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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922415/rewiring-monocyte-glucose-metabolism-via-c-type-lectin-signaling-protects-against-disseminated-candidiasis
#1
Jorge Domínguez-Andrés, Rob J W Arts, Rob Ter Horst, Mark S Gresnigt, Sanne P Smeekens, Jacqueline M Ratter, Ekta Lachmandas, Lily Boutens, Frank L van de Veerdonk, Leo A B Joosten, Richard A Notebaart, Carlos Ardavín, Mihai G Netea
Monocytes are innate immune cells that play a pivotal role in antifungal immunity, but little is known regarding the cellular metabolic events that regulate their function during infection. Using complementary transcriptomic and immunological studies in human primary monocytes, we show that activation of monocytes by Candida albicans yeast and hyphae was accompanied by metabolic rewiring induced through C-type lectin-signaling pathways. We describe that the innate immune responses against Candida yeast are energy-demanding processes that lead to the mobilization of intracellular metabolite pools and require induction of glucose metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation and glutaminolysis, while responses to hyphae primarily rely on glycolysis...
September 18, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919897/altered-immune-activation-and-il-23-signaling-in-response-to-candida-albicans-in-autoimmune-polyendocrine-syndrome-type-1
#2
Øyvind Bruserud, Eirik Bratland, Alexander Hellesen, Nicolas Delaleu, Håkon Reikvam, Bergithe E Oftedal, Anette S B Wolff
OBJECTIVE: Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS-1) is a rare, childhood onset disease caused by mutations in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene. Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) is one of the three major disease components and is, to date, mainly explained by the presence of neutralizing auto-antibodies against cytokines [interleukin (IL)-17A, IL-17F, and IL-22] from T helper 17 cells, which are critical for the protection against fungal infections. However, patients without current auto-antibodies also present CMC and we, therefore, hypothesized that other immune mechanisms contribute to CMC in APS-1...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919409/solasodine-3-o-%C3%AE-d-glucopyranoside-is-hydrolyzed-by-a-membrane-glucosidase-into-active-molecule-solasodine-against-candida-albicans
#3
Wenqiang Chang, Ying Li, Sha Zheng, Ming Zhang, Yanhui Gao, Hongxiang Lou
Antifungal activity of some natural molecules can be abated or blocked by efflux pumps in Candida albicans, which restricts the discovery of potential antifungal agents. Here we found that the steroidal alkaloid solasodine is active against C. albicans efflux pump-deficient strains but inert towards the wild type. However, the glucosylated solasodine-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside exhibits antifungal activity towards the wild type strain. Further investigation revealed that the entry of solasodine into C. albicans cells is blocked by efflux pumps...
September 15, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918151/internal-transcribed-spacer-its-sequencing-reveals-considerable-fungal-diversity-in-dairy-products
#4
A J Buehler, R L Evanowski, N H Martin, K J Boor, M Wiedmann
Fungi are important spoilage organisms in dairy products. However, little is known about the diversity of naturally occurring spoilage fungi in raw milk and processed dairy products, due at least in part to the fact that classical fungal identification methods require considerable expertise. To gain further insight into the fungal diversity in the dairy system, we isolated fungi from raw milk, raw and pasteurized milk cheese, and yogurt using the selective dichloran rose bengal chloramphenicol agar. In total, 361 fungal isolates were obtained and further characterized by DNA sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and the nuclear ribosomal large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene if needed...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911197/contribution-of-tlr2-pathway-in-the-pathogenesis-of-vulvovaginal-candidiasis
#5
María Soledad Miró, Emilse Rodríguez, Cecilia Vigezzi, Paula Alejandra Icely, Luciana N García, Nahuel Painetti, Cristina A Maldonado, Fernando Oscar Riera, Juan Pablo Caeiro, Claudia Elena Sotomayor
Candida albicans is the prevalent etiological agent in acute vulvovaginal infection and the most severe chronic condition known as recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). A critical role of local innate immunity in defense and pathogenesis of vaginal infection by Candida is proposed. The fungal recognition by the innate immune receptor is an essential step for the induction of local responses including cytokines and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) production for host protection. Using TLR2-deficient mice, we characterized the early innate immune response during VVC...
September 29, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904994/n-acetylglucosamine-metabolism-promotes-survival-of-candida-albicans-in-the-phagosome
#6
Elisa M Vesely, Robert B Williams, James B Konopka, Michael C Lorenz
Phagocytosis by innate immune cells is one of the most effective barriers against the multiplication and dissemination of microbes within the mammalian host. Candida albicans, a pathogenic yeast, has robust mechanisms that allow survival upon macrophage phagocytosis. C. albicans survives in part because it can utilize the alternative carbon sources available in the phagosome, including carboxylic acids and amino acids. Furthermore, metabolism of these compounds raises the pH of the extracellular environment, which combats the acidification and maturation of the phagolysosome...
September 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904369/antimutagenic-and-antioxidant-activity-of-the-essential-oils-of-citrus-sinensis-and-citrus-latifolia
#7
J D Toscano-Garibay, M Arriaga-Alba, J Sánchez-Navarrete, M Mendoza-García, J J Flores-Estrada, M A Moreno-Eutimio, J J Espinosa-Aguirre, M González-Ávila, N J Ruiz-Pérez
The essential oils of Citrus sinensis and Citrus latifolia showed antimycotic activity against Candida spp. isolated from the oral cavity; they are neither mutagenic on the Ames test nor cytotoxic. Their main components are R-(+)-limonene, β-thujene, α-myrcene and γ-terpinene. The aim of this work was to evaluate their antimutagenic and antioxidant capacities. Antimutagenic properties were evaluated against MNNG and ENNG on S. typhimurium TA100; against 2AA on strain TA98 and in front of 4NQO and NOR on strain TA102...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901804/histological-and-antimicrobial-study-of-ononis-arvensis-l
#8
Tünde Dénes, Sámuel Gergely Bartha, Mónika Kerényi, Erzsébet Varga, Viktória Lilla Balázs, Rita Csepregi, Nóra Papp
In this study field restharrow (Ononis arvensis) was investigated for histological and antimicrobial features. The aerial part and the root were embedded in synthetic resin and investigated following sectioning by a rotation microtome. The antimicrobial activity and minimum inhibitory concentration of the solvent fractions of the aerial part were studied against four bacterial strains and one fungus. According to histology, the root covered by rhizodermis contains contiguous vascular elements, which are surrounded by sclerenchyma cells...
September 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895516/meyerozyma-amylolytica-sp-nov-from-temperate-deciduous-trees-and-the-transfer-of-five-candida-species-to-the-genus-meyerozyma
#9
Andrey M Yurkov, Dénes Dlauchy, Gábor Péter
In the course of two independent studies three yeasts have been isolated from temperate deciduous trees in Hungary and Germany. Analyses of nucleotide sequences of D1/D2 domains of the 26S rRNA gene (LSU) suggested that these strains belong to the Meyerozyma clade in Debaryomycetaceae (Saccharomycetales). The phylogenetic analysis of a concatenated alignment of the ITS region and LSU gene sequences confirmed the placement of the three strains in the Meyerozyma clade close to Candida elateridarum. If mixed in proper combinations, the strains formed one to two hat shaped ascospores in deliquescent asci...
September 12, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893786/novel-cell-killing-mechanisms-of-hydroxyurea-and-the-implication-towards-combination-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-fungal-infections
#10
Amanpreet Singh, Ameeta Agarwal, Yong-Jie Xu
We have previously reported that an erg11 mutation affecting ergosterol synthesis and a hem13 mutation in the heme synthesis pathway significantly sensitize the fission yeast Schizosaccahromyces pombe to hydroxyurea (HU) (1, 2). Here we show that treatment with the inhibitors of Erg11 and the heme biosynthesis phenocopies the two mutations in sensitizing wild type cells to HU. Importantly, HU synergistically interacts with the heme biosynthesis inhibitor sampangine and several Erg11 inhibitors, the antifungal azoles, in causing cell lethality...
September 11, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893470/elucidation-of-antimicrobial-activity-and-mechanism-of-action-by-n-substituted-carbazole-derivatives
#11
Johannes D Clausen, Lasse Kjellerup, Karen O'Hanlon Cohrt, John Bondo Hansen, William Dalby-Brown, Anne-Marie L Winther
Compounds belonging to a carbazole series have been identified as potent fungal plasma membrane proton adenosine triphophatase (H(+)-ATPase) inhibitors with a broad spectrum of antifungal activity. The carbazole compounds inhibit the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis activity of the essential fungal H(+)-ATPase, thereby functionally inhibiting the extrusion of protons and extracellular acidification, processes that are responsible for maintaining high plasma membrane potential. The compound class binds to and inhibits the H(+)-ATPase within minutes, leading to fungal death after 1-3h of compound exposure in vitro...
September 1, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884677/spathaspora-boniae-sp-nov-a-d-xylose-fermenting-species-in-the-candida-albicans-lodderomyces-clade
#12
Camila G Morais, Thiago M Batista, Jacek Kominek, Beatriz M Borelli, Carolina Furtado, Rennan G Moreira, Gloria R Franco, Luiz H Rosa, César Fonseca, Chris T Hittinger, Marc-André Lachance, Carlos A Rosa
Two yeast isolates producing asci-containing elongate ascospores with curved ends typical of the genus Spathaspora were isolated from rotting wood samples collected in an Atlantic rainforest ecosystem in Brazil. Phylogenetic analysis of the LSU rRNA gene D1/D2 domain sequences demonstrated that the strains represent a new species and placed it next to Candida blackwellae, in a clade that also contains Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis. Other sequences of the ribosomal gene cluster supported same placementin the same clade, and a phylogenomic analysis placed this new species in an early emerging position relative to the larger C...
September 8, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878755/fermentation-process-and-metabolic-flux-of-ethanol-production-from-the-detoxified-hydrolyzate-of-cassava-residue
#13
Xingjiang Li, Yongdong Deng, Ying Yang, Zhaojun Wei, Jieshun Cheng, Lili Cao, Dongdong Mu, Shuizhong Luo, Zhi Zheng, Shaotong Jiang, Xuefeng Wu
With the growth of the world population, energy problems are becoming increasingly severe; therefore, sustainable energy sources have gained enormous importance. With respect to ethanol fuel production, biomass is gradually replacing grain as the main raw material. In this study, we explored the fermentation of five- and six-carbon sugars, the main biomass degradation products, into alcohol. We conducted mutagenic screening specifically for Candida tropicalis CICC1779 to obtain a strain that effectively used xylose (Candida tropicalis CICC1779-Dyd)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877970/the-transcriptional-response-of-candida%C3%A2-albicans-to-weak-organic-acids-carbon-source-and-mig1%C3%A2-inactivation-unveils-a-role-for-hgt16-in-mediating-the-fungistatic-effect-of-acetic-acid
#14
Fabien Cottier, Alrina Shin Min Tan, Marina Yurieva, Webber Liao, Josephine Lum, Michael Poidinger, Francesca Zolezzi, Norman Pavelka
Candida albicans is a resident fungus of the human intestinal microflora. Commonly isolated at low abundance in healthy people, C. albicans outcompetes local microbiota during candidiasis episodes. Under normal conditions, members of the human gastrointestinal microbiota were shown to keep C. albicans colonization under control. By releasing weak organic acids (WOAs), bacteria are able to moderate yeast growth. This mechanism displayed a synergistic effect in vitro with the absence of glucose in medium of culture, which underline the complex interaction that C...
September 6, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872720/laboratory-based-investigation-of-denture-sonication-method-in-patients-with-candida-associated-denture-stomatitis
#15
Mirjana Perić, Milena Radunović, Marina Pekmezović, Jelena Marinković, Rade Živković, Valentina Arsić Arsenijević
PURPOSE: Denture stomatitis (DS) is a disease characterized by inflammation and erythema of the oral mucosa areas covered by the denture. Multifactorial etiological factors contribute to DS, but it seems that Candida plays the key role. The aim of the study was to evaluate the denture sonication method to: (i) increase the possibility of diagnosing patients with Candida-associated DS; (ii) detect and identify the mixed Candida spp., and (iii) determine the Candida colony forming units (CFU) and its possible relationship with DS severity, based on Newton's classification...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Prosthodontics: Official Journal of the American College of Prosthodontists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871251/th17-inducing-cytokines-il-6-and-il-23-are-crucial-for-granuloma-formation-during-experimental-paracoccidioidomycosis
#16
Fabrine Sales Massafera Tristão, Fernanda Agostini Rocha, Daniela Carlos, Natália Ketelut-Carneiro, Camila Oliveira Silva Souza, Cristiane Maria Milanezi, João Santana Silva
Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), a chronic granulomatous disease caused by the thermally dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii, has the highest mortality rate among systemic mycosis. The T helper 1-mediated immunity is primarily responsible for acquired resistance during P. brasiliensis infection, while susceptibility is associated with Th2 occurrence. Th17 is a population of T CD4(+) cells that, among several chemokines and cytokines, produces IL-17A and requires the presence of IL-1, IL-6, and TGF-β for differentiation in mice and IL-23 for its maintenance...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867257/oropharyngeal-candidiasis-prevalence-among-hiv-infected-patients-at-the-teaching-hospital-of-treichville-abidjan-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire
#17
A Konaté, P C M Barro-Kiki, K F Kassi, K E Angora, H Vanga-Bosson, V Djohan, A V Bédia-Tanoh, A J S Miézan, W Yavo, E I H Menan
AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to determine the mycological profile of oropharyngeal candidiasis among HIV-infected patients from Internal Medicine, Infectious and Tropical Diseases, and Pneumo-Phthisiology Diseases departments of the Teaching Hospital of Treichville in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study carried out on patients with lesions suggestive of oropharyngeal candidiasis from October 2010 to April 2011...
August 31, 2017: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860241/draft-genome-sequence-of-an-obligate-psychrophilic-yeast-candida-psychrophila-nrrl-y-17665-t
#18
Broňa Brejová, Hana Lichancová, Filip Brázdovič, Andrea Cillingová, Martina Neboháčová, Ľubomír Tomáška, Tomáš Vinař, Jozef Nosek
Candida psychrophila is an obligate psychrophilic yeast classified into the family Debaryomycetaceae (Saccharomycotina). Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the type strain, NRRL Y-17665. The genome sequence is 11.2 Mb long and codes for 5,827 predicted proteins.
August 31, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854190/population-structure-and-molecular-genetic-characterization-of-clinical-candida-tropicalis-isolates-from-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-kuwait-reveal-infections-with-unique-strains
#19
Khaled Al-Obaid, Mohammad Asadzadeh, Suhail Ahmad, Ziauddin Khan
Candida tropicalis is a frequently isolated yeast species causing bloodstream, urinary tract and other infections particularly in patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) and those requiring prolonged urinary catheterization (UC) or receiving broad-spectrum antibiotics (BSA). This study investigated clinical characteristics and genetic relatedness among C. tropicalis strains isolated from patients at Al-Amiri Hospital in Kuwait. C. tropicalis strains (n = 63) isolated from blood, genito-urinary, respiratory (RT) and digestive (GIT) tracts and wound sites from 54 patients were used...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852503/lower-incidence-of-respiratory-infections-among-iron-deficient-children-in-kilimanjaro-tanzania
#20
Katherine Wander, Bettina Shell-Duncan, Eleanor Brindle
Objective: We posited a trade-off in iron nutrition, with iron deficiency decreasing risk for infection by depriving infectious agents of iron while increasing risk for infection by compromising immune protection. We described associations between iron deficiency and prevalent and incident infectious disease episodes and cell-mediated immunity (CMI) among 283 children in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. Methodology: Whole blood specimens were evaluated for hemoglobin and dried blood spots (DBS) were evaluated for biomarkers of iron deficiency (transferrin receptor) and inflammation (C-reactive protein and α1-acid glycoprotein)...
2017: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
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