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Candida molecular typing

Maryam Dadar, Ruchi Tiwari, Kumaragurubaran Karthik, Sandip Chakraborty, Youcef Shahali, Kuldeep Dhama
Candida albicans is an emerging multidrug-resistant fungal pathogen representing an important source of invasive disease in humans and generating high healthcare costs worldwide. This fungus is frequently found in different anatomical sites of healthy persons and could induce systemic and superficial infections under optimal environmental conditions. Invasive candidiasis (IC) is an important nosocomial infection with high morbidity and mortality rates in hospitalized children. It represents a major source of prolonged infections in intensive care unit (ICU), particularly in immunosuppressed or elderly patients...
February 15, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Rafat Afifi Khattab, Mohamed Elbandy, Andrew Lawrence, Tim Paget, Jung Rae-Rho, Yaser S Binnaser, Imran Ali
AIM AND OBJECTIVE: Secondary metabolism in marine organisms produced a diversity of biological important natural compounds which are unpresented in terrestrial species. Sea cucumbers belong to the invertebrate Echinodermata and are famous for their nutraceutical, medical and food values. They are known for possession triterpenoid glycosides (saponins) with various ecological roles. The current work aimed to separate, identify and test various biological activities (anti-bacterial, antifungal, antileishmanial and anticancer properties) of saponins produced by the holothurian Pearsonothuria graeffei from the Red Sea, Egypt...
February 12, 2018: Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening
Jianchai Liu, Huanzhang Liu, Jinkun Yan, Na Liu, Heping Zhang, Chengrui Zhao, Yanwei Liu
Candida albicans is the most prevalent opportunistic fungus of humans and animals. While most studies focus on human isolates, they rarely focus on poultry isolates. In this study, C. albicans strains were recovered from poultry in the southern Hebei Province (China) and identified. Molecular typing and analyses were performed to understand the molecular epidemiology and genetic relatedness of the strains. The fungi were isolated from live birds with presumed candidiasis or their corpses. The isolates were identified based on morphology, differential medium culture, and rDNA internal transcribed spacer sequencing...
February 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Monika Kalinowska, Ewelina Bajko, Marzena Matejczyk, Piotr Kaczyński, Bożena Łozowicka, Włodzimierz Lewandowski
Lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and caesium salts of 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (chlorogenic acid, 5-CQA) were synthesized and described by FT-IR (infrared spectroscopy), FT-Raman (Raman spectroscopy), UV (UV absorption spectroscopy), ¹H (400.15 MHz), 13C (100.63 MHz) NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy). The quantum-chemical calculations at the B3LYP/6-311++G** level were done in order to obtain the optimal structures, IR spectra, NBO (natural bond orbital) atomic charges, HOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital) and LUMO (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital) orbitals and chemical reactivity parameters for 5-CQA and Li, Na and K 5-CQAs (chlorogenates)...
February 4, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Archana Kumari Redhu, Atanu Banerjee, Abdul Haseeb Shah, Alexis Moreno, Manpreet Kaur Rawal, Remya Nair, Pierre Falson, Rajendra Prasad
The molecular basis of polyspecificity of Mdr1p, a major drug/H+ antiporter of Candida albicans, is not elucidated. We have probed the nature of the drug-binding pocket by performing systematic mutagenesis of the 12 transmembrane segments. Replacement of the 252 amino acid residues with alanine or glycine yielded 2/3 neutral mutations while 1/3 led to the complete or selective lost of resistance to drugs or substrates transported by the pump. Using the GlpT-based 3D-model of Mdr1p, we roughly categorized these critical residues depending on their type and localization 1°/ main structural impact ("S" group), 2°/ exposure to the lipid interface ("L" group), 3°/ buried but not facing the main central pocket, inferred as critical for the overall H+/drug antiport mechanism ("M" group) and finally 4°/ buried and facing the main central pocket ("B" group)...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
Bhookya Shankar, Pochampally Jalapathi, Balabadra Saikrishna, Shaym Perugu, Vijjulatha Manga
BACKGROUND: There is a dire need for the discovery and development of new antimicrobial agents after several experiments for a better resistance of microorganisms towards antimicrobial agents become a serious health problem for a few years in the past. As benzimidazole possess various types of biological activities, it has been synthesized, in the present study, a new series of (5-(3-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)-4-hydroxybenzyl)benzofuran-2-yl)(phenyl)methanone analogs by using the condensation and screened for its in vitro antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity...
January 9, 2018: Chemistry Central Journal
Igor Shuryak, Vera Y Matrosova, Elena K Gaidamakova, Rok Tkavc, Olga Grichenko, Polina Klimenkova, Robert P Volpe, Michael J Daly
Understanding chronic ionizing radiation (CIR) effects is of utmost importance to protecting human health and the environment. Diverse bacteria and fungi inhabiting extremely radioactive waste and disaster sites (e.g. Hanford, Chernobyl, Fukushima) represent new targets of CIR research. We show that many microorganisms can grow under intense gamma-CIR dose rates of 13-126 Gy/h, with fungi identified as a particularly CIR-resistant group of eukaryotes: among 145 phylogenetically diverse strains tested, 78 grew under 36 Gy/h...
2017: PloS One
Susana A Zacchino, Estefanía Butassi, Estefanía Cordisco, Laura A Svetaz
BACKGROUND: Biofilms contribute to the pathogenesis of many chronic and difficult-to eradicate infections whose treatment is complicated due to the intrinsic resistance to conventional antibiotics. As a consequence, there is an urgent need for strategies that can be used for the prevention and treatment of biofilm-associated infections. The combination therapy comprising an antimicrobial drug with a low molecular weight (MW) natural product and an antimicrobial drug (antifungal or antibacterial) appeared as a good alternative to eradicate biofilms...
December 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
François L Mayer, James W Kronstad
Fungal pathogens rely on the production of specific virulence factors during infection. Inhibiting such factors generally results in reduced fungal pathogenicity. Most studies in the past have focused on understanding the molecular mechanisms of fungal virulence factor expression during mono-culture, or during interaction with the host. However, a potentially important, second type of interaction has been less well studied thus far - the interplay of fungal pathogens of humans with other microbes found in their natural habitat...
October 30, 2017: Microbial Cell
YongQin Wu, Cui Li, ZhiHeng Wang, Jing Gao, ZhenHua Tang, HuiFen Chen, ChunMei Ying
In our multicenter study, 43 fluconazole non-susceptible and 45 fluconazole-susceptible isolates were collected from vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) patients from three Shanghai maternity hospitals to analyze their molecular epidemiological features and fluconazole resistant mechanisms. Cross-resistance to fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole was observed in 53.5% of the nonsusceptible isolates. Though we acquired 12 clonal complexes (CCs) of diploid sequence types (DSTs) in clinical isolates by a multilocus sequence typing method, fluconazole nonsusceptible isolates all belonged to CC69 with a predominant genotype of DST 79...
November 9, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
T Nagarathnamma, Sneha K Chunchanur, Shivaprakash M Rudramurthy, K R Vineetha, Karthik Ramamurthy, Jillwin Joseph, R Ambica
PURPOSE: Fungaemia is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality in neonates admitted to neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). We report an outbreak of fungaemia in a NICU due to rare yeast, Pichia kudriavzevii (a teleomorph of Candida krusei). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of neonatal sepsis due to P. kudriavzevii. METHODOLOGY: Between August and September 2014, blood cultures from nine neonates diagnosed with late-onset sepsis in the NICU yielded yeast-like organisms...
December 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Yonghong Zhou, Guoyan Liu, Xi Cheng, Qianqian Wang, Bo Wang, Beilei Wang, Hui Zhang, Qian He, Liming Zhang
In this study, we reported a jellyfish-derived Kazal-type serine protease inhibitor, named CcKPI1, from Cyanea capillata. CcKPI1 has a calculated molecular mass of 19.02kDa and contains three typical Kazal domains. Soluble recombinant CcKPI1 (rCcKPI1) was successfully expressed and purified. rCcKPI1 exhibited significant inhibitory activities against elastase, subtilisin A and proteinase K, but not against trypsin or chymotrypsin. Kinetic studies showed that all of the inhibitory effects of rCcKPI1 were competitive, indicating that it may be a microbial serine protease inhibitor and can exhibit antimicrobial activity...
October 17, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Aleksandra Miszkiel, Marek Wojciechowski
Glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase (EC is responsible for catalysis of the first and practically irreversible step in hexosamine metabolism. The final product of this pathway, uridine 5' diphospho N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc), is an essential substrate for assembly of bacterial and fungal cell walls. Moreover, the enzyme is involved in phenomenon of hexosamine induced insulin resistance in type II diabetes, which makes of it a potential target for anti-fungal, anti-bacterial and anti-diabetic therapy...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
A J Buehler, R L Evanowski, N H Martin, K J Boor, M Wiedmann
Fungi are important spoilage organisms in dairy products. However, little is known about the diversity of naturally occurring spoilage fungi in raw milk and processed dairy products, due at least in part to the fact that classical fungal identification methods require considerable expertise. To gain further insight into the fungal diversity in the dairy system, we isolated fungi from raw milk, raw and pasteurized milk cheese, and yogurt using the selective dichloran rose bengal chloramphenicol agar. In total, 361 fungal isolates were obtained and further characterized by DNA sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and the nuclear ribosomal large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene if needed...
November 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Khaled Al-Obaid, Mohammad Asadzadeh, Suhail Ahmad, Ziauddin Khan
Candida tropicalis is a frequently isolated yeast species causing bloodstream, urinary tract and other infections particularly in patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) and those requiring prolonged urinary catheterization (UC) or receiving broad-spectrum antibiotics (BSA). This study investigated clinical characteristics and genetic relatedness among C. tropicalis strains isolated from patients at Al-Amiri Hospital in Kuwait. C. tropicalis strains (n = 63) isolated from blood, genito-urinary, respiratory (RT) and digestive (GIT) tracts and wound sites from 54 patients were used...
2017: PloS One
N Cebeci Güler, I Tosun, F Aydin
Meyerozyma (Pichia) guilliermondii exists in human skin and mucosal surface microflora. It can cause severe fungal infections like candidemia, which is an opportunistic pathogen. One hundred and forty-one M. guilliermondii isolates, consisting of 122 blood culture isolates, belonging to 126 patients; 13 total parenteral nutrition solution isolates; and two rectal swab isolates were identified according to carbohydrate assimilation reactions in a university hospital in Turkey between January 2006 and December 2015...
December 2017: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
Konduri Ranjith, Bhavani Sontam, Savitri Sharma, Joveeta Joseph, Kanchana N Chathoth, Kalyana C Sama, Somasheila I Murthy, Sisinthy Shivaji
Purpose: To determine the type of Candida species in ocular infections and to investigate the relationship of antifungal susceptibility profile to virulence factors. Methods: Fifty isolates of yeast-like fungi from patients with keratitis, endophthalmitis, and orbital cellulitis were identified by Vitek-2 compact system and DNA sequencing of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 regions of the rRNA gene, followed by phylogenetic analysis for phenotypic and genotypic identification, respectively...
August 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Siddharth K Tripathi, Tao Xu, Qin Feng, Bharathi Avula, Xiaomin Shi, Xuewen Pan, Melanie M Mask, Scott R Baerson, Melissa R Jacob, Ranga Rao Ravu, Shabana I Khan, Xing-Cong Li, Ikhlas A Khan, Alice M Clark, Ameeta K Agarwal
Eupolauridine and liriodenine are plant-derived aporphinoid alkaloids that exhibit potent inhibitory activity against the opportunistic fungal pathogens Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans However, the molecular mechanism of this antifungal activity is unknown. In this study, we show that eupolauridine 9591 (E9591), a synthetic analog of eupolauridine, and liriodenine methiodide (LMT), a methiodide salt of liriodenine, mediate their antifungal activities by disrupting mitochondrial iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster synthesis...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Tobias Weil, Rodrigo Santamaría, Wanseon Lee, Johan Rung, Noemi Tocci, Darren Abbey, Ana R Bezerra, Laura Carreto, Gabriela R Moura, Mónica Bayés, Ivo G Gut, Attila Csikasz-Nagy, Duccio Cavalieri, Judith Berman, Manuel A S Santos
Regulated erroneous protein translation (adaptive mistranslation) increases proteome diversity and produces advantageous phenotypic variability in the human pathogen Candida albicans. It also increases fitness in the presence of fluconazole, but the underlying molecular mechanism is not understood. To address this question, we evolved hypermistranslating and wild-type strains in the absence and presence of fluconazole and compared their fluconazole tolerance and resistance trajectories during evolution. The data show that mistranslation increases tolerance and accelerates the acquisition of resistance to fluconazole...
July 2017: MSphere
Camille N Allonsius, Marianne F L van den Broek, Ilke De Boeck, Shari Kiekens, Eline F M Oerlemans, Filip Kiekens, Kenn Foubert, Dieter Vandenheuvel, Paul Cos, Peter Delputte, Sarah Lebeer
A number of clinical studies have shown protective effects of lactobacilli against Candida species in the gastrointestinal tract, the urogenital tract and the oral cavity, while others did not show clear effects. Evidence on the mode of action of lactobacilli against Candida is also still lacking. In this study, the anti-Candida activity of the model probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG was explored in different assays to determine molecular interactions. We found that L. rhamnosus GG was able to interfere with Candida growth, morphogenesis and adhesion...
November 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
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