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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774204/non-canonical-activities-of-hog1-control-sensitivity-of-candida-albicans-to-killer-toxins-from-debaryomyces-hansenii
#1
Ana Morales-Menchén, Federico Navarro-García, José P Guirao-Abad, Elvira Román, Daniel Prieto, Ioana V Coman, Jesús Pla, Rebeca Alonso-Monge
Certain yeasts secrete peptides known as killer toxins or mycocins with a deleterious effect on sensitive yeasts or filamentous fungi, a common phenomenon in environmental species. In a recent work, different Debaryomyces hansenii ( Dh ) strains isolated from a wide variety of cheeses were identified as producing killer toxins active against Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis . We have analyzed the killer activity of these toxins in C. albicans mutants defective in MAPK signaling pathways and found that the lack of the MAPK Hog1 (but not Cek1 or Mkc1) renders cells hypersensitive to Dh mycocins while mutants lacking other upstream elements of the pathway behave as the wild type strain...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766506/unique-causes-of-esophageal-inflammation-a-histopathologic-perspective
#2
REVIEW
Purva Gopal, Joanna A Gibson, Mikhail Lisvosky, ILKe Nalbantoglu
Gastroenterologists frequently perform endoscopic esophageal mucosal biopsies for pathologic diagnosis in patients experiencing symptoms of esophagitis. The more common causes of esophagitis diagnosed on esophageal mucosal biopsy include reflux esophagitis, eosinophilic esophagitis, and infectious esophagitis caused by Candida albicans, herpes simplex virus, and/or cytomegalovirus. However, there are several causes of esophagitis seen less frequently by pathologists that are very important to recognize. We discuss unique types of esophageal inflammation, including acute bacterial esophagitis, esophageal manifestations of dermatologic diseases, medication-induced esophageal injury, and sloughing esophagitis; and we review their clinical and histopathologic features...
May 16, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761455/using-the-candida-genome-database
#3
Marek S Skrzypek, Jonathan Binkley, Gavin Sherlock
Studying Candida biology requires access to genomic sequence data in conjunction with experimental information that together provide functional context to genes and proteins, and aid in interpreting newly generated experimental data. The Candida Genome Database (CGD) curates the Candida literature, and integrates functional information about Candida genes and their products with a set of analysis tools that facilitate searching for sets of genes and exploring their biological roles. This chapter describes how the various types of information available at CGD can be searched, retrieved, and analyzed...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760684/bioprospecting-deep-sea-actinobacteria-for-novel-anti-infective-natural-products
#4
Dongbo Xu, Linna Han, Chunhui Li, Qi Cao, Duolong Zhu, Nolan H Barrett, Dedra Harmody, Jing Chen, Haining Zhu, Peter J McCarthy, Xingmin Sun, Guojun Wang
The global prevalence of drug resistance has created an urgent need for the discovery of novel anti-infective drugs. The major source of antibiotics in current clinical practice is terrestrial actinobacteria; the less-exploited deep-sea actinobacteria may serve as an unprecedented source of novel natural products. In this study, we evaluated 50 actinobacteria strains derived from diverse deep water sponges and environmental niches for their anti-microbial activities against a panel of pathogens including Candida albicans , Clostridium difficile , Staphylococcus aureus , and methicillin-resistant S...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759652/the-severity-of-denture-stomatitis-as-related-to-risk-factors-and-different-candida-spp
#5
Mirjana Perić, Rade Živković, Aleksandra Milić Lemić, Milena Radunović, Biljana Miličić, Valentina Arsić Arsenijević
OBJECTIVES: 1) To select patients with Candida-related denture stomatitis (DS) and to study possible risk factors associated with DS, 2) to evaluate the severity of DS according to Newton's classification, and 3) to investigate the association between the presence of non-albicans Candida spp. (NAC) or mixed Candida spp. and the severity of DS. STUDY DESIGN: Eighty-two patients with Candida-positive DS have undergone 1) filling in the interview questionnaire, 2) clinical examination, and 3) microbiologic examination...
March 22, 2018: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754318/four-new-species-of-metschnikowia-and-the-transfer-of-seven-candida-species-to-metschnikowia-and-clavispora-as-new-combinations
#6
Cletus P Kurtzman, Christie J Robnett, Eleanor Basehoar, Todd J Ward
From comparisons of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 and gene sequences for nuclear D1/D2 LSU rRNA, nuclear SSU (18S) rRNA, translation elongation factor 1-α (EF1-α) and RNA polymerase II subunit 2 (RPB2), the following four new ascosporogenous yeast species were resolved and are described as Metschnikowia anglica (NRRL Y-7298T [type strain], CBS 15342, MycoBank MB 823167), Metschnikowia leonuri (NRRL Y-6546T , CBS 15341, MB 823166), Metschnikowia peoriensis (NRRL Y-5942T , CBS 15345, MB 823164) and Metschnikowia rubicola (NRRL Y-6064T , CBS 15344, MB 823165)...
May 12, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741145/tandem-mass-spectrometric-cell-wall-proteome-profiling-of-a-candida-albicans-hwp2-mutant-strain
#7
Andy Awad, Pamela El Khoury, Brigitte Wex, Roy A Khalaf
BACKGROUND: Candida albicans is present as part of the normal gut flora and detected in the oral cavities and GI tracts of around fifty percent of adults. Benign colonization can turn pathogenic causing a variety of mild to severe infections. In a pathogen, the cell wall and cell surface proteins are major antigenic determinants and drug targets as they are the primary structures that contact the host. Cell surface proteins perform a variety of functions necessary for virulence such as adhesion, host degradation, resistance to oxidative stress, and drug resistance...
May 9, 2018: Current Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740519/repurposing-drugs-to-fast-track-therapeutic-agents-for-the-treatment-of-cryptococcosis
#8
Megan Truong, Leigh G Monahan, Dee A Carter, Ian G Charles
Many infectious diseases disproportionately affect people in the developing world. Cryptococcal meningitis is one of the most common mycoses in HIV-AIDS patients, with the highest burden of disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Current best treatment regimens still result in unacceptably high mortality rates, and more effective antifungal agents are needed urgently. Drug development is hampered by the difficulty of developing effective antifungal agents that are not also toxic to human cells, and by a reluctance among pharmaceutical companies to invest in drugs that cannot guarantee a high financial return...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739683/fungal-allergy-pattern-of-sensitization-over-the-past-11-years
#9
R Fernández-Soto, E M Navarrete-Rodríguez, B E Del-Rio-Navarro, J J Luis Sienra-Monge, N A Meneses-Sánchez, O J Saucedo-Ramírez
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Although the prevalence of sensitization to fungi is not precisely known, it can reach 50% in inner cities and has been identified as a risk factor in the development of asthma. Whereas the prevalence of allergic diseases is increasing, it is unclear whether the same occurs with sensitization to fungi. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective study was performed at the "Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez". From skin tests taken between 2004 and 2015, information was gathered about Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, Cladosporium herbarum, Mucor mucedo and Penicillium notatum...
May 5, 2018: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734333/a-coupled-process-of-same-and-opposite-sex-mating-generates-polyploidy-and-genetic-diversity-in-candida-tropicalis
#10
Han Du, Qiushi Zheng, Jian Bing, Richard J Bennett, Guanghua Huang
Sexual reproduction is a universal mechanism for generating genetic diversity in eukaryotes. Fungi exhibit diverse strategies for sexual reproduction both in nature and in the laboratory. In this study, we report the discovery of same-sex (homothallic) mating in the human fungal pathogen Candida tropicalis. We show that same-sex mating occurs between two cells carrying the same mating type (MTLa/a or α/α) and requires the presence of pheromone from the opposite mating type as well as the receptor for this pheromone...
May 7, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734032/typing-and-virulence-factors-of-food-borne-candida-spp-isolates
#11
Katarzyna Rajkowska, Alina Kunicka-Styczyńska
Food-borne yeasts, excluding yeasts used as starter cultures, are commonly considered as food spoilage microorganisms. However, the incidence of non-C. albicans Candida (NCAC) infections has increased considerably over the past two decades. Although 15 Candida species are frequently identified as pathogens, a threat to human from food-borne Candida is poorly recognized. In the present study food-borne NCAC were characterized for the virulence factors, known to be associated with yeast pathogenicity. All food-borne strains in planktonic forms and 89% in biofilm structures represented biotypes established for C...
May 3, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729017/risk-assessment-for-the-spread-of-candida-sp-in-dental-chair-unit-waterlines-using-molecular-techniques
#12
Wissame Mazari, Zahia Boucherit-Otmani, Imad Abdelhamid El Haci, Amine Ilahi, Kebir Boucherit
AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of yeasts in dental chair unit waterlines (DCUWLs) and to test their ability to form biofilms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen dental waterlines were analysed by culture in liquid Sabouraud in order to allow the quantification and the purification of isolated yeasts from their internal surfaces. All isolates were identified by standard laboratory procedures, including CHROMagar Candida medium for orientation, commercial yeast identification system Api Candida, MALDI-TOF MS and DNA sequencing...
May 4, 2018: International Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727733/lipophilic-extracts-of-leucas-zeylanica-a-multi-purpose-medicinal-plant-in-the-tropics-inhibit-key-enzymes-involved-in-inflammation-and-gout
#13
Mayuri Napagoda, Jana Gerstmeier, Hannah Butschek, Sybille Lorenz, Dinusha Kanatiwela, Sudhara De Soyza, Mallique Qader, Ajith Nagahawatte, Gaya Bandara Wijayaratne, Aleš Svatoš, Lalith Jayasinghe, Andreas Koeberle, Oliver Werz
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Leucas zeylanica (L.) W.T. Aiton is a popular, multi-purpose medicinal plant in Sri Lanka but the pharmacological potential and the chemical profile have not been systematically investigated to understand and rationalize the reported ethnobotanical significance. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study was undertaken to scientifically validate the traditional usage of this plant for the treatment of inflammatory conditions, gout and microbial infections...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727512/comprehending-the-influence-of-critical-cultivation-parameters-on-the-oleaginous-behavior-of-potent-rotten-fruit-yeast-isolates
#14
Batul Diwan, Pratima Gupta
AIMS: Oleaginous yeasts were isolated from five different rotten fruits and their oleaginous behaviour was characterized with varying carbon source and concentration (C/N) to pave the path for their future applicabilities. METHODS & RESULTS: Sixteen yeasts were isolated, those accumulating around 20% of their cell dry weights as lipids were screened out and identified as Candida tropicalis and Pichia kudriavzevii. Amongst glucose, maltose, and sucrose, glucose was found favorable carbon source in terms of biomass yield and lipid content...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727465/biphasic-zinc-compartmentalisation-in-a-human-fungal-pathogen
#15
Aaron C Crawford, Laura E Lehtovirta-Morley, Omran Alamir, Maria J Niemiec, Bader Alawfi, Mohammad Alsarraf, Volha Skrahina, Anna C B P Costa, Andrew Anderson, Sujan Yellagunda, Elizabeth R Ballou, Bernhard Hube, Constantin F Urban, Duncan Wilson
Nutritional immunity describes the host-driven manipulation of essential micronutrients, including iron, zinc and manganese. To withstand nutritional immunity and proliferate within their hosts, pathogenic microbes must express efficient micronutrient uptake and homeostatic systems. Here we have elucidated the pathway of cellular zinc assimilation in the major human fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Bioinformatics analysis identified nine putative zinc transporters: four cytoplasmic-import Zip proteins (Zrt1, Zrt2, Zrt3 and orf19...
May 4, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726301/identification-and-characterization-of-orf19-1725-a-novel-gene-contributing-to-the-white-cell-pheromone-response-and-virulence-associated-functions-in-candida-albicans
#16
Fu-Sheng Deng, Ching-Hsuan Lin
An epigenetic transition between white cells and opaque cells influences several properties of Candida albicans biology, including cellular morphology, biofilm formation, virulence, and sexual mating. In particular, these two cell types exhibit marked differences in their ability to undergo sex. A previous study identified the transcriptional regulator of pheromone response in both the white and opaque states as Cph1 because deletion of this gene abolished both pheromone-induced cell adhesion in white cells and sexual mating in opaque cells...
December 31, 2018: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724862/rapid-phenotypic-and-genotypic-diversification-after-exposure-to-the-oral-host-niche-in-candida-albicans
#17
Anja Forche, Gareth Cromie, Aleeza C Gerstein, Norma V Solis, Tippapha Pisithkul, Waracharee Srifa, Eric Jeffery, Darren Abbey, Scott G Filler, Aimée M Dudley, Judith Berman
In vitro studies suggest that stress may generate random standing variation, and that different cellular and ploidy states may evolve more rapidly under stress. Yet this idea has not been tested with pathogenic fungi growing within their host niche in vivo Here, we analyzed the generation of both genotypic and phenotypic diversity during exposure of Candida albicans to the mouse oral cavity. Ploidy, aneuploidy, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and recombination were determined using flow cytometry and ddRADseq...
May 3, 2018: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723561/monoterpene-indole-alkaloids-from-rhazya-stricta
#18
Abrar Ahmed, Wei Li, Fang-Fang Chen, Jun-Sheng Zhang, Ya-Qi Tang, Lin Chen, Gui-Hua Tang, Sheng Yin
Twenty-seven monoterpene indole alkaloids (MIAs) including three new ones were isolated from the plant of Rhazya stricta. Their structures were elucidated by analyses of HRMS and NMR data. Secopleiocarpamine A (1) represents a novel 2,3-seco pleiocarpamine type MIA possessing a cyano group. A possible biosynthetic pathway for 1 was postulated. All compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory activities against six Candida strains, and the results showed that 2, 5, 12, 21, 23, and 27 exhibited moderate inhibitory activities with MIC values ranging from 3...
April 30, 2018: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715591/porphyrins-and-flavins-as-endogenous-acceptors-of-optical-radiation-of-blue-spectral-region-determining-photoinactivation-of-microbial-cells
#19
V Yu Plavskii, A V Mikulich, A I Tretyakova, I A Leusenka, L G Plavskaya, O A Kazyuchits, I I Dobysh, T P Krasnenkova
It is shown that exposure of suspensions of gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus, gram-negative Escherichia coli and yeast-like fungi Candida albicans to laser radiation of blue spectral region with 405 and 445 nm causes their growth inhibition without prior addition of exogenous photosensitizers. It is experimentally confirmed that compounds of flavin type capable of sensitizing the formation of reactive oxygen species can act as acceptors of optical radiation of blue spectral region determining its antimicrobial effect along with endogenous metal-free porphyrins (the role of endogenous porphyrins has been confirmed earlier by a number of researchers)...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712651/resistance-to-echinocandins-in-candida-can-be-detected-by-performing-the-etest-directly-on-blood-culture-samples
#20
María Ángeles Bordallo-Cardona, Laura Judith Marcos-Zambrano, Carlos Sánchez-Carrillo, Emilio Bouza, Patricia Muñoz, Pilar Escribano, Jesús Guinea
Background: We examined the rapid evaluation of susceptibility to echinocandins in Candida spp. using the Etest performed directly on positive blood cultures and anidulafungin-containing agar plates. Methods: We prospectively collected 80 positive blood cultures (Bactec™-FX system, Becton-Dickinson, Cockeysville, Maryland, USA) with echinocandin-susceptible Candida spp (n=60) and echinocandin-intermediate C. parapsilosis (n=20) from patients with candidemia. Additionally, blood culture bottles of nonfungemic/bacteremic patients were spiked with 35 echinocandin-resistant Candida spp...
April 30, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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