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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881930/psychological-consequences-of-childhood-obesity-psychiatric-comorbidity-and-prevention
#1
REVIEW
Jean Rankin, Lynsay Matthews, Stephen Cobley, Ahreum Han, Ross Sanders, Huw D Wiltshire, Julien S Baker
Childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century with far-reaching and enduring adverse consequences for health outcomes. Over 42 million children <5 years worldwide are estimated to be overweight (OW) or obese (OB), and if current trends continue, then an estimated 70 million children will be OW or OB by 2025. The purpose of this review was to focus on psychiatric, psychological, and psychosocial consequences of childhood obesity (OBy) to include a broad range of international studies...
2016: Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881085/the-ebola-outbreak-catalyzing-a-shift-in-global-health-governance
#2
Tim K Mackey
BACKGROUND: As the 2014 Ebola virus disease outbreak (EVD) transitions to its post-endemic phase, its impact on the future of global public health, particularly the World Health Organization (WHO), is the subject of continued debate. Criticism of WHO's performance grew louder in the outbreak's wake, placing this international health UN-specialized agency in the difficult position of navigating a complex series of reform recommendations put forth by different stakeholders. Decisions on WHO governance reform and the broader role of the United Nations could very well shape the future landscape of 21st century global health and how the international community responds to health emergencies...
November 24, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849238/diabetes-mellitus-in-childhood-an-emerging-condition-in-the-21st-century
#3
Thais Della Manna, Nuvarte Setian, Roberta Diaz Savoldelli, Dulce Rondina Guedes, Hilton Kuperman, Hamilton Cabral Menezes, Leandra Steinmetz, Louise Cominato, Vaê Dichtchekenian, Durval Damiani
The International Diabetes Federation (IDF-2015) estimates the existence of 30,900 children under 15 years old with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) in Brazil, and an increase of 3.0% per year is expected. This review focused on meta-analysis and pediatric diabetes update articles in order to draw attention to the need of planning coping strategies to support this serious public health problem in coming years. DM1 is considered an immuno-mediated disease with a complex transmission influenced by genetic and environmental factors responsible for a gradual destruction of the insulin producing pancreatic beta cells...
September 2016: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836014/is-the-un-convention-on-the-rights-of-persons-with-disabilities-impacting-mental-health-laws-and-policies-in-high-income-countries-a-case-study-of-implementation-in-canada
#4
EDITORIAL
Steven J Hoffman, Lathika Sritharan, Ali Tejpar
BACKGROUND: Persons with psychosocial disabilities face disparate access to healthcare and social services worldwide, along with systemic discrimination, structural inequalities, and widespread human rights abuses. Accordingly, many people have looked to international human rights law to help address mental health challenges. On December 13, 2006, the United Nations formally adopted the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) - the first human rights treaty of the 21st century and the fastest ever negotiated...
November 11, 2016: BMC International Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828680/from-health-plan-companies-to-international-insurance-companies-changes-in-the-accumulation-regime-and-repercussions-on-the-healthcare-system-in-brazil
#5
Ligia Bahia, Mario Scheffer, Leandro Reis Tavares, Iale Falleiros Braga
The concentration and internationalization of health plan companies in Brazil gave them a clearly financial face. Based on the need to understand the health care industry's capital accumulation patterns, the current study examines health plan companies' expansion strategies through the classification of their supply and demand characteristics by recent historical periods and an analysis of recent shareholding trends in one of the leading corporations in the Brazilian health care industry. The 1960s to 2000s witnessed changes in the scale of demands for health plans and adherence by companies to long-term accumulation strategies...
November 3, 2016: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819246/21st-century-pharmacovigilance-efforts-roles-and-responsibilities
#6
REVIEW
Peter J Pitts, Hervé Le Louet, Yola Moride, Rena M Conti
In an era when the number of expedited and conditional review pathways for newly available brand-name drugs and biosimilar medicines to treat serious and life-threatening diseases is increasing, defining pharmacovigilance has never been more crucial. 21st century pharmacovigilance is not merely about uncovering, reporting, and addressing adverse events associated with already approved and marketed agents, but can be described as the systematic monitoring of the process of pre-market review and post-market surveillance, which includes the use of medicines in everyday practice...
November 2016: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802560/outcomes-oriented-medical-training-a-critical-curricular-design-consideration-in-developing-21st-century-health-care-professionals
#7
Darrin D'Agostino, Frank J Papa
The core competencies of medical schools and residencies have initiated a change in curricular design but have been limited in their execution of systems-based practice. The introduction of milestones and entrustable professional activities has emerged to enhance the current educational paradigm. Linking public health systemic approaches with evidence-based practices focused on population-level health care will affect patients more than current non-systems-based approaches. Curricular redesign, including population health-based strategies, public health competency, health care policy, and education linking the "determinants of health" to patient care, will better prepare future physicians to practice in the emerging paradigm of health care of the future...
November 1, 2016: Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798988/global-surgery-for-pediatric-hydrocephalus-in-the-developing-world-a-review-of-the-history-challenges-and-future-directions
#8
Ryan T Muir, Shelly Wang, Benjamin C Warf
OBJECTIVE Pediatric hydrocephalus is one of the most common neurosurgical conditions and is a major contributor to the global burden of surgically treatable diseases. Significant health disparities exist for the treatment of hydrocephalus in developing nations due to a combination of medical, environmental, and socioeconomic factors. This review aims to provide the international neurosurgery community with an overview of the current challenges and future directions of neurosurgical care for children with hydrocephalus in low-income countries...
November 2016: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768585/future-of-environmental-research-in-the-age-of-epigenomics-and-exposomics
#9
Nina Holland
Environmental research and public health in the 21st century face serious challenges such as increased air pollution and global warming, widespread use of potentially harmful chemicals including pesticides, plasticizers, and other endocrine disruptors, and radical changes in nutrition and lifestyle typical of modern societies. In particular, exposure to environmental and occupational toxicants may contribute to the occurrence of adverse birth outcomes, neurodevelopmental deficits, and increased risk of cancer and other multifactorial diseases such as diabetes and asthma...
October 21, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756402/born-in-brazil-shining-a-light-for-change
#10
Maria Regina Torloni, Ana Pilar Betrán, José M Belizán
The Birth in Brazil study is the largest national hospital-based survey in Brazil regarding birth practices. Conducted in 2011-2012, it collected information from 266 public and private healthcare facilities and interviewed nearly 24,000 postpartum women. It is also the latest effort to map out how labor and delivery are managed in this county in the 21st century. The journal Reproductive Health has published a supplement including 10 articles presenting the results of a series of analyses using this valuable resource...
October 17, 2016: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744374/the-tribal-tobacco-education-and-policy-initiative-findings-from-a-collaborative-participatory-evaluation
#11
Sheryl Scott, Joanne D'Silva, Carol Hernandez, Nicole Toves Villaluz, Jaime Martinez, Chris Matter
While the reduction in the overall U.S. smoking prevalence has been declared one of the top 10 public health achievements of the past century, the growing disparity in smoking between American Indians and the general population is one of the biggest challenges of the 21st century. Minnesota in particular has very high smoking rates among American Indians (59%). Tribal Nations in Minnesota share a past of attempted cultural genocide and a present of restoring the strength of their cultural teachings, including the prominence of traditional tobacco as a sacred "first medicine...
October 14, 2016: Health Promotion Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690721/contemporary-challenges-and-opportunities-in-the-diagnosis-and-outbreak-detection-of-multidrug-resistant-infectious-disease
#12
Teresa Cimmino, Stéphanie Le Page, Didier Raoult, Jean-Marc Rolain
The dissemination of multi-drug resistant bacteria (MDRB) has become a major public health concern worldwide because of the increase in infections caused by MDRB, the difficulty in treating them, and expenditures in patient care. Areas covered: We have reviewed challenges and contemporary opportunities for rapidly confronting infections caused by MDRB in the 21st century, including surveillance, detection, identification of resistance mechanisms, and action steps. Expert commentary: In this context, the first critical point for clinical microbiologists is to be able to rapidly detect an abnormal event, an outbreak and/or the spread of a MDRB with surveillance tools so that healthcare policies and therapies adapted to a new stochastic event that will certainly occur again in the future can be implemented...
October 2, 2016: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685779/a-framework-for-cumulative-risk-assessment-in-the-21st-century
#13
Angelo Moretto, Ammie Bachman, Alan Boobis, Keith R Solomon, Timothy P Pastoor, Martin F Wilks, Michelle R Embry
The ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) has developed a framework to support a transition in the way in which information for chemical risk assessment is obtained and used (RISK21). The approach is based on detailed problem formulation, where exposure drives the data acquisition process in order to enable informed decision-making on human health safety as soon as sufficient evidence is available. Information is evaluated in a transparent and consistent way with the aim of optimizing available resources...
August 11, 2016: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671668/city-planning-and-population-health-a-global-challenge
#14
Billie Giles-Corti, Anne Vernez-Moudon, Rodrigo Reis, Gavin Turrell, Andrew L Dannenberg, Hannah Badland, Sarah Foster, Melanie Lowe, James F Sallis, Mark Stevenson, Neville Owen
Significant global health challenges are being confronted in the 21st century, prompting calls to rethink approaches to disease prevention. A key part of the solution is city planning that reduces non-communicable diseases and road trauma while also managing rapid urbanisation. This Series of papers considers the health impacts of city planning through transport mode choices. In this, the first paper, we identify eight integrated regional and local interventions that, when combined, encourage walking, cycling, and public transport use, while reducing private motor vehicle use...
September 19, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27602306/ob-city-definition-of-a-family-based-intervention-for-childhood-obesity-supported-by-information-and-communication-technologies
#15
Ruofei Hu, Jorge Cancela, Maria Teresa Arredondo Waldmeyer, Gloria Cea, Elpis-Athina Vlachopapadopoulou, Dimitrios I Fotiadis, Giuseppe Fico
Childhood obesity is becoming one of the 21st century's most important public health problems. Nowadays, the main treatment of childhood obesity is behavior intervention that aims at improve children's lifestyle to arrest the disease. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have not been widely employed in this intervention, and most of existing ICTs systems are not having a long-term effect. The purpose of this paper is to define a system to support family-based intervention through a state-of-the-art analysis of family-based interventions and related technological solutions first, and then using the analytic hierarchy process to derive a childhood obesity family-based behavior intervention model, and finally to provide a prototype of a system called OB CITY...
2016: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27572083/combatting-bacterial-pathogens-with-immunomodulation-and-infection-tolerance-strategies
#16
Jonathan M Fura, Sourav Sarkar, Sean E Pidgeon, Marcos M Pires
The discovery of antibiotics is one of the most significant milestones in modern medicine. Upon the advent of the antibiotic era, invasive surgical procedures, which were previously deemed too risky because of the possibility of bacterial infection, became a reality. In the process, medicine as a whole made great strides that led to the rise of the average human life span by almost three decades. Unfortunately, over the course of time bacteria have started to evolve resistance to antibiotic agents being administered, thus rendering many of these drugs ineffective (or on the verge of being ineffective)...
August 29, 2016: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27556270/self-injury-mortality-in-the-united-states-in-the-early-21st-century-a-comparison-with-proximally-ranked-diseases
#17
Ian R H Rockett, Christa L Lilly, Haomiao Jia, Gregory L Larkin, Ted R Miller, Lewis S Nelson, Kurt B Nolte, Sandra L Putnam, Gordon S Smith, Eric D Caine
Importance: Fatal self-injury in the United States associated with deliberate behaviors is seriously underestimated owing to misclassification of poisoning suicides and mischaracterization of most drug poisoning deaths as "accidents" on death certificates. Objective: To compare national trends and patterns of self-injury mortality (SIM) with mortality from 3 proximally ranked top 10 causes of death: diabetes, influenza and pneumonia, and kidney disease. Data, Setting, and Participants: Underlying cause-of-death data from 1999 to 2014 were extracted for this observational study from death certificate data in the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Wide-Ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research online databases...
October 1, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27492290/-confronting-the-health-related-challenges-of-climate-change-nursing-education-for-the-future
#18
Pei-Chih Wu, Chi-Chen Lee
Climate change is the greatest threat to public health in the 21st century. The increasing health impact of heat waves, the increasing magnitudes and spatial expansions of vector and water-borne diseases epidemics, and the increasing medical burdens of biological allergic illnesses, worsening local air pollution, and other related issues are expected to continue to increase in severity in the near future. All of these issues are global problems that must be faced. Adaptation strategies and action plans related to climate change are needed and emerging...
August 2016: Hu Li za Zhi the Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27476513/the-impact-of-prescription-opioids-on-all-cause-mortality-in-canada
#19
EDITORIAL
Sameer Imtiaz, Jürgen Rehm
An influential study from the United States generated considerable discussion and debate. This study documented rising morbidity and mortality in midlife among white non-Hispanic Americans in the 21st century, with clear linkages of all-cause mortality to increasing rates of poisonings, suicides and chronic liver disease deaths. All of these causes of deaths are strongly related to the use of legal and illegal substances, but the study stressed the importance of prescription opioids. Given the similarities between the United States and Canada in prescription opioid use, the assessment of similar all-cause mortality trends is relevant for Canada...
2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27438477/recent-trends-in-cardiovascular-mortality-in-the-united-states-and-public-health-goals
#20
Stephen Sidney, Charles P Quesenberry, Marc G Jaffe, Michael Sorel, Mai N Nguyen-Huynh, Lawrence H Kushi, Alan S Go, Jamal S Rana
IMPORTANCE: Heart disease (HD) and cancer are the 2 leading causes of death in the United States. During the first decade of the 21st century, HD mortality declined at a much greater rate than cancer mortality and it appeared that cancer would overtake HD as the leading cause of death. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether changes in national trends had occurred in recent years in mortality rates due to all cardiovascular disease (CVD), HD, stroke, and cancer and to evaluate the gap between mortality rates from HD and cancer...
August 1, 2016: JAMA Cardiology
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