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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136186/clonal-spread-and-azole-resistant-mechanisms-of-non-susceptible-candida-albicans-isolates-from-vulvovaginal-candidiasis-patients-in-three-shanghai-maternity-hospitals
#1
YongQin Wu, Cui Li, ZhiHeng Wang, Jing Gao, ZhenHua Tang, HuiFen Chen, ChunMei Ying
In our multicenter study, 43 fluconazole non-susceptible and 45 fluconazole-susceptible isolates were collected from vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) patients from three Shanghai maternity hospitals to analyze their molecular epidemiological features and fluconazole resistant mechanisms. Cross-resistance to fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole was observed in 53.5% of the nonsusceptible isolates. Though we acquired 12 clonal complexes (CCs) of diploid sequence types (DSTs) in clinical isolates by a multilocus sequence typing method, fluconazole nonsusceptible isolates all belonged to CC69 with a predominant genotype of DST 79...
November 9, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134932/outbreak-of-pichia-kudriavzevii-fungaemia-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#2
T Nagarathnamma, Sneha K Chunchanur, Shivaprakash M Rudramurthy, K R Vineetha, Karthik Ramamurthy, Jillwin Joseph, R Ambica
PURPOSE: Fungaemia is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality in neonates admitted to neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). We report an outbreak of fungaemia in a NICU due to rare yeast, Pichia kudriavzevii (a teleomorph of Candida krusei). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of neonatal sepsis due to P. kudriavzevii. METHODOLOGY: Between August and September 2014, blood cultures from nine neonates diagnosed with late-onset sepsis in the NICU yielded yeast-like organisms...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133884/epha2-is-an-epithelial-cell-pattern-recognition-receptor-for-fungal-%C3%AE-glucans
#3
Marc Swidergall, Norma V Solis, Michail S Lionakis, Scott G Filler
Oral epithelial cells discriminate between pathogenic and non-pathogenic stimuli, and only induce an inflammatory response when they are exposed to high levels of a potentially harmful microorganism. The pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in epithelial cells that mediate this differential response are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the ephrin type-A receptor 2 (EphA2) is an oral epithelial cell PRR that binds to exposed β-glucans on the surface of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Binding of C...
November 13, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132828/lactoferrin-chitosan-and-melaleuca-alternifolia-natural-products-that-show-promise-in-candidiasis-treatment
#4
REVIEW
Lorena de Oliveira Felipe, Willer Ferreira da Silva Júnior, Katialaine Corrêa de Araújo, Daniela Leite Fabrino
The evolution of microorganisms resistant to many medicines has become a major challenge for the scientific community around the world. Motivated by the gravity of such a situation, the World Health Organization released a report in 2014 with the aim of providing updated information on this critical scenario. Among the most worrying microorganisms, species from the genus Candida have exhibited a high rate of resistance to antifungal drugs. Therefore, the objective of this review is to show that the use of natural products (extracts or isolated biomolecules), along with conventional antifungal therapy, can be a very promising strategy to overcome microbial multiresistance...
November 10, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129632/synthesis-characterization-of-zno-chitosan-nanocomposites-and-evaluation-of-its-antifungal-activity-against-pathogenic-candida-albicans
#5
S H S Dananjaya, R Saravana Kumar, Minyang Yang, Chamilani Nikapitiya, Jehee Lee, Mahanama De Zoysa
In this study, we investigated the antifungal activity and cytotoxicity of ZnO-chitosan nanocomposites against Candida albicans and human epithelial type 2 (HEp2) cells, respectively. The crystalline phase, morphology, composition, particle size and optical absorption properties of the synthesized ZnO-C NCs were systematically investigated by various contemporary methods The X-ray diffraction analysis results showed characteristic diffraction peaks corresponding to both ZnO and chitosan, while field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) displayed clusters of spherical shaped particulate morphology...
November 9, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128406/recognition-of-candida-albicans-by-gingival-fibroblasts-the-role-of-tlr2-tlr4-cd14-and-myd88
#6
Claudia Ramos Pinheiro, Ana Lúcia Coelho, Carine Ervolino de Oliveira, Thaís Helena Gasparoto, Gustavo Pompermaier Garlet, João Santana Silva, Carlos Ferreira Santos, Karen Angélica Cavassani, Cory M Hogaboam, Ana Paula Campanelli
Recent evidence indicates that nonprofessional immune cells such as epithelial cells, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts also contribute to innate immunity via secretion of cytokines. Fibroblasts are the principal type of cell found in the periodontal connective tissues and they are involved in the immune response during periodontal disease. The role of fibroblasts in the recognition of pathogens via Toll-like receptors (TLRs) has been established; however, few studies have been conducted concerning the involvement of innate immune receptors in the recognition of Candida albicans by gingival fibroblast...
November 8, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128346/mortality-risk-factors-among-non-icu-patients-with-nosocomial-vascular-catheter-related-bloodstream-infections-a-prospective-cohort-study
#7
Patrick Saliba, Ana Hornero, Guillermo Cuervo, Immaculada Grau, Emilio Jimenez, Dolors García, Fe Tubau, Jose María Martínez-Sánchez, Jordi Carratalà, Miquel Pujol
BACKGROUND: Vascular catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) are highly preventable hospital-acquired infections and a major threat to patient safety. While there is significant information regarding CRBSI outcome among Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients, data regarding non-ICU patients are scarce. AIM: To determine the risk factors associated with 30-day mortality among non-ICU patients with nosocomial CRBSIs. METHODS: Prospective cohort study of non-ICU patients with nosocomial CRBSIs in a tertiary-care centre, between January 2004 and December 2014...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124467/spathaspora-piracicabensis-f-a-sp-nov-a-d-xylose-fermenting-yeast-species-isolated-from-rotting-wood-in-brazil
#8
Camila S Varize, Raquel M Cadete, Lucas D Lopes, Renata M Christofoleti-Furlan, Marc-André Lachance, Carlos A Rosa, Luiz C Basso
Two strains of a novel yeast species were isolated from rotting wood of an ornamental tree (purple quaresmeira, Tibouchina granulosa, Melastomataceae) in an Atlantic Rainforest area in Brazil. Analysis of the sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS-5.8S) region and the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit rRNA gene showed that this species belongs to the Spathaspora clade, and is phylogenetically related to Spathaspora brasiliensis, Candida materiae and Sp. girioi. The novel species ferments D-xylose, producing ethanol, with amounts between 3...
November 9, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110536/histone-acetyltransferase-encoded-by-ngg1-is-required-for-morphological-conversion-and-virulence-of-candida-albicans
#9
De-Dong Li, Beth Burgwyn Fuchs, Yan Wang, Xiao-Wen Huang, Dan-Dan Hu, Yan Sun, Dong Chai, Yuan-Ying Jiang, Eleftherios Mylonakis
AIM: To assess the function of Ngg1 in Candida albicans and reveal the role of NGG1 in the morphological conversion and virulence of C. albicans. MATERIALS & METHODS: C. albicans NGG1 gene was deleted in the wild-type strain SC5314 and the function of Ngg1 was assessed by western blot analysis. The phenotypes and the virulence of the ngg1 mutants were examined. Microarray analysis was performed to explore the mechanism. RESULTS: The ngg1 mutants attenuated acetylated histone H3, obviously reduced filamentous growth and showed significantly diminished pathogenicity in all the infection models...
November 7, 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110155/streptomyces-swartbergensis-sp-nov-a-novel-tyrosinase-and-antibiotic-producing-actinobacterium
#10
Marilize le Roes-Hill, Alaric Prins, Paul R Meyers
As part of an antibiotic screening program, an actinobacterium, strain HMC13(T), was isolated from soil collected from the banks of the Gamka River, Western Cape Province, South Africa. The isolate was found to produce branched mycelia that differentiated into spiral spore chains with spiny spores. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed the strain to be closely related to Streptomyces caelestis NRRL 2418(T) (99.72%) and Streptomyces azureus NBRC 12744(T) (99.51%). Chemotaxonomic analyses confirmed the classification of the strain as a member of the genus Streptomyces: LL-DAP in the peptidoglycan, no diagnostic sugars in the whole cell sugar pattern, dominant menaquinones including MK9(H8), MK9(H6), and the polar lipids detected included phosphatidylethanolamine...
November 6, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107946/yeast-casein-kinase-2-governs-morphology-biofilm-formation-cell-wall-integrity-and-host-cell-damage-of-candida-albicans
#11
Sook-In Jung, Natalie Rodriguez, Jihyun Irrizary, Karl Liboro, Thania Bogarin, Marlene Macias, Edward Eivers, Edith Porter, Scott G Filler, Hyunsook Park
The regulatory networks governing morphogenesis of a pleomorphic fungus, Candida albicans are extremely complex and remain to be completely elucidated. This study investigated the function of C. albicans yeast casein kinase 2 (CaYck2p). The yck2Δ/yck2Δ strain displayed constitutive pseudohyphae in both yeast and hyphal growth conditions, and formed enhanced biofilm under non-biofilm inducing condition. This finding was further supported by gene expression analysis of the yck2Δ/yck2Δ strain which showed significant upregulation of UME6, a key transcriptional regulator of hyphal transition and biofilm formation, and cell wall protein genes ALS3, HWP1, and SUN41, all of which are associated with morphogenesis and biofilm architecture...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101209/oral-epithelial-cells-orchestrate-innate-type-17-responses-to-candida-albicans-through-the-virulence-factor-candidalysin
#12
Akash H Verma, Jonathan P Richardson, Chunsheng Zhou, Bianca M Coleman, David L Moyes, Jemima Ho, Anna R Huppler, Kritika Ramani, Mandy J McGeachy, Ilgiz A Mufazalov, Ari Waisman, Lawrence P Kane, Partha S Biswas, Bernhard Hube, Julian R Naglik, Sarah L Gaffen
Candida albicans is a dimorphic commensal fungus that causes severe oral infections in immunodeficient patients. Invasion of C. albicans hyphae into oral epithelium is an essential virulence trait. Interleukin-17 (IL-17) signaling is required for both innate and adaptive immunity to C. albicans During the innate response, IL-17 is produced by γδ T cells and a poorly understood population of innate-acting CD4(+) αβ T cell receptor (TCRαβ)(+) cells, but only the TCRαβ(+) cells expand during acute infection...
November 3, 2017: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095556/antibacterial-and-antifungal-activity-activity-of-pyroligneous-acid-from-wood-of-eucalyptus-urograndis-and-mimosa-tenuiflora
#13
Eduardo de Souza Araújo, Alexandre Santos Pimenta, Francisco M C Feijó, Renato Vinicius Oliveira Castro, Maíra Fasciotti, Thays V C Monteiro, Kássio Michel Gomes de Lima
AIMS: The present work aimed to evaluate the antibacterial and antifungal activity of two types of pyroligneous acid (PA) obtained from slow pyrolysis of wood of Mimosa tenuiflora and of a hybrid of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Wood wedges were carbonized on a heating rate of 1.25°C/min until 450°C. Pyrolysis smoke was trapped and condensed to yield liquid products. Crude pyrolysis liquids were bi-distilled under 5 mmHg vacuum yielding purified PA...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094244/blastobotrys-persicus-sp-nov-an-ascomycetous-yeast-species-isolated-from-cave-soil
#14
Hoda Nouri, Hamid Moghimi, Marzieh Geranpayeh Vaghei, Shaghayegh Nasr
Two strains (AHD129-1(T) and AHD129-2) of a new anamorphic yeast species were isolated from Mejare cave soil samples of Abdanan, Ilam, Iran. Nucleotide divergence in the D1/D2 domain of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA, and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) genes suggest that the two strains can be assigned to the Trichomonascus/Blastobotrys clade. A maximum likelihood tree based on sequences of the D1/D2 domain revealed that the new species is closely related to the species Trichomonascus ciferrii, Candida allociferrii, and Candida mucifera...
November 1, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081917/inactivation-of-genes-tec1-and-efg1-in-candida-albicans-influences-extracellular-matrix-composition-and-biofilm-morphology
#15
Beatriz Helena Dias Panariello, Marlise I Klein, Ana Claudia Pavarina, Simone Duarte
Background: Infections caused by Candida spp. have been associated with formation of a biofilm, i.e. a complex microstructure of cells adhering to a surface and embedded within an extracellular matrix (ECM). Methods: The ECMs of a wild-type (WT, SN425) and two Candida albicans mutant strains, Δ/Δ tec1 (CJN2330) and Δ/Δ efg1 (CJN2302), were evaluated. Colony-forming units (cfu), total biomass (mg), water-soluble polysaccharides (WSPs), alkali-soluble polysaccharides (ASPs), proteins (insoluble part of biofilms and matrix proteins), and extracellular DNA (eDNA) were quantified...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076587/high-prevalence-of-candiduria-due-to-non-albicans-candida-species-among-diabetic-patients-a-matter-of-concern
#16
Alireza Esmailzadeh, Hossein Zarrinfar, AbdolMajid Fata, Tanuka Sen
BACKGROUND: Among the fungal pathogens, Candida species are the most common cause of urinary tract infection (UTI). Some predisposing factors such as diabetes mellitus, urinary retention, urinary stasis, renal transplantation, and hospitalization can increase the risk of candiduria. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate candiduria among type 2 diabetic patients and identification of the Candida isolates. METHOD: Four hundred clean-catch midstream urine specimens were obtained from patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067009/an-investigation-into-rumen-fungal-and-protozoal-diversity-in-three-rumen-fractions-during-high-fiber-or-grain-induced-sub-acute-ruminal-acidosis-conditions-with-or-without-active-dry-yeast-supplementation
#17
Suzanne L Ishaq, Ousama AlZahal, Nicola Walker, Brian McBride
Sub-acute ruminal acidosis (SARA) is a gastrointestinal functional disorder in livestock characterized by low rumen pH, which reduces rumen function, microbial diversity, host performance, and host immune function. Dietary management is used to prevent SARA, often with yeast supplementation as a pH buffer. Almost nothing is known about the effect of SARA or yeast supplementation on ruminal protozoal and fungal diversity, despite their roles in fiber degradation. Dairy cows were switched from a high-fiber to high-grain diet abruptly to induce SARA, with and without active dry yeast (ADY, Saccharomyces cerevisiae) supplementation, and sampled from the rumen fluid, solids, and epimural fractions to determine microbial diversity using the protozoal 18S rRNA and the fungal ITS1 genes via Illumina MiSeq sequencing...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062088/a-crispr-cas9-based-gene-drive-platform-for-genetic-interaction-analysis-in-candida-albicans
#18
Rebecca S Shapiro, Alejandro Chavez, Caroline B M Porter, Meagan Hamblin, Christian S Kaas, James E DiCarlo, Guisheng Zeng, Xiaoli Xu, Alexey V Revtovich, Natalia V Kirienko, Yue Wang, George M Church, James J Collins
Candida albicans is the leading cause of fungal infections; yet, complex genetic interaction analysis remains cumbersome in this diploid pathogen. Here, we developed a CRISPR-Cas9-based 'gene drive array' platform to facilitate efficient genetic analysis in C. albicans. In our system, a modified DNA donor molecule acts as a selfish genetic element, replaces the targeted site and propagates to replace additional wild-type loci. Using mating-competent C. albicans haploids, each carrying a different gene drive disabling a gene of interest, we are able to create diploid strains that are homozygous double-deletion mutants...
October 23, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054522/antimicrobial-activity-of-a-newly-identified-kazal-type-serine-proteinase-inhibitor-cckpi1-from-the-jellyfish-cyanea-capillata
#19
Yonghong Zhou, Guoyan Liu, Xi Cheng, Qianqian Wang, Bo Wang, Beilei Wang, Hui Zhang, Qian He, Liming Zhang
In this study, we reported a jellyfish-derived Kazal-type serine protease inhibitor, named CcKPI1, from Cyanea capillata. CcKPI1 has a calculated molecular mass of 19.02kDa and contains three typical Kazal domains. Soluble recombinant CcKPI1 (rCcKPI1) was successfully expressed and purified. rCcKPI1 exhibited significant inhibitory activities against elastase, subtilisin A and proteinase K, but not against trypsin or chymotrypsin. Kinetic studies showed that all of the inhibitory effects of rCcKPI1 were competitive, indicating that it may be a microbial serine protease inhibitor and can exhibit antimicrobial activity...
October 17, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054393/isolation-of-candida-spp-from-denture-related-stomatitis-in-par%C3%A3-brazil
#20
Lurdete Maria Rocha Gauch, Simone Soares Pedrosa, Fabíola Silveira-Gomes, Renata Antunes Esteves, Silvia Helena Marques-da-Silva
The aim of this study was to isolate and identify Candida species from the oral cavity of denture wearers with denture-related stomatitis who were attended at the University Federal of Pará (Belém City, Pará State, Brazil). A total of 36 denture wearers with denture-related stomatitis were included, and type I (50%), type II (33%) and type III (17%) stomatitis were observed. Candida spp. were isolated from 89% of the cases and included five different Candida species. C. albicans was the most frequently recovered species (78% of the cases), followed by C...
July 29, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
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