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Candida molecular typing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729017/risk-assessment-for-the-spread-of-candida-sp-in-dental-chair-unit-waterlines-using-molecular-techniques
#1
Wissame Mazari, Zahia Boucherit-Otmani, Imad Abdelhamid El Haci, Amine Ilahi, Kebir Boucherit
AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of yeasts in dental chair unit waterlines (DCUWLs) and to test their ability to form biofilms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen dental waterlines were analysed by culture in liquid Sabouraud in order to allow the quantification and the purification of isolated yeasts from their internal surfaces. All isolates were identified by standard laboratory procedures, including CHROMagar Candida medium for orientation, commercial yeast identification system Api Candida, MALDI-TOF MS and DNA sequencing...
May 4, 2018: International Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707674/microsatellite-genotyping-of-clinical-candida-parapsilosis-isolates
#2
Hamid Badali, Sassan Rezaie, Jacques F Meis, Setareh Agha Kuchak Afshari, Mona Modiri, Ferry Hagen, Maryam Moazeni, Rasoul Mohammadi, Sadegh Khodavaisy
Background and Purpose: Candida parapsilosis is a predominant species found in nosocomial infection, particularly in hospitalized patients. The molecular epidemiology of the clinical strains of this species has not been well studied. The present study was performed with the aim of investigating the microsatellite genotyping of Candida parapsilosis among the Iranian clinical isolates. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 81 independent clinical C. parapsilosis isolates that were genotyped by using a panel of six microsatellite markers...
December 2017: Advances in Medical Mycology (Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703257/insp-3-r-sec5-interaction-on-phagosomes-modulates-innate-immunity-to-candida-albicans-by-promoting-cytosolic-ca-2-elevation-and-tbk1-activity
#3
Long Yang, Wenwen Gu, King-Ho Cheung, Lan Yan, Benjamin Chun-Kit Tong, Yuanying Jiang, Jun Yang
BACKGROUND: Candida albicans (C. albicans) invasion triggers antifungal innate immunity, and the elevation of cytoplasmic Ca2+ levels via the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (InsP3 R) plays a critical role in this process. However, the molecular pathways linking the InsP3 R-mediated increase in Ca2+ and immune responses remain elusive. RESULTS: In the present study, we find that during C. albicans phagocytosis in macrophages, exocyst complex component 2 (SEC5) promotes InsP3 R channel activity by binding to its C-terminal α-helix (H1), increasing cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+ ]c )...
April 27, 2018: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696003/multilocus-sequence-typing-reveals-a-new-cluster-of-closely-related-candida-tropicalis-genotypes-in-italian-patients-with-neurological-disorders
#4
Fabio Scordino, Letterio Giuffrè, Giuseppina Barberi, Francesca Marino Merlo, Maria Grazia Orlando, Domenico Giosa, Orazio Romeo
Candida tropicalis is a pathogenic yeast that has emerged as an important cause of candidemia especially in elderly patients with hematological malignancies. Infections caused by this species are mainly reported from Latin America and Asian-Pacific countries although recent epidemiological data revealed that C. tropicalis accounts for 6-16.4% of the Candida bloodstream infections (BSIs) in Italy by representing a relevant issue especially for patients receiving long-term hospital care. The aim of this study was to describe the genetic diversity of C...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695626/rapid-gene-concatenation-for-genetic-rescue-of-multigene-mutants-in-candida-albicans
#5
Manning Y Huang, Carol A Woolford, Aaron P Mitchell
The biological function of a gene is often probed through its interactions with other genes. This general approach has been especially useful to build knowledge about poorly understood genes upon the bedrock of well-characterized genes. Genetic interaction analysis requires the construction of strains with mutations in two or more genes. Single-gene mutants of microbial pathogens are generally validated through introduction of a wild-type copy of the affected gene to create a complemented or reconstituted strain, followed by testing for restoration of a wild-type phenotype...
April 25, 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599969/healthcare-associated-fungal-outbreaks-new-and-uncommon-species-new-molecular-tools-for-investigation-and-prevention
#6
REVIEW
Marie-Elisabeth Bougnoux, Sophie Brun, Jean-Ralph Zahar
Outbreaks of healthcare-associated fungal infections have repeatedly been described over recent years, often caused by new or uncommon species. Candida auris , a recently described multidrug-resistant yeast species, is certainly the most worrisome species having caused several severe healthcare outbreaks of invasive infections, on four continents. Also, large nosocomial outbreaks due to uncommon fungal species such as Exserohilum rostratum and Sarocladium kiliense , were both linked to contamination of medical products, however the source of another outbreak, caused by Saprochaete clavata , remains unresolved...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454824/candida-albicans-biology-molecular-characterization-pathogenicity-and-advances-in-diagnosis-and-control-an-update
#7
REVIEW
Maryam Dadar, Ruchi Tiwari, Kumaragurubaran Karthik, Sandip Chakraborty, Youcef Shahali, Kuldeep Dhama
Candida albicans is an emerging multidrug-resistant fungal pathogen representing an important source of invasive disease in humans and generating high healthcare costs worldwide. This fungus is frequently found in different anatomical sites of healthy persons and could induce systemic and superficial infections under optimal environmental conditions. Invasive candidiasis (IC) is an important nosocomial infection with high morbidity and mortality rates in hospitalized children. It represents a major source of prolonged infections in intensive care unit (ICU), particularly in immunosuppressed or elderly patients...
April 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437000/extraction-identification-and-biological-activities-of-saponins-in-sea-cucumber-pearsonothuria-graeffei
#8
Rafat Afifi Khattab, Mohamed Elbandy, Andrew Lawrence, Tim Paget, Jung Rae-Rho, Yaser S Binnaser, Imran Ali
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Secondary metabolism in marine organisms produces a diversity of biologically important natural compounds that are not present in terrestrial species. Sea cucumbers belong to the invertebrate Echinodermata and are famous for their nutraceutical, medical and food values. They are known for possession triterpenoid glycosides (saponins) with various ecological roles. The current work aimed to separate, identify and test various biological activities (antibacterial, antifungal, antileishmanial and anticancer properties) of saponins produced by the holothurian Pearsonothuria graeffei from the Red Sea, Egypt...
2018: Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408030/molecular-typing-and-genetic-relatedness-of-72-clinical-candida-albicans-isolates-from-poultry
#9
Jianchai Liu, Huanzhang Liu, Jinkun Yan, Na Liu, Heping Zhang, Chengrui Zhao, Yanwei Liu
Candida albicans is the most prevalent opportunistic fungus of humans and animals. While most studies focus on human isolates, they rarely focus on poultry isolates. In this study, C. albicans strains were recovered from poultry in the southern Hebei Province (China) and identified. Molecular typing and analyses were performed to understand the molecular epidemiology and genetic relatedness of the strains. The fungi were isolated from live birds with presumed candidiasis or their corpses. The isolates were identified based on morphology, differential medium culture, and rDNA internal transcribed spacer sequencing...
February 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401704/the-study-of-anti-pro-oxidant-lipophilic-microbial-and-spectroscopic-properties-of-new-alkali-metal-salts-of-5-o-caffeoylquinic-acid
#10
Monika Kalinowska, Ewelina Bajko, Marzena Matejczyk, Piotr Kaczyński, Bożena Łozowicka, Włodzimierz Lewandowski
Lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and caesium salts of 5- O -caffeoylquinic acid (chlorogenic acid, 5-CQA) were synthesized and described by FT-IR (infrared spectroscopy), FT-Raman (Raman spectroscopy), UV (UV absorption spectroscopy), ¹H (400.15 MHz), 13 C (100.63 MHz) NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy). The quantum-chemical calculations at the B3LYP/6-311++G** level were done in order to obtain the optimal structures, IR spectra, NBO (natural bond orbital) atomic charges, HOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital) and LUMO (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital) orbitals and chemical reactivity parameters for 5-CQA and Li, Na and K 5-CQAs (chlorogenates)...
February 4, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341887/molecular-basis-of-substrate-polyspecificity-of-the-candida-albicans-mdr1p-multidrug-h-antiporter
#11
Archana Kumari Redhu, Atanu Banerjee, Abdul Haseeb Shah, Alexis Moreno, Manpreet Kaur Rawal, Remya Nair, Pierre Falson, Rajendra Prasad
The molecular basis of polyspecificity of Mdr1p, a major drug/H+ antiporter of Candida albicans, is not elucidated. We have probed the nature of the drug-binding pocket by performing systematic mutagenesis of the 12 transmembrane segments. Replacement of the 252 amino acid residues with alanine or glycine yielded 2/3 neutral mutations while 1/3 led to the complete or selective lost of resistance to drugs or substrates transported by the pump. Using the GlpT-based 3D-model of Mdr1p, we roughly categorized these critical residues depending on their type and localization 1°/ main structural impact ("S" group), 2°/ exposure to the lipid interface ("L" group), 3°/ buried but not facing the main central pocket, inferred as critical for the overall H+/drug antiport mechanism ("M" group) and finally 4°/ buried and facing the main central pocket ("B" group)...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318401/synthesis-anti-microbial-activity-cytotoxicity-of-some-novel-substituted-5-3-1h-benzo-d-imidazol-2-yl-4-hydroxybenzyl-benzofuran-2-yl-phenyl-methanone-analogs
#12
Bhookya Shankar, Pochampally Jalapathi, Balabadra Saikrishna, Shaym Perugu, Vijjulatha Manga
BACKGROUND: There is a dire need for the discovery and development of new antimicrobial agents after several experiments for a better resistance of microorganisms towards antimicrobial agents become a serious health problem for a few years in the past. As benzimidazole possess various types of biological activities, it has been synthesized, in the present study, a new series of (5-(3-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)-4-hydroxybenzyl)benzofuran-2-yl)(phenyl)methanone analogs by using the condensation and screened for its in vitro antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity...
January 9, 2018: Chemistry Central Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261697/microbial-cells-can-cooperate-to-resist-high-level-chronic-ionizing-radiation
#13
Igor Shuryak, Vera Y Matrosova, Elena K Gaidamakova, Rok Tkavc, Olga Grichenko, Polina Klimenkova, Robert P Volpe, Michael J Daly
Understanding chronic ionizing radiation (CIR) effects is of utmost importance to protecting human health and the environment. Diverse bacteria and fungi inhabiting extremely radioactive waste and disaster sites (e.g. Hanford, Chernobyl, Fukushima) represent new targets of CIR research. We show that many microorganisms can grow under intense gamma-CIR dose rates of 13-126 Gy/h, with fungi identified as a particularly CIR-resistant group of eukaryotes: among 145 phylogenetically diverse strains tested, 78 grew under 36 Gy/h...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174600/hybrid-combinations-containing-natural-products-and-antimicrobial-drugs-that-interfere-with-bacterial-and-fungal-biofilms
#14
REVIEW
Susana A Zacchino, Estefanía Butassi, Estefanía Cordisco, Laura A Svetaz
BACKGROUND: Biofilms contribute to the pathogenesis of many chronic and difficult-to eradicate infections whose treatment is complicated due to the intrinsic resistance to conventional antibiotics. As a consequence, there is an urgent need for strategies that can be used for the prevention and treatment of biofilm-associated infections. The combination therapy comprising an antimicrobial drug with a low molecular weight (MW) natural product and an antimicrobial drug (antifungal or antibacterial) appeared as a good alternative to eradicate biofilms...
December 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167801/breaking-the-bad-bacillus-blocks-fungal-virulence-factors
#15
COMMENT
François L Mayer, James W Kronstad
Fungal pathogens rely on the production of specific virulence factors during infection. Inhibiting such factors generally results in reduced fungal pathogenicity. Most studies in the past have focused on understanding the molecular mechanisms of fungal virulence factor expression during mono-culture, or during interaction with the host. However, a potentially important, second type of interaction has been less well studied thus far - the interplay of fungal pathogens of humans with other microbes found in their natural habitat...
October 30, 2017: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136186/clonal-spread-and-azole-resistant-mechanisms-of-non-susceptible-candida-albicans-isolates-from-vulvovaginal-candidiasis-patients-in-three-shanghai-maternity-hospitals
#16
YongQin Wu, Cui Li, ZhiHeng Wang, Jing Gao, ZhenHua Tang, HuiFen Chen, ChunMei Ying
In our multicenter study, 43 fluconazole non-susceptible and 45 fluconazole-susceptible isolates were collected from vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) patients from three Shanghai maternity hospitals to analyze their molecular epidemiological features and fluconazole resistant mechanisms. Cross-resistance to fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole was observed in 53.5% of the nonsusceptible isolates. Though we acquired 12 clonal complexes (CCs) of diploid sequence types (DSTs) in clinical isolates by a multilocus sequence typing method, fluconazole nonsusceptible isolates all belonged to CC69 with a predominant genotype of DST 79...
November 9, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134932/outbreak-of-pichia-kudriavzevii-fungaemia-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#17
T Nagarathnamma, Sneha K Chunchanur, Shivaprakash M Rudramurthy, K R Vineetha, Karthik Ramamurthy, Jillwin Joseph, R Ambica
PURPOSE: Fungaemia is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality in neonates admitted to neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). We report an outbreak of fungaemia in a NICU due to rare yeast, Pichia kudriavzevii (a teleomorph of Candida krusei). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of neonatal sepsis due to P. kudriavzevii. METHODOLOGY: Between August and September 2014, blood cultures from nine neonates diagnosed with late-onset sepsis in the NICU yielded yeast-like organisms...
December 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054522/antimicrobial-activity-of-a-newly-identified-kazal-type-serine-proteinase-inhibitor-cckpi1-from-the-jellyfish-cyanea-capillata
#18
Yonghong Zhou, Guoyan Liu, Xi Cheng, Qianqian Wang, Bo Wang, Beilei Wang, Hui Zhang, Qian He, Liming Zhang
In this study, we reported a jellyfish-derived Kazal-type serine protease inhibitor, named CcKPI1, from Cyanea capillata. CcKPI1 has a calculated molecular mass of 19.02kDa and contains three typical Kazal domains. Soluble recombinant CcKPI1 (rCcKPI1) was successfully expressed and purified. rCcKPI1 exhibited significant inhibitory activities against elastase, subtilisin A and proteinase K, but not against trypsin or chymotrypsin. Kinetic studies showed that all of the inhibitory effects of rCcKPI1 were competitive, indicating that it may be a microbial serine protease inhibitor and can exhibit antimicrobial activity...
February 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968565/long-range-molecular-dynamics-study-of-interactions-of-the-eukaryotic-glucosamine-6-phosphate-synthase-with-fructose-6-phosphate-and-udp-glcnac
#19
Aleksandra Miszkiel, Marek Wojciechowski
Glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase (EC 2.6.1.16) is responsible for catalysis of the first and practically irreversible step in hexosamine metabolism. The final product of this pathway, uridine 5' diphospho N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc), is an essential substrate for assembly of bacterial and fungal cell walls. Moreover, the enzyme is involved in phenomenon of hexosamine induced insulin resistance in type II diabetes, which makes of it a potential target for anti-fungal, anti-bacterial and anti-diabetic therapy...
November 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918151/internal-transcribed-spacer-its-sequencing-reveals-considerable-fungal-diversity-in-dairy-products
#20
A J Buehler, R L Evanowski, N H Martin, K J Boor, M Wiedmann
Fungi are important spoilage organisms in dairy products. However, little is known about the diversity of naturally occurring spoilage fungi in raw milk and processed dairy products, due at least in part to the fact that classical fungal identification methods require considerable expertise. To gain further insight into the fungal diversity in the dairy system, we isolated fungi from raw milk, raw and pasteurized milk cheese, and yogurt using the selective dichloran rose bengal chloramphenicol agar. In total, 361 fungal isolates were obtained and further characterized by DNA sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and the nuclear ribosomal large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene if needed...
November 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
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