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Candida typing

Yujie Zhou, Min Liao, Chengguang Zhu, Yao Hu, Ting Tong, Xian Peng, Mingyun Li, Mingye Feng, Lei Cheng, Biao Ren, Xuedong Zhou
The hyphal development of Candida albicans (C. albicans) has been considered as an essential virulent factor for host cell damage. However, the missing link between hyphae and virulence of C. albicans is also been discovered. Here, we identified that the null mutants of ERG3 and ERG11, two key genes in ergosterol biosynthesis pathway, can form typical hyphae but failed to cause the oral mucosal infection in vitro and in vivo for the first time. In particular, the erg3Δ/Δ and erg11Δ/Δ strains co-cultured with epithelial cells significantly reduced the adhesion, damage, and cytokine (interleukin-1α (IL-1α)) production, whereas the invasion was not affected in vitro...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Oral Science
Pamela El Khoury, Andy Awad, Brigitte Wex, Roy A Khalaf
We have previously characterized Pir32, a Candia albicans cell wall protein that we found to be involved in filamentation, virulence, chitin deposition, and resistance to oxidative stress. Other than defining the cell shape, the cell wall is critical for the interaction with the surrounding environment and the point of contact and interaction with the host surface. In this study, we applied tandem mass spectrometry combined with bioinformatics to investigate cell wall proteome changes in a pir32 null strain...
2018: PloS One
Ana Martinez-Naharro, Tushar Kotecha, Karl Norrington, Michele Boldrini, Tamer Rezk, Candida Quarta, Thomas A Treibel, Carol J Whelan, Daniel S Knight, Peter Kellman, Frederick L Ruberg, Julian D Gillmore, James C Moon, Philip N Hawkins, Marianna Fontana
OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the prognostic potential of native myocardial T1 in cardiac transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTR) and compared native T1 with extracellular volume (ECV) in terms of diagnostic accuracy and prognosis. BACKGROUND: ATTR is an increasingly recognized cause of heart failure that has an overlapping clinical phenotype with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Native T1 mapping by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is useful for diagnosis in cardiac amyloidosis but its prognostic potential has never been assessed...
March 12, 2018: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
Ilias Kounatidis, Lauren Ames, Rupal Mistry, Hsueh-Lui Ho, Ken Haynes, Petros Ligoxygakis
Candida glabrata ( C. glabrata ) forms part of the normal human gut microbiota but can cause life-threatening invasive infections in immune-compromised individuals. C. glabrata displays high resistance to common azole antifungals, which necessitates new treatments. In this investigation, we identified five C. glabrata deletion mutants ( Δada2 , Δbas1 , Δhir3, Δino2 and Δmet31 ) from a library of 196 transcription factor mutants that were unable to grow and activate an immune response in Drosophila larvae...
March 13, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
J Denis, M-P Ledoux, Y Nivoix, R Herbrecht
Triazoles compounds are first-line agents for the treatment of invasive fungal diseases. Isavuconazole is the most recent triazole compound, approved in 2015 by the FDA and the EMA to treat invasive aspergillosis and mucormycosis. We reviewed here the in vitro activity of isavuconazole against a vast spectrum of species. Isavuconazole MICs were evaluated using CLSI, EUCAST or Etest methods, with no significant differences between the technics. Low MIC50 and MIC90 (<1μg/mL) were described for isavuconazole against the majority of Candida spp...
March 10, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
Qingdi Quentin Li, Huei-Fung Tsai, Ajeet Mandal, Bryan A Walker, Jason A Noble, Yuichi Fukuda, John E Bennett
Pathogenic fungi, including Candida glabrata, develop strategies to grow and survive both in vitro and in vivo under azole stress. However, the mechanisms by which yeast cells counteract the inhibitory effects of azoles are not completely understood. In the current study, it was demonstrated that the expression of the ergosterol biosynthetic genes ERG2, ERG3, ERG4, ERG10, and ERG11 was significantly upregulated in C. glabrata following fluconazole treatment. Inhibiting ergosterol biosynthesis using fluconazole also increased the expression of the sterol influx transporter AUS1 and the sterol metabolism regulators SUT1 and UPC2 in fungal cells...
March 9, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Muneyoshi Kimura, Hideki Araoka, Hisashi Yamamoto, Shigeki Nakamura, Minoru Nagi, Satoshi Yamagoe, Yoshitsugu Miyazaki, Sho Ogura, Takashi Mitsuki, Mitsuhiro Yuasa, Daisuke Kaji, Kosei Kageyama, Aya Nishida, Yuki Taya, Hiroshi Shimazu, Kazuya Ishiwata, Shinsuke Takagi, Go Yamamoto, Yuki Asano-Mori, Naoyuki Uchida, Atsushi Wake, Shuichi Taniguchi, Akiko Yoneyama
Limited data are available on micafungin breakthrough fungemia (MBF), fungemia that develops on administration of micafungin, in patients with hematological disorders. We reviewed medical and microbiological records of patients with hematological disorders who developed MBF between January 2008 and June 2015. A total of 39 patients with MBF were identified and Candida (30 strains) and non- Candida (9 strains) fungal species were recognized as causative strains. Among 35 stored strains, C. parapsilosis (14 strains), Trichosporon asahii (7 strains), C...
March 12, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Chang Jia, Kai Zhang, Dan Zhang, Qilin Yu, Qiang Zhao, Chenpeng Xiao, Yijie Dong, Maoping Chu, Mingchun Li
The vacuolar-type H+ -ATPase (V-ATPase) is known to be associated with various cellular processes. Several V-ATPase subunits have been identified in C. albicans. However, there are still a few V-ATPase subunits and assembly factors that remain uncharacterized. In this study, we identified one of putative V-ATPase assembly factors, Vph2, and V0 subunit, Vma6, and explored their potential functions in C. albicans. Our results revealed that Vph2 and Vma6 were required for the correct distribution of V0 subunit Vph1 and V1 subunit Tfp1...
March 6, 2018: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Dejan Stojkovic, Marina Kostic, Marija Smiljkovic, Milena Aleksic, Perica Vasiljevic, Milos Nikolic, Marina Sokovic
The following review is oriented towards microbes linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD) and antimicrobial effect of compounds and extracts derived from aquatic organisms against specific bacteria, fungi and viruses which were found previously in patients suffering from AD. Major group of microbes linked to AD include bacteria: Chlamydia pneumoniae, Helicobacter pylori, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia, Actinomyces naeslundii, spirochete group; fungi: Candida sp., Cryptococcus sp...
March 8, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Frank Schwab, Christine Geffers, Michael Behnke, Petra Gastmeier
OBJECTIVE: Mortality due to intensive care unit (ICU) acquired primary blood stream infections (PBSI) is related primarily to patient co-morbidities, types of pathogens and quality of care. The objective of this study is to determine the impact of various types of pathogen on ICU mortality. METHODS: Data from the German National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System of patients with PBSI from 2006 to 2015 was used for this analysis. A BSI is primary when the pathogen recognized is not related to an infection on another site...
2018: PloS One
Maiken Cavling Arendrup, Joseph Meletiadis, Oscar Zaragoza, Karin Meinike Jørgensen, Laura Judith Marcos-Zambrano, Lamprini Kanioura, Manuel Cuenca-Estrella, Johan W Mouton, Jesus Guinea
OBJECTIVES: Rezafungin (CD101) is a new long-acting echinocandin allowing weekly dosing, currently undergoing phase-II clinical trials for invasive candidiasis. The aim of this study was to assess rezafungin's in vitro activity against the most frequent Candida species following the EUCAST methodology. METHODS: The susceptibility of 2,018 clinical Candida isolates was determined at four European laboratories. In parallel, six control strains were repeatedly tested...
March 2, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Ana Raquel O Santos, Marina P Leon, Katharina O Barros, Larissa F D Freitas, Alice F S Hughes, Paula B Morais, Marc-André Lachance, Carlos A Rosa
Six novel yeast species, Starmerella camargoi f.a., sp. nov., Starmerella ilheusensis f.a., sp. nov., Starmerella litoralis f.a., Starmerella opuntiae f.a., sp. nov., sp. nov., Starmerella roubikii f.a., sp. nov. and Starmerella vitae f.a, sp. nov. are proposed to accommodate 19 isolates recovered from ephemeral flowers or bees in Brazil, Costa Rica and Belize. Sequence analysis of the ITS-5.8S region (when available) and the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit of the rRNA gene showed that the six novel yeasts are phylogenetically related to several species of the Starmerella clade...
March 2, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Miao Dong, Pei Cao, Ya-Tuan Ma, Jianying Luo, Yijun Yan, Rong-Tao Li, Sheng-Xiong Huang
Actinomycin Z6 (1), a new member of the actinomycin family, along with three congeners of the Z-type (Z1 , Z3 , Z5 ) actinomycins, are produced from Streptomyces sp. KIB-H714. Their structures were authenticated by comprehensive spectroscopic data interpretation. Different from all the reported Z-type actinomycins, the β-ring of the new compound actinomycin Z6 includes an additional ring linked between the actinoyl chromophore and β-peptidolactone. In Z3 and Z5 , the L-threonine in β-depsipeptide is replaced by the unusual 4-chlorothreonine, an amino acid rarely found in actinomycin family...
March 2, 2018: Natural Product Research
Rodrigo Abonia, Alexander Garay, Juan C Castillo, Braulio Insuasty, Jairo Quiroga, Manuel Nogueras, Justo Cobo, Estefanía Butassi, Susana Zacchino
Two practical and efficient approaches have been implemented as alternative procedures for the synthesis of naftifine and novel diversely substituted analogues 16 and 20 in good to excellent yields, mediated by Mannich-type reactions as the key step of the processes. In these approaches, the γ-aminoalcohols 15 and 19 were obtained as the key intermediates and their subsequent dehydration catalyzed either by Brønsted acids like H₂SO₄ and HCl or Lewis acid like AlCl₃, respectively, led to naftifine, along with the target allylamines 16 and 20 ...
February 26, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Mohammad Yasir, Jaspreet Singh, Manish Kumar Tripathi, Pushpendra Singh, Rahul Shrivastava
Background: Silver nanoparticles have excellent medical and nonmedical properties and application compared with other metallic nanoparticles. In the present study, fresh leaves of Syngonium podophyllum have been used for synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Objectives: In this study, we evaluated the anticandidal activity of S. podophyllum and the synthesized nanoparticles. Materials and Methods: In this study, simple and economical procedure was adopted for silver nanoparticles synthesis...
January 2018: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Mubashshir Rasheed, Anamika Battu, Rupinder Kaur
A family of 11 cell surface-associated aspartyl proteases (CgYps1-11), also referred as yapsins, is a key virulence factor in the pathogenic yeast Candida glabrata. However, the mechanism by which CgYapsins modulate immune response and facilitate survival in the mammalian host, remains to be identified. Here, using RNA-Seq analysis, we report that genes involved in cell wall metabolism are differentially regulated in the Cgyps1-11Δ mutant. Consistently, the mutant contained lower β-glucan and mannan levels and exhibited increased chitin content in the cell wall...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Arthur J Morris, Karen Rogers, Wendy P McKinney, Sally A Roberts, Joshua T Freeman
OBJECTIVES: We have reviewed the susceptibility results of local yeast isolates performed 2001-2015 to record the impact of recently updated interpretive criteria, and epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs), for yeast species. METHODS: Testing was performed using Sensititre® YeastOne® and results interpreted following CLSI criteria or YeastOne derived ECVs. RESULTS: 2345 isolates were tested; 62% were from sterile body sites or tissue. Application of the new CLSI interpretative criteria for fluconazole increased the proportion of non-susceptible isolates of C...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Simone Cesaro, Gloria Tridello, Nicole Blijlevens, Per Ljungman, Charles Craddock, Mauricette Michallet, Alexander Martin, John A Snowden, Mohamad Mohty, Johan Maertens, Jacob Passweg, Eefke Petersen, Anne Nihtinen, Cecilia Isaksson, Noel Milpied, Pierre-Simon Rohlich, Eric Deconinck, Charles Crawley, Marie-Pierre Ledoux, Jennifer Hoek, Arnon Nagler, Jan Styczynski
Objectives: To assess the incidence of, and risk factors for, Candida infection in the first 100 days after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and the impact on long-term survival. Methods: outcome analysis of 28,542 acute leukemia patients who underwent HSCT from 2000 to 2012: 347 with candidemia by day +100, and 28,195 without candidemia or any other type of Candida infection. Results: The incidence of candidemia by day +100 was 1...
February 22, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Paolo Baldissara, Vinícius Felipe Wandscher, Ana Maria Estivalete Marchionatti, Candida Parisi, Carlo Monaco, Leonardo Ciocca
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Although several monolithic zirconia ceramics have recently been introduced, the need for improved optical properties remains. The newest cubic-zirconia has been claimed to have optimal translucency characteristics for esthetic restorations. PURPOSE: This in vitro study evaluated the optical properties of novel cubic ultratranslucent (UT) and supertranslucent (ST) zirconia by comparing them with lithium disilicate (L-DIS) glass-ceramic for the manufacture of monolithic computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) molar crowns...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
Patryk Oleszczuk, Michał Kołtowski
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of biochar aging on the content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (the total content - Ctot , and the freely dissolved - Cfree ) in biochar and its ecotoxicity. Two biochars (BCS and BCM) with varying properties were aged for 420 days at different temperatures (-20 °C, 4 °C, 20 °C, 70 °C), at a variable temperature (-20/20 °C), in the presence of nutrients, and in the presence of inoculum and nutrients. After the aging process, Ctot and Cfree PAHs were determined in samples obtained and an ecotoxicological analysis was performed, which involved tests with bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), invertebrates (Folsomia candida) and plants (Lepidium sativum)...
February 20, 2018: Environmental Pollution
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