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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343242/identification-of-a-polysaccharide-produced-by-the-pyruvate-overproducer-candida-glabrata-cctcc-m202019
#1
Zhengshan Luo, Song Liu, Guocheng Du, Jingwen Zhou, Jian Chen
Candida glabrata has great potential for the accumulation of pyruvate as a preferred strain in pyruvate production by fermentation. However, its substrate conversion rate is relatively low. In this study, a novel polysaccharide containing α-1,4-glucosidic bonds was observed accidentally in screening a high-titer pyruvate strain by atmospheric and room temperature plasma mutagenesis of C. glabrata. Chemical analysis of the partially purified polysaccharide S4-C10 showed the main components were 1.2% (w/w) protein and 94...
March 25, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337802/the-snf1-activating-kinase-sak1-is-a-key-regulator-of-metabolic-adaptation-and-in-vivo-fitness-of-candida-albicans
#2
Bernardo Ramírez-Zavala, Austin Mottola, Julia Haubenreißer, Sabrina Schneider, Stefanie Allert, Sascha Brunke, Knut Ohlsen, Bernhard Hube, Joachim Morschhäuser
The metabolic flexibility of the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans is important for colonisation and infection of different host niches. Complex regulatory networks, in which protein kinases play central roles, link metabolism and other virulence-associated traits, such as filamentous growth and stress resistance, and thereby control commensalism and pathogenicity. By screening a protein kinase deletion mutant library that was generated in the present work using an improved SAT1 flipper cassette, we found that the previously uncharacterised kinase Sak1 is a key upstream activator of the protein kinase Snf1, a highly conserved regulator of nutrient stress responses that is essential for viability in C...
March 23, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334124/a-newly-identified-amino-acid-substitution-t123i-in-the-14%C3%AE-demethylase-erg11p-of-candida-albicans-confers-azole-resistance
#3
YongQin Wu, Ning Gao, Cui Li, Jing Gao, ChunMei Ying
The increasing prevalence of azole resistance in Candida albicans poses a growing problem for clinical treatment. Amino acid substitution of the 14α-demethylase (Erg11p) encoded by the ERG11 gene is one of the most common mechanisms involved in azole resistance. Although amino acid substitutions of Erg11p have been observed in many clinical isolates, only a few amino acid substitutions have been confirmed to be related to azole resistance. In this study, by amplifying and sequencing the open reading frame of the ERG11 gene from 55 clinical isolates, we identified 27 fluconazole-resistant isolates that harbor a novel amino acid substitution, T123I, in Erg11p, in addition to the previously described homozygous substitution Y132H...
February 25, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329730/synthesis-of-novel-quinoline-based-4-5-dihydro-1h-pyrazoles-as-potential-anticancer-antifungal-antibacterial-and-antiprotozoal-agents
#4
Jonathan Ramírez-Prada, Sara M Robledo, Iván D Vélez, María Del Pilar Crespo, Jairo Quiroga, Rodrigo Abonia, Alba Montoya, Laura Svetaz, Susana Zacchino, Braulio Insuasty
A new series of N-substituted 2-pyrazolines 9a-f, 10a-f, 11a-f, 12a-f and 13a-f were obtained from the cyclocondensation reaction of [(7-chloroquinolin-4-yl)amino]chalcones 8a-f with hydrazine hydrate and its derivatives. Fourteen of the synthesized compounds including the starting chalcones were selected by US National Cancer Institute (NCI) for testing their anticancer activity against 60 different human cancer cell lines, with the most important GI50 values ranging from 0.28 to 11.7 μM (0.13-6.05 μg/mL) and LC50 values ranging from 2...
March 16, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329248/clinical-characteristics-of-wild-type-transthyretin-cardiac-amyloidosis-disproving-myths
#5
Esther González-López, Christian Gagliardi, Fernando Dominguez, Cristina Candida Quarta, F Javier de Haro-Del Moral, Agnese Milandri, Clara Salas, Mario Cinelli, Marta Cobo-Marcos, Massimiliano Lorenzini, Enrique Lara-Pezzi, Serena Foffi, Luis Alonso-Pulpon, Claudio Rapezzi, Pablo Garcia-Pavia
Aims: Wild-type transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTRwt) is mostly considered a disease predominantly of elderly male, characterized by concentric LV hypertrophy, preserved LVEF, and low QRS voltages. We sought to describe the characteristics of a large cohort of ATTRwt patients to better define the disease. Methods and results: Clinical findings of consecutive ATTRwt patients diagnosed at 2 centres were reviewed. ATTRwt was diagnosed histologically or non-invasively (LV hypertrophy ≥12 mm, intense cardiac uptake at 99mTc-DPD scintigraphy and AL exclusion)...
March 1, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321466/the-risk-and-clinical-outcome-of-candidemia-depending-on-underlying-malignancy
#6
Olivier Lortholary, Charlotte Renaudat, Karine Sitbon, Marie Desnos-Ollivier, Stéphane Bretagne, Françoise Dromer
PURPOSE: To assess the risk factors and outcomes associated with fungemia caused by the six most commonly occurring Candida species in patients with and without malignancies. METHODS: Analysis of the episodes of fungemia due to common Candida species in adults, based on an active hospital-based surveillance program (Paris area, France, 2002 to 2014). RESULTS: Of the 3417 patients (3666 isolates), 1164 (34.1%) had a solid tumor (45.7% digestive tract) and 586 (17...
March 20, 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318789/transport-of-microplastics-by-two-collembolan-species
#7
Stefanie Maaß, Daniel Daphi, Anika Lehmann, Matthias C Rillig
Plastics, despite their great benefits, have become a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, with microplastic particles having come into focus most recently. Microplastic effects have been intensely studied in aquatic, especially marine systems; however, there is lack of studies focusing on effects on soil and its biota. A basic question is if and how surface-deposited microplastic particles are transported into the soil. We here wished to test if soil microarthropods, using Collembola, can transport these particles over distances of centimeters within days in a highly controlled experimental set-up...
March 16, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314961/ecotoxicity-of-boric-acid-in-standard-laboratory-tests-with-plants-and-soil-organisms
#8
REVIEW
Juliska Princz, Leonie Becker, Adam Scheffczyk, Gladys Stephenson, Rick Scroggins, Thomas Moser, Jörg Römbke
To verify the continuous sensitivity of ecotoxicological tests (mainly the test organisms), reference substances with known toxicity are regularly tested. Ideally, this substance(s) would lack specificity in its mode action, be bioavailable and readily attainable with cost-effective means of chemical characterization. Boric acid has satisfied these criteria, but has most recently been characterized as a substance of very high concern, due to reproductive effects in humans, thus limiting its recommendation as an ideal reference toxicant...
March 17, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303823/bacterial-and-fungal-biofilm-formation-on-contact-lenses-and-their-susceptibility-to-lens-care-solutions
#9
Siddharth Kackar, Ethel Suman, M Shashidhar Kotian
BACKGROUND: Microbial biofilm formation on contact lenses and lens storage cases may be a risk factor for contact lens-associated corneal infections. Various types of contact lens care solutions are used to reduce microbial growths on lenses. OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed at comparing the growths of biofilms on the different contact lenses and lens cases. The study also aimed at determining the effect of lens care solutions and bacteriophage on these biofilms...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295202/in-situ-esterification-and-extractive-fermentation-for-butyl-butyrate-production-with-clostridium-tyrobutyricum
#10
Zhong-Tian Zhang, Steven Taylor, Yi Wang
Butyl butyrate (BB) is a valuable chemical that can be used as flavor, fragrance, extractant, etc. in various industries. Meanwhile, BB can also be used as a fuel source with excellent compatibility as gasoline, aviation kerosene and diesel components. The conventional industrial production of BB is highly energy-consuming and generates various environmental pollutants. Recently, there have been tremendous interests in producing BB from renewable resources through biological routes. In this study, based on the fermentation using the hyper-butyrate producing strain Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755, efficient BB production through in situ esterification was achieved by supplementation of lipase and butanol into the fermentation...
March 15, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289440/role-of-tlr1-tlr2-and-tlr6-in-the-modulation-of-intestinal-inflammation-and-candida-albicans-elimination
#11
Laura Choteau, Hélène Vancraeyneste, Didier Le Roy, Laurent Dubuquoy, Luiginia Romani, Thierry Jouault, Daniel Poulain, Boualem Sendid, Thierry Calandra, Thierry Roger, Samir Jawhara
BACKGROUND: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the major pattern recognition receptors that mediate sensing of a wide range of microorganisms. TLR2 forms heterodimers with either TLR1 or TLR6, broadening its ligand diversity against pathogens. TLR1, TLR2 and TLR6 have been implicated in the recognition of Candida albicans, an opportunistic fungal pathogen that colonizes the gastrointestinal tract. In this study, we explored whether the deficiency in TLR1, TLR2 or TLR6 impacts C. albicans colonization and inflammation-associated colonic injury in the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289028/assessment-and-optimizations-of-candida-albicans-in-vitro-biofilm-assays
#12
Matthew B Lohse, Megha Gulati, Ashley Valle Arevalo, Adam Fishburn, Alexander D Johnson, Clarissa J Nobile
Candida albicans biofilms have a significant medical impact due to their rapid growth on implanted medical devices, their resistance to antifungal drugs, and their ability to seed disseminated infections. Biofilm assays performed in vitro allow for rapid, high-throughput screening of gene deletion libraries or antifungal compounds and typically serve as precursors to in vivo studies. Here, we compile and discuss the protocols for several recently published C. albicans biofilm in vitro assays. We also describe improved versions of these protocols as well as novel in vitro assays...
March 13, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282487/establishment-of-multiplex-solid-phase-strip-pcr-test-for-detection-of-24-ocular-infectious-disease-pathogens
#13
Satoko Nakano, Sunao Sugita, Yasuhiro Tomaru, Ayumi Hono, Takako Nakamuro, Toshiaki Kubota, Hiroshi Takase, Manabu Mochizuki, Masayo Takahashi, Norio Shimizu
Purpose: To establish and evaluate a new multiplex solid-phase strip polymerase chain reaction (strip PCR) for concurrent detection of common ocular infectious disease pathogens. Methods: A new multiplex strip PCR was established to detect 24 common ocular infectious disease pathogens: herpes simplex virus (HSV) 1, HSV2, varicella-zoster virus (VZV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), human herpes virus (HHV) 6, HHV7, HHV8, human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-1, adenovirus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Treponema pallidum, Propionibacterium acnes (P...
March 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280761/comparison-of-candida-albicans-adherence-to-conventional-acrylic-denture-base-materials-and-injection-molding-acrylic-materials
#14
Masoomeh Aslanimehr, Shirin Rezvani, Ali Mahmoudi, Najmeh Moosavi
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM: Candida species are believed to play an important role in initiation and progression of denture stomatitis. The type of the denture material also influences the adhesion of candida and development of stomatitis. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was comparing the adherence of candida albicans to the conventional and injection molding acrylic denture base materials. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Twenty injection molding and 20 conventional pressure pack acrylic discs (10×10×2 mm) were prepared according to their manufacturer's instructions...
March 2017: Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280492/mitochondrial-complex-v-%C3%AE-subunit-is-critical-for-candida-albicans-pathogenicity-through-modulating-multiple-virulence-properties
#15
Shui-Xiu Li, Yan-Jun Song, Yi-Shan Zhang, Hao-Tian Wu, Hui Guo, Kun-Ju Zhu, Dong-Mei Li, Hong Zhang
The α subunit (ATP1) is a vital component of mitochondrial complex V which counts for the majority of cellular ATP production in a living organism. Nevertheless, how the α subunit influences other cellular processes such as pathogenicity in Candida albicans remains poorly understood. To address this question, ATP1 mutant (atp1Δ/Δ) and the gene-reconstituted strain (atp1Δ/ATP1) have been constructed in this study and their pathogenicity-related traits are compared to those of wild type (WT). In a murine model of disseminated candidiasis, atp1Δ/Δ infected mice have a significantly higher survival rate and experience a lower fungal burden in tissues...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278640/kitamycin-c-a-new-antimycin-type-antibiotic-from-streptomyces-antibioticus-strain-200-09
#16
Fan Wang, Shu-Na Fu, Yi-Xuan Bao, Yu Yang, Hui-Fang Shen, Bi-Run Lin, Guang-Xiong Zhou
An actinomycete strain 200-09, isolated from a soil sample collected from the coast of Hawaii, USA, was identified as Streptomyces antibioticus on the basis of its morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics as well as 16S rDNA analysis. A new antimycin-type antibiotic, kitamycin C (1), together with kitamycin A (2), kitamycin B (3), urauchmycin B (4), deisovaleryblastomycin (5) was isolated from a cultured broth of strain 200-09. The structure of the new compound was determined by spectroscopic data, including HR-ESI-MS and NMR...
February 28, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273850/chitosan-based-nanomedicine-to-fight-genital-candida-infections-chitosomes
#17
Toril Andersen, Ekaterina Mishchenko, Gøril Eide Flaten, Johanna U Ericson Sollid, Sofia Mattsson, Ingunn Tho, Nataša Škalko-Basnet
Vaginal infections are associated with high recurrence, which is often due to a lack of efficient treatment of complex vaginal infections comprised of several types of pathogens, especially fungi and bacteria. Chitosan, a mucoadhesive polymer with known antifungal effect, could offer a great improvement in vaginal therapy; the chitosan-based nanosystem could both provide antifungal effects and simultaneously deliver antibacterial drugs. We prepared chitosan-containing liposomes, chitosomes, where chitosan is both embedded in liposomes and surface-available as a coating layer...
March 4, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270801/molecular-fingerprinting-studies-do-not-support-intrahospital-transmission-of-candida-albicans-among-candidemia-patients-in-kuwait
#18
Mohammad Asadzadeh, Suhail Ahmad, Noura Al-Sweih, Ziauddin Khan
Candida albicans, a constituent of normal microbial flora of human mucosal surfaces, is a major cause of candidemia in immunocompromised individuals and hospitalized patients with other debilitating diseases. Molecular fingerprinting studies have suggested nosocomial transmission of C. albicans based on the presence of clusters or endemic genotypes in some hospitals. However, intrahospital strain transmission or a common source of infection has not been firmly established. We performed multilocus sequence typing (MLST) on 102 C...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264842/contributions-of-both-atp-binding-cassette-transporter-and-cyp51a-proteins-are-essential-for-azole-resistance-in-aspergillus-fumigatus
#19
Sanjoy Paul, Daniel Diekema, W Scott Moye-Rowley
While azole drugs targeting the biosynthesis of ergosterol are effective antifungal agents, their extensive use has led to the development of resistant organisms. Infections involving azole resistant forms of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus are often associated with genetic changes in the cyp51A gene encoding the lanosterol α14 demethylase target enzyme. Both a sequence duplication in the cyp51A promoter (TR34) as well as a substitution mutation in the coding sequence (L98H) are required for full expression of azole resistance...
March 6, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261190/fungal-its1-deep-sequencing-strategies-to-reconstruct-the-composition-of-a-26-species-community-and-evaluation-of-the-gut-mycobiota-of-healthy-japanese-individuals
#20
Daisuke Motooka, Kosuke Fujimoto, Reiko Tanaka, Takashi Yaguchi, Kazuyoshi Gotoh, Yuichi Maeda, Yoki Furuta, Takashi Kurakawa, Naohisa Goto, Teruo Yasunaga, Masashi Narazaki, Atsushi Kumanogoh, Toshihiro Horii, Tetsuya Iida, Kiyoshi Takeda, Shota Nakamura
The study of mycobiota remains relatively unexplored due to the lack of sufficient available reference strains and databases compared to those of bacterial microbiome studies. Deep sequencing of Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions is the de facto standard for fungal diversity analysis. However, results are often biased because of the wide variety of sequence lengths in the ITS regions and the complexity of high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies. In this study, a curated ITS database, ntF-ITS1, was constructed...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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