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914527/locally-induced-adipose-tissue-browning-by-microneedle-patch-for-obesity-treatment
#7
Yuqi Zhang, Qiongming Liu, Jicheng Yu, Shuangjiang Yu, Jinqiang Wang, Li Qiang, Zhen Gu
Obesity is one of the most serious public health problems in the 21st century that may lead to many comorbidities such as type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. Current treatments toward obesity including diet, physical exercise, pharmacological therapy, as well as surgeries are always associated with low effectiveness or undesired systematical side effects. In order to enhance treatment efficiency with minimized side effects, we developed a transcutaneous browning agent patch to locally induce adipose tissue transformation...
September 26, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905227/genomics-for-all-in-the-21st-century
#8
Martina C Cornel, Vence L Bonham
As the field of genomics enters the second decade after the completion of the International Human Genome Project, human genomics research is still far from reflective of the ancestral diversity found in global populations. This special issue of the Journal of Community Genetics brings together a global perspective on the need for researchers and health care professionals to support achievable milestones that will enhance global ancestral diversity in genomic research for the 21st century, and integrate the resulting knowledge into health care that benefits everyone...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Community Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880837/public-health-3-0-a-call-to-action-for-public-health-to-meet-the-challenges-of-the-21st-century
#9
Karen B DeSalvo, Y Claire Wang, Andrea Harris, John Auerbach, Denise Koo, Patrick O'Carroll
Public health is what we do together as a society to ensure the conditions in which everyone can be healthy. Although many sectors play key roles, governmental public health is an essential component. Recent stressors on public health are driving many local governments to pioneer a new Public Health 3.0 model in which leaders serve as Chief Health Strategists, partnering across multiple sectors and leveraging data and resources to address social, environmental, and economic conditions that affect health and health equity...
September 7, 2017: Preventing Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814532/developmental-process-and-early-phases-of-implementation-for-the-us-interagency-committee-on-human-nutrition-research-national-nutrition-research-roadmap-2016-2021
#10
Sheila E Fleischhacker, Rachel M Ballard, Pamela E Starke-Reed, Deborah A Galuska, Marian L Neuhouser
The Interagency Committee on Human Nutrition Research (ICHNR) is charged with improving the planning, coordination, and communication among federal agencies engaged in nutrition research and with facilitating the development and updating of plans for federal research programs to meet current and future domestic and international needs for nutrition. The ICHNR is co-chaired by the USDA Under Secretary for Research, Education, and Economics and Chief Scientist and the US Department of Health and Human Services Assistant Secretary for Health and is made up of >10 departments and agencies...
October 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807604/focusing-on-the-implementation-of-21st-century-vaccines-for-adults
#11
Paolo Bonanni, Guglielmo Bonaccorsi, Chiara Lorini, Francesca Santomauro, Emilia Tiscione, Sara Boccalini, Angela Bechini
Adult immunization is a priority for public health, particularly in countries where an aging population has become increasingly more numerous. Protection against diseases which typically affect adults (like flu, pneumococcal diseases and Herpes zoster), the shift of age of infections which originally affected children (like measles), the decreasing protection with time for infections which need periodical booster doses of vaccines (Tdap), the availability of vaccines which can also impact on adult health (HPV) are only some examples of the importance of implementing targeted vaccination strategies...
August 11, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767813/-new-changes-old-systems-health-policies-in-mexico-and-colombia-in-the-21st-century
#12
Monica Uribe-Gómez
Recent years have witnessed discussion on the need for changes in the health systems of Latin America. This initiative, spearheaded once again by the World Bank as Universal Health Coverage, focuses on strategies for protection against financial risks and unified access to essential services and medicines. Although the World Bank approaches have been incorporated in different ways by the region's countries since the 1980s, there have also been important breaks with this trend, for example in Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay, and Ecuador, which have sought at different times to implement policies and programs emphasizing non-market-driven values...
July 27, 2017: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762550/exploring-collaboration-in-a-community-academic-partnership
#13
Kala Mayer, Barbara Braband, Taylor Killen
OBJECTIVE: Community-academic relationships characterized by collaboration can contribute to the preparation of public health nursing students, sustainability of partnerships over time, and innovative solutions to pressing health problems. The purpose of this study was to describe and understand relationship characteristics in a community-academic partnership over time and how the relationship could be improved. DESIGN AND SAMPLE: A descriptive case study was conducted...
August 1, 2017: Public Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747149/public-health-interventions-school-nurse-practice-stories
#14
Linda J W Anderson, Marjorie A Schaffer, Cynthia Hiltz, Stacie A O'Leary, Ruth Ellen Luehr, Erika L Yoney
This study describes and analyzes school nurses' (SN) experiences with understanding and using public health interventions from the Public Health Intervention Wheel. The Wheel offers a model for naming interventions provided by SNs from a public health perspective. Research teams from academic and SN practice settings conducted six focus groups with school nurses from Minnesota. Participants were asked to share experiences through telling stories from their practice that represented a specific wedge of the Wheel...
January 1, 2017: Journal of School Nursing: the Official Publication of the National Association of School Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742949/strategies-to-increase-the-efficacy-of-using-gut-microbiota-for-the-modulation-of-obesity
#15
REVIEW
J Li, M S Riaz Rajoka, D Shao, C Jiang, M Jin, Q Huang, H Yang, J Shi
Obesity is one of the most serious global public health challenges of the 21st century. The adjustment of gut microbiota is often recommended as an efficient strategy to treat obesity. This modulation of gut microbiota can be performed by many methods, including dietary intervention, antibiotic application, the use of prebiotics and probiotics, bariatric surgery and faecal microbiota transplantation. In most cases, positive effects have been observed in response to treatment, but invalid and even contrary effects have also been observed in some cases due to factors that are unrelated to intervention methods, such as genetic factors, patient age or gender, environmental microbiota, climate, geography and lifestyle...
July 25, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735772/silicon-to-syringe-cryptomarkets-and-disruptive-innovation-in-opioid-supply-chains
#16
Michael Gilbert, Nabarun Dasgupta
Cyptomarkets offer insight into the evolving interplay between online black markets and cartel-based distribution. The types and forms of heroin, fentanyl, and prescription drugs show wide diversification. In this commentary we describe changes in the conceptualizations, technologies and structures of drug supply chains in the 21st Century, with special attention to the role of cryptomarkets as tools, contexts, and drivers of innovation in public health research.
June 24, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729746/the-incidence-and-effects-of-alloimmunization-in-pregnancy-during-the-period-2000%C3%A2-%C3%A2-2013
#17
Marjana Jerković Raguž, Darinka Šumanovic Glamuzina, Jerko Brzica, Tonći Gruica
INTRODUCTION: The objective of the analysis was to examine the epidemiological aspects of maternal alloimmunization and to determine the most common antibody specificities resulting in hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The retrospective epidemiological study encompasses all pregnant women who underwent immunohematological screening and the newborn treated for HDN in the period from 2000 to 2013 in the Herzegovina region. RESULTS: The indirect Coombs test (ICT) detected antibodies against antigens in 384 (2...
July 2017: Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716376/improving-the-safety-of-health-information-technology-requires-shared-responsibility-it-is-time-we-all-step-up
#18
Dean F Sittig, Elisabeth Belmont, Hardeep Singh
In 2011, an Institute of Medicine report on health information technology (IT) and patient safety highlighted that building health-IT for safer use is a shared responsibility between key stakeholders including: "vendors, care providers, healthcare organizations, health-IT departments, and public and private agencies". Use of electronic health records (EHRs) involves all these stakeholders, but they often have conflicting priorities and requirements. Since 2011, the concept of shared responsibility has gained little traction and EHR developers and users continue to attribute the substantial, long list of problems to each other...
July 14, 2017: Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678528/21st-century-toolkit-for-optimizing-population-health-through-precision-nutrition
#19
Aifric O'Sullivan, Bethany Henrick, Bonnie Dixon, Daniela Barile, Angela Zivkovic, Jennifer Smilowitz, Danielle Lemay, William Martin, J Bruce German, Sara Elizabeth Schaefer
Scientific, technological, and economic progress over the last 100 years all but eradicated problems of widespread food shortage and nutrient deficiency in developed nations. But now society is faced with a new set of nutrition problems related to energy imbalance and metabolic disease, which require new kinds of solutions. Recent developments in the area of new analytical tools enable us to systematically study large quantities of detailed and multidimensional metabolic and health data, providing the opportunity to address current nutrition problems through an approach called Precision Nutrition...
July 5, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677522/population-engagement-and-consultation-at-the-local-level-thailand-experience
#20
Weerasak Putthasri, Nanoot Mathurapote, Orapan Srisookwattana
The World Health Organization handbook on Strategizing National Health in the 21st Century has emphasized the importance of the process of population consultation on needs and expectations. According to Thailand National Health Act 2007, three innovative social tools for participatory healthy public policy process were proposed, i.e., health assembly, health impact assessment and health system statute (charter). In practice, population consultation process is required in the process of the tools implementation...
2017: World Health & Population
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