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Candida molecular typing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183985/characterization-of-pph3-mediated-dephosphorylation-of-rad53-during-methyl-methanesulfonate-induced-dna-damage-repair-in-candida-albicans
#1
Guangyin Yao, Junhua Wan, Qizheng Liu, Chunhua Mu, Yue Wang, Jianli Sang
Genotoxic stress causes DNA damage or stalled DNA replication and filamentous growth in the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans The DNA checkpoint kinase Rad53 critically regulates by phosphorylation effectors that execute the stress response. Rad53 itself is activated by phosphorylation and inactivated by dephosphorylation. Previous studies have suggested that the phosphatase Pph3 dephosphorylates Rad53. Here, we used mass spectrometry and mutagenesis to identify Pph3 dephosphorylation sites on Rad53 in C. albicans We found that serine residues 351, 461, and 477, which were dephosphorylated in wild-type cells during the recovery from DNA damage caused by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), remained phosphorylated in pph3Δ/Δ cells...
February 9, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154553/identification-and-antifungal-susceptibility-profiles-of-candida-nivariensis-and-candida-bracarensis-in-a-multi-center-chinese-collection-of-yeasts
#2
Xin Hou, Meng Xiao, Sharon C-A Chen, He Wang, Shu-Ying Yu, Xin Fan, Fanrong Kong, Ying-Chun Xu
Candida nivariensis and C. bracarensis are two emerging cryptic species within the C. glabrata complex. Thirteen of these isolates from 10 hospitals in China were studied for their species identification and antifungal susceptibilities. Phenotypic and molecular [rDNA ITS sequencing, D1/D2 sequencing and ITS sequencer-based capillary gel electrophoresis (SCGE)] and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) MS identification methods were compared for their performance in species identification...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115353/in-vitro-antifungal-susceptibility-testing-of-candida-isolates-with-the-eucast-methodology
#3
J Meletiadis, I Curfs-Breuker, J F Meis, J W Mouton
The in vitro susceptibility of 1119 molecularly identified clinical Candida isolates against 8 antifungal drugs was determined using the EUCAST microdilution method. A new simple, objective and mathematically solid method for ECOFF determination was developed by derivatizing the MIC distribution and determining a dECOFF as the highest MIC with the maximum second derivative giving similar results (95% agreement within 1 dilution) with the "eyeball" method. Overall, low non-wild type/resistant rates were found with the highest found for azoles with C...
January 23, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011958/cationic-porphyrin-mediated-photodynamic-inactivation-of-candida-biofilms-and-the-effect-of-miconazole
#4
A Davies, S Gebremedhin, M Yee, R J Padilla, N Duzgunes, K Konopka, B Dorocka-Bobkowska
The formation of biofilms by Candida and the increasing resistance of Candida species to antifungals contribute to the high recurrence rates of denture stomatitis. This increase has stimulated an interest in antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) as an alternative treatment. We examined the photoactivity of the porphyrin-based photosensitizer, TMP-1363, against biofilms of C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis, and the effect of the combined use of miconazole and aPDT. Biofilms of three American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) strains and four clinical isolates developed on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) disks, were incubated with miconazole, followed by treatment with TMP-1363 for 30 min at 37°C...
October 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935838/the-paralogous-histone-deacetylases-rpd3-and-rpd31-play-opposing-roles-in-regulating-the-white-opaque-switch-in-the-fungal-pathogen-candida-albicans
#5
Jing Xie, Sabrina Jenull, Michael Tscherner, Karl Kuchler
: Chromatin modifications affect gene regulation in response to environmental stimuli in numerous biological processes. For example, N-acetyl-glucosamine and CO2 induce a morphogenetic conversion between white (W) and opaque (O) cells in MTL (mating-type locus) homozygous and heterozygous ( A: /α) strains of the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans Here, we identify 8 histone-modifying enzymes playing distinct roles in the regulation of W/O switching in MTL homozygous and heterozygous strains...
November 15, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905002/disseminated-candidiasis-in-a-young-previously-healthy-dog-and-review-of-literature
#6
Nicole Willems, Dirk J Houwers, Yvette M Schlotter, Bart Theelen, Teun Boekhout
BACKGROUND: The reports on disseminated candidiasis in dogs so far describe at least one predisposing factor. This case report, however, highlights candidiasis in a dog without any known predisposition. PATIENT: A 1.5-year-old intact female Hovawart dog was presented with subcutaneous nodules and polyuria/polydipsia. An excisional biopsy revealed a chronic pyogranulomatous and necrotizing inflammation with mycotic structures. The patient became febrile and lethargic, and developed lameness...
November 30, 2016: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882277/effect-of-silver-nanoparticles-on-the-standard-soil-arthropod-folsomia-candida-collembola-and-the-eukaryote-model-organism-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#7
Panwad Sillapawattana, Martin C H Gruhlke, Andreas Schäffer
BACKGROUND: Because of their antimicrobial properties, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been widely used and have come into contact with the environment. In the present work, an effect of AgNPs on a standard soil organism, Folsomia candida, was studied (in comparison to silver nitrate) focusing on molecular and cellular alterations as ecotoxicological endpoints. RESULTS: At the molecular level, an up-regulation of metallothionein-containing protein (MTC) mRNA in AgNP-treated groups indicated toxic heavy metal stress effects caused by the release of silver ions from AgNPs, which is similar to animal groups treated with silver nitrate...
2016: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837497/the-changing-epidemiology-of-invasive-fungal-infections
#8
David A Enoch, Huina Yang, Sani H Aliyu, Christianne Micallef
Invasive fungal infections (IFI) are an emerging problem worldwide with invasive candidiasis and candidemia responsible for the majority of cases. This is predominantly driven by the widespread adoption of aggressive immunosuppressive therapy among certain patient populations (e.g., chemotherapy, transplants) and the increasing use of invasive devices such as central venous catheters (CVCs). The use of new immune modifying drugs has also opened up an entirely new spectrum of patients at risk of IFIs. While the epidemiology of candida infections has changed in the last decade, with a gradual shift from C...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836850/elimination-of-a-free-cysteine-by-creation-of-a-disulfide-bond-increases-the-activity-and-stability-of-candida-boidinii-formate-dehydrogenase
#9
Junxian Zheng, Taowei Yang, Junping Zhou, Meijuan Xu, Xian Zhang, Zhiming Rao
: NAD(+)-dependent formate dehydrogenase (FDH; EC 1.2.1.2) is an industrial enzyme widely used for NADH regeneration. However, enzyme inactivation caused by the oxidation of cysteine residues is a flaw of native FDH. In this study, we relieved the oxidation of the free cysteine of FDH from Candida boidinii (CboFDH) through the construction of disulfide bonds between A10 and C23 as well as I239 and C262. Variants A10C, I239C, and A10C/I239C were obtained by the site-directed mutagenesis and their properties were studied...
January 15, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816903/molecular-and-antifungal-susceptibility-study-on-trichosporonemia-and-emergence-of-trichosporon-mycotoxinivorans-as-a-bloodstream-pathogen
#10
Yubhisha Dabas, Immaculata Xess, Pratibha Kale
A total of 21 Trichosporon spp. isolates from blood over a period of 5 years (January 2009 to December 2013) were included in the study. The most common underlying diseases found were pancreatitis (33.3%) and cancer (33.3%). Trichosporon asahii (80.9%) was the commonest species followed by Trichosporon mycotoxinivorans (14.2%) and Trichosporon faecale (4.7%). On IGS1 region sequencing the most predominant T. asahii type in our region was genotype 1 (16/17 isolates; 94.1%) and one isolate belonged to genotype 4...
November 5, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744307/genetic-diversity-of-the-hwp1-gene-and-his3-ef3-cdc3-microsatellites-and-antifungal-susceptibility-profiles-of-candida-albicans-isolates-from-yaound%C3%A3-hiv-infected-patients
#11
Thierry Kammalac Ngouana, Pascal Drakulovski, Donika Krasteva, Rufin Kuipou Toghueo, Charles Kouanfack, Jacques Reynes, Eric Delaporte, Fabrice Fekam Boyom, Michèle Mallié, Sébastien Bertout
The molecular epidemiology and the antifungal susceptibility profiles of Candida albicans are scarce in Cameroon. Authors studied the genetic diversity and the antifungal susceptibility of C. albicans isolates from Yaoundé HIV-infected patients. Clinical isolates were obtained by mycological diagnosis of oropharyngeal swabs, stools, urine, and vaginal swabs from patients. C. albicans isolates were confirmed by the Light cycler real-time PCR of the ITS1 region of the 5.8s ribosomal DNA. The ABC genotypes and the Hwp1 gene amplification were carried out with specific primers...
October 14, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727302/candida-albicans-isw2-regulates-chlamydospore-suspensor-cell-formation-and-virulence-in-vivo-in-a-mouse-model-of-disseminated-candidiasis
#12
Dhammika H M L P Navarathna, Ruvini U Pathirana, Michail S Lionakis, Kenneth W Nickerson, David D Roberts
Formation of chlamydospores by Candida albicans was an established medical diagnostic test to confirm candidiasis before the molecular era. However, the functional role and pathological relevance of this in vitro morphological transition to pathogenesis in vivo remain unclear. We compared the physical properties of in vitro-induced chlamydospores with those of large C. albicans cells purified by density gradient centrifugation from Candida-infected mouse kidneys. The morphological and physical properties of these cells in kidneys of mice infected intravenously with wild type C...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679618/unveiling-the-synergistic-interaction-between-liposomal-amphotericin-b-and-colistin
#13
Rita Teixeira-Santos, Elisabete Ricardo, Ricardo J Branco, Maria M Azevedo, Acácio G Rodrigues, Cidália Pina-Vaz
Patients with multiple comorbidities are often administered simultaneously or sequentially antifungals and antibacterial agents, without full knowledge of the consequences of drug interactions. Considering the clinical relevance of liposomal amphotericin B (L-AMB), the association between L-AMB and six antibacterial agents was evaluated against four clinical isolates and one type strain of Candida spp. and two clinical isolates and one type strain of Aspergillus fumigatus. In order to evaluate such combined effects, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of L-AMB was determined in the presence of 0...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667190/a-general-and-efficient-strategy-for-generating-the-stable-enzymes
#14
Xiao-Fei Zhang, Guang-Yu Yang, Yong Zhang, Yuan Xie, Stephen G Withers, Yan Feng
The local flexibility of an enzyme's active center plays pivotal roles in catalysis, however, little is known about how the flexibility of these flexible residues affects stability. In this study, we proposed an active center stabilization (ACS) strategy to improve the kinetic thermostability of Candida rugosa lipase1. Based on the B-factor ranking at the region ~10 Å within the catalytic Ser209, 18 residues were selected for site-saturation mutagenesis. Based on three-tier high-throughput screening and ordered recombination mutagenesis, the mutant VarB3 (F344I/F434Y/F133Y/F121Y) was shown to be the most stable, with a 40-fold longer in half-life at 60 °C and a 12...
September 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27544427/outbreak-of-candidemia-caused-by-fluconazole-resistant-candida-parapsilosis-strains-in-an-intensive-care-unit
#15
Henrique Marconi Sampaio Pinhati, Luiz Augusto Casulari, Ana Carolina Remondi Souza, Ricardo Andreotti Siqueira, Camila Maria Gomes Damasceno, Arnaldo Lopes Colombo
BACKGROUND: Candidemia is an increasing problem in tertiary care hospitals worldwide. Here, we report the first outbreak of candidemia caused by fluconazole-resistant C. parapsilosis (FRCP) strains in Brazil. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of clinical and microbiological data of all candidemic episodes diagnosed from July 2011 to February 2012 in a 200-bed tertiary care hospital. Initial yeast identification and susceptibility testing were performed using the VITEK 2 - System...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27484020/discontinuation-of-echinocandin-and-azole-treatments-led-to-the-disappearance-of-an-fks-alteration-but-not-azole-resistance-during-clonal-candida-glabrata-persistent-candidaemia
#16
S Imbert, L Castain, A Pons, S Jacob, I Meyer, M Palous, C Vezinet, O Langeron, C Hennequin, A Monsel, A Fekkar
To give an indication of a fitness cost conferred by FKS mutation-associated echinocandin resistance in Candida glabrata during human infection. Six C. glabrata clinical strains sequentially isolated from blood and a hepatic abscess in a solid organ transplant recipient were analysed. The patient had received long-term azole and echinocandin therapy for invasive aspergillosis and persistent candidaemia. Minimal inhibitory concentrations were determined by the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) broth microdilution method...
October 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27469174/yeasts-from-sub-antarctic-region-biodiversity-enzymatic-activities-and-their-potential-as-oleaginous-microorganisms
#17
A Martinez, I Cavello, G Garmendia, C Rufo, S Cavalitto, S Vero
Various microbial groups are well known to produce a range of extracellular enzymes and other secondary metabolites. However, the occurrence and importance of investment in such activities have received relatively limited attention in studies of Antarctic soil microbiota. Sixty-one yeasts strains were isolated from King George Island, Antarctica which were characterized physiologically and identified at the molecular level using the D1/D2 region of rDNA. Fifty-eight yeasts (belonging to the genera Cryptococcus, Leucosporidiella, Rhodotorula, Guehomyces, Candida, Metschnikowia and Debaryomyces) were screened for extracellular amylolytic, proteolytic, esterasic, pectinolytic, inulolytic xylanolytic and cellulolytic activities at low and moderate temperatures...
September 2016: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27441664/compatibility-of-injectable-anticoagulant-agents-in-ethanol-in-vitro-antibiofilm-activity-and-impact-on-polyurethane-catheters-of-enoxaparin-400-u-ml-in-40-v-v-ethanol
#18
Damien Balestrino, Mercédès Quintana, Nicolas Charbonnel, Christiane Forestier, Claire Lartigue, Bertrand Souweine
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Interdialytic lock solutions should maintain catheter patency and prevent catheter infections. We aimed to determine in which conditions injectable anticoagulant agents (IAAs) combined with ethanol are compatible and to assess the antibiofilm activity of the selected combination and its effects on dialysis catheters (DC). METHODS: The solubility and compatibility of unfractionated heparin (UFH), low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs), heparinoids and fondaparinux (50 to 2,500 U/mL) in 30 to 70% ethanol were determined by visual observation...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27411802/candida-vulturna-pro-tempore-sp-nov-a-dimorphic-yeast-species-related-to-the-candida-haemulonis-species-complex-isolated-from-flowers-and-clinical-sample
#19
Matthias Sipiczki, Ratna Mohd Tap
In a taxonomic study of yeasts isolated from flowers in Cagayan de Oro, Mindenao Island, The Philippines, strains were identified as representing Kabatiella microsticta, Metschnikowia koreensis and a hitherto undescribed dimorphic species. Sequences of the D1/D2 domains of the LSU 26S rRNA genes, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions and the SSU 18S rRNA genes were identical in the strains of the last-named group and differed from the corresponding sequences of the type strain of the closest related species, Candida duobushaemulonii, by 4 % (D1/D2), 7 % (ITS) and 1 % (SSU)...
October 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27375091/immobilization-of-chlorophyll-by-using-layer-by-layer-technique-for-controlled-release-systems-and-photodynamic-inactivation
#20
Filipe D S Gorza, Romário J da Silva, Tarquin F Trescher, Graciela C Pedro, Maria A Oliveira de Sousa, Paula C S Souto, Josmary R Silva, Nara C de Souza
The development of systems for the controlled release of drugs is important because they allow the control of drug absorption and tissue distribution and also can reduce local toxicity. This study aimed to assemble and characterize two types of release systems, consisting of layer-by-layer films obtained from poly(allylamine) hydrochloride with chlorophyll (PAH/CHL films) or chlorophyll incorporated into dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine liposomes (PAH/Lip+CHL films). For these systems, the molecular aggregation, growth process, thermally stimulated desorption, wettability, and controlling release of CHL was studied by using UV-vis spectroscopy and wetting contact angle analysis...
September 2016: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
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