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Fungi molecular typing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905873/comparative-genomics-of-beauveria-bassiana-uncovering-signatures-of-virulence-against-mosquitoes
#1
Claudio A Valero-Jiménez, Luigi Faino, Daphne Spring In't Veld, Sandra Smit, Bas J Zwaan, Jan A L van Kan
BACKGROUND: Entomopathogenic fungi such as Beauveria bassiana are promising biological agents for control of malaria mosquitoes. Indeed, infection with B. bassiana reduces the lifespan of mosquitoes in the laboratory and in the field. Natural isolates of B. bassiana show up to 10-fold differences in virulence between the most and the least virulent isolate. In this study, we sequenced the genomes of five isolates representing the extremes of low/high virulence and three RNA libraries, and applied a genome comparison approach to uncover genetic mechanisms underpinning virulence...
December 1, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904058/two-cases-of-chromomycosis-identified-by-molecular-phylogenetic-analysis
#2
Takayo Mitomo, Yukiko Ushigome, Tomoo Fukuda, Yoko Kano, Tetsuo Shiohara
Chromomycosis is an infection caused by dematiaceous fungi. These fungi belong to several genera with varied clinical presentations and parasitic forms. The disease is roughly classified into three types: chromoblastomycosis, black-grain mycetoma, and phaeohyphomycosis. While there are many kinds of dematiaceous fungi, the major etiologic agent is Fonsecaea pedrosoi, which to date has accounted for 90% of chromoblastomycosis cases. The genus Fonsecaea has recently been assessed via rRNA ITS sequence analysis, and species have been classified into F...
2016: Medical Mycology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889212/study-of-the-effect-of-the-bacterial-and-fungal-communities-present-in-real-wastewater-effluents-on-the-performance-of-fungal-treatments
#3
Marina Badia-Fabregat, Daniel Lucas, Tero Tuomivirta, Hannu Fritze, Taina Pennanen, Sara Rodríguez-Mozaz, Damià Barceló, Glòria Caminal, Teresa Vicent
The use of the ligninolytic fungi Trametes versicolor for the degradation of micropollutants has been widely studied. However, few studies have addressed the treatment of real wastewater containing pharmaceutically active compounds (PhAC) under non-sterile conditions. The main drawback of performing such treatments is the difficulty for the inoculated fungus to successfully compete with the other microorganisms growing in the bioreactor. In the present study, several fungal treatments were performed under non-sterile conditions in continuous operational mode with two types of real wastewater effluent, namely, a reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC) from a wastewater treatment plant and a veterinary hospital wastewater (VHW)...
November 23, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882844/effect-of-glycosylation-on-hydration-behavior-at-the-ice-binding-surface-of-the-oceanpout-type-iii-antifreeze-protein-a-molecular-dynamics-simulation
#4
Swagata Halder, Chaitali Mukhopadhyay
Antifreeze proteins (AFPs), found in certain vertebrates, plants, fungi and bacteria have the ability to permit their survival in subzero environments by thermal hysteresis mechanism. However, the exact mechanism of ice growth inhibition is still not clearly understood. Here four long explicit molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been carried out at two different temperatures (277K and 298 K)with and without glycan to study the conformational rigidity of the Ocean pout type III antifreeze protein in aqueous medium and the structural arrangements of water molecules hydrating its ice binding surface...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875982/comparative-genomics-to-explore-phylogenetic-relationship-cryptic-sexual-potential-and-host-specificity-of-rhynchosporium-species-on-grasses
#5
Daniel Penselin, Martin Münsterkötter, Susanne Kirsten, Marius Felder, Stefan Taudien, Matthias Platzer, Kevin Ashelford, Konrad H Paskiewicz, Richard J Harrison, David J Hughes, Thomas Wolf, Ekaterina Shelest, Jenny Graap, Jan Hoffmann, Claudia Wenzel, Nadine Wöltje, Kevin M King, Bruce D L Fitt, Ulrich Güldener, Anna Avrova, Wolfgang Knogge
BACKGROUND: The Rhynchosporium species complex consists of hemibiotrophic fungal pathogens specialized to different sweet grass species including the cereal crops barley and rye. A sexual stage has not been described, but several lines of evidence suggest the occurrence of sexual reproduction. Therefore, a comparative genomics approach was carried out to disclose the evolutionary relationship of the species and to identify genes demonstrating the potential for a sexual cycle. Furthermore, due to the evolutionary very young age of the five species currently known, this genus appears to be well-suited to address the question at the molecular level of how pathogenic fungi adapt to their hosts...
November 22, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858291/molecular-characterization-of-a-novel-ssrna-ourmia-like-virus-from-the-rice-blast-fungus-magnaporthe-oryzae
#6
Adriana Illana, Marco Marconi, Julio Rodríguez-Romero, Ping Xu, Tamas Dalmay, Mark D Wilkinson, Maria Ángeles Ayllón, Ane Sesma
In this study we characterize a novel positive and single stranded RNA (ssRNA) mycovirus isolated from the rice field isolate of Magnaporthe oryzae Guy11. The ssRNA contains a single open reading frame (ORF) of 2,373 nucleotides in length and encodes an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) closely related to ourmiaviruses (plant viruses) and ourmia-like mycoviruses. Accordingly, we name this virus Magnaporthe oryzae ourmia-like virus 1 (MOLV1). Although phylogenetic analysis suggests that MOLV1 is closely related to ourmia and ourmia-like viruses, it has some features never reported before within the Ourmiavirus genus...
November 17, 2016: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820941/functions-of-exosomes-and-microbial-extracellular-vesicles-in-allergy-and-contact-and-delayed-type-hypersensitivity
#7
Katarzyna Nazimek, Krzysztof Bryniarski, Philip W Askenase
Extracellular vesicles, such as exosomes, are newly recognized intercellular conveyors of functional molecular mechanisms. Notably, they transfer RNAs and proteins between different cells that can then participate in the complex pathogenesis of allergic and related hypersensitivity responses and disease mechanisms, as described herein. This review highlights this important new appreciation of the in vivo participation of such extracellular vesicles in the interactions between allergy-mediating cells. We take into account paracrine epigenetic exchanges mediated by surrounding stromal cells and the endocrine receipt of exosomes from distant cells via the circulation...
2016: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790215/the-scavenger-receptor-ssc5d-physically-interacts-with-bacteria-through-the-srcr-containing-n-terminal-domain
#8
Catarina Bessa Pereira, Markéta Bocková, Rita F Santos, Ana Mafalda Santos, Mafalda Martins de Araújo, Liliana Oliveira, Jiří Homola, Alexandre M Carmo
The scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) family comprises a group of membrane-attached or secreted proteins that contain one or more modules/domains structurally similar to the membrane distal domain of type I macrophage scavenger receptor. Although no all-inclusive biological function has been ascribed to the SRCR family, some of these receptors have been shown to recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP) of bacteria, fungi, or other microbes. SSc5D is a recently described soluble SRCR receptor produced by monocytes/macrophages and T lymphocytes, consisting of an N-terminal portion, which contains five SRCR modules, and a large C-terminal mucin-like domain...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770361/analysis-of-dna-cytosine-methylation-patterns-using-methylation-sensitive-amplification-polymorphism-msap
#9
María Ángeles Guevara, Nuria de María, Enrique Sáez-Laguna, María Dolores Vélez, María Teresa Cervera, José Antonio Cabezas
Different molecular techniques have been developed to study either the global level of methylated cytosines or methylation at specific gene sequences. One of them is the methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism technique (MSAP) which is a modification of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). It has been used to study methylation of anonymous CCGG sequences in different fungi, plants, and animal species. The main variation of this technique resides on the use of isoschizomers with different methylation sensitivity (such as HpaII and MspI) as a frequent-cutter restriction enzyme...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760855/phylogenetic-assessment-of-global-suillus-its-sequences-supports-morphologically-defined-species-and-reveals-synonymous-and-undescribed-taxa
#10
Nhu Nguyen, Else C Vellinga, Thomas D Bruns, Peter Kennedy
The genus Suillus represents one of the most recognizable groups of mushrooms in conifer forests throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Although for decades the genus has been relatively well defined morphologically, previous molecular phylogenetic assessments have provided important yet preliminary insights into its evolutionary history. Here we present the first large-scale phylogenetic study of the boundaries of each species in the genus Suillus based on the most current internal transcribed spacer (ITS) barcode sequences available in public databases, as well as sequencing of 224 vouchered specimens and cultures, 15 of which were type specimens from North America...
October 19, 2016: Mycologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742091/redefining-common-endophytes-and-plant-pathogens-in-neofabraea-pezicula-and-related-genera
#11
Chen Chen, Gerard J M Verkley, Guangyu Sun, Johannes Z Groenewald, Pedro W Crous
Species in Neofabraea, Pezicula, and related genera have been reported as saprobes, plant pathogens or endophytes from a wide range of hosts. The asexual morphs of Neofabraea and Pezicula had been placed in Cryptosporiopsis, now a synonym of Pezicula, while Neofabraea was also linked to Phlyctema. Based on morphology and molecular data of the partial large subunit nrDNA (LSU), the internal transcribed spacer region with intervening 5.8S nrDNA (ITS), partial β-tubulin region (tub2), and the partial RNA polymerase II second largest subunit region (rpb2), the taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of these fungi were investigated...
November 2016: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706692/association-of-ectomycorrhizal-fungi-with-picea-crassifolia-pinaceae-piceoidae-from-high-altitude-stands-in-mount-helan-nature-reserve-china
#12
Y J Fan, T Grebenc, J Wei, Y L Zhao, W Yan, L B Wang
We investigated the diversity of ectomycorrhiza associated with the endemic Picea crassifolia in Mount Helan National Nature Reserve in Inner Mongolia, China. Toward this objective, we conducted morphological and molecular identification of ectomycorrhizae in soil cubes taken from pure P. crassifolia stands. Eleven types of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) organisms were separated, briefly described, and identified. Nine morphotypes belonged to the phylum Basidiomycotina [Amphinema byssoides, Cortinarius sp (cf. limonius), Cortinarius vernus, Inocybe cf...
September 2, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681232/genome-sequence-of-the-filamentous-soil-fungus-chaetomium-cochliodes-reveals-abundance-of-genes-for-heme-enzymes-from-all-peroxidase-and-catalase-superfamilies
#13
Marcel Zámocký, Hakim Tafer, Katarína Chovanová, Ksenija Lopandic, Anna Kamlárová, Christian Obinger
BACKGROUND: The ascomycetous family Chaetomiaceae (class Sordariomycetes) includes numerous soilborn, saprophytic, endophytic and pathogenic fungi which can adapt to various growth conditions and living niches by providing a broad armory of oxidative and antioxidant enzymes. RESULTS: We release the 34.7 Mbp draft genome of Chaetomium cochliodes CCM F-232 consisting of 6036 contigs with an average size of 5756 bp and reconstructed its phylogeny. We show that this filamentous fungus is closely related but not identical to Chaetomium globosum and Chaetomium elatum...
September 29, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671698/circular-rnas-are-mirna-sponges-and-can-be-used-as-a-new-class-of-biomarker
#14
Franceli Rodrigues Kulcheski, Ana Paula Christoff, Rogerio Margis
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) that are involved in transcriptional and posttranscriptional gene expression regulation. The development of deep sequencing of ribosomal RNA (rRNA)-depleted RNA libraries, associated with improved computational tools, has provided the identification of several new circRNAs in all sorts of organisms, from protists, plants and fungi to animals. Recently, it was discovered that endogenous circRNAs can work as microRNA (miRNA) sponges. This means that the circRNAs bind to miRNAs and consequently repress their function, providing a new model of action for this class of ncRNA, as well as indicating another mechanism that regulates miRNA activity...
November 20, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664729/indentification-of-vincamine-indole-alkaloids-producing-endophytic-fungi-isolated-from-nerium-indicum-apocynaceae
#15
REVIEW
Ren Na, Liu Jiajia, Yang Dongliang, Peng Yingzi, Hong Juan, Liu Xiong, Zhao Nana, Zhou Jing, Luo Yitian
Vincamine, a monoterpenoid indole alkaloid which had been marketed as nootropic drugs for the treatment of cerebral insufficiencies, is widely found in plants of the Apocynaceae family. Nerium indicum is a plant belonging to the Apocynaceae family. So, the purpose of this research was designed to investigate the vincamine alkaloids producing endophytic fungi from Nerium indicum, Apocynaceae. 11 strains of endophytic fungi, isolated from the stems and roots of the plant, were grouped into 5 genera on the basis of morphological characteristics...
November 2016: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641814/antibiotic-use-and-microbiome-function
#16
Manuel Ferrer, Celia Méndez-García, David Rojo, Coral Barbas, Andrés Moya
Our microbiome should be understood as one of the most complex components of the human body. The use of β-lactam antibiotics is one of the microbiome covariates that influence its composition. The extent to which our microbiota changes after an antibiotic intervention depends not only on the chemical nature of the antibiotic or cocktail of antibiotics used to treat specific infections, but also on the type of administration, duration and dose, as well as the level of resistance that each microbiota develops...
September 15, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616803/phylogeny-and-taxonomic-revision-of-microascaceae-with-emphasis-on-synnematous-fungi
#17
M Sandoval-Denis, J Guarro, J F Cano-Lira, D A Sutton, N P Wiederhold, G S de Hoog, S P Abbott, C Decock, L Sigler, J Gené
The taxonomy of the synnematous genera Cephalotrichum, Doratomyces and Trichurus, and other related genera Gamsia, Wardomyces and Wardomycopsis, has been controversial and relies mainly on morphological criteria. These are microascaceous saprobic fungi mostly found in air and soil and with a worldwide distribution. In order to clarify their taxonomy and to delineate generic boundaries within the Microascaceae, we studied 57 isolates that include clinical, environmental and all the available ex-type strains of a large set of species by means of morphological, physiological and molecular phylogenetic analyses using DNA sequence data of four loci (the ITS region, and fragments of rDNA LSU, translation elongation factor 1α and β-tubulin)...
2016: Studies in Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616786/redefining-microascus-scopulariopsis-and-allied-genera
#18
M Sandoval-Denis, J Gené, D A Sutton, J F Cano-Lira, G S de Hoog, C A Decock, N P Wiederhold, J Guarro
The genera Microascus and Scopulariopsis comprise species commonly isolated from soil, decaying plant material and indoor environments. A few species are also recognised as opportunistic pathogens of insects and animals, including humans. In the past, the taxonomy of these fungi has been based on morphology only. With the aim to clarify the taxonomy and phylogeny of these fungi, we studied a large set of clinical and environmental isolates, including the available ex-type strains of numerous species, by means of morphological, physiological and molecular analyses...
June 2016: Persoonia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27610715/review-of-nonfoodborne-zoonotic-and-potentially-zoonotic-poultry-diseases
#19
Agnes Agunos, F William Pierson, Bwalya Lungu, Patricia A Dunn, Nathaniel Tablante
Emerging and re-emerging diseases are continuously diagnosed in poultry species. A few of these diseases are known to cross the species barrier, thus posing a public health risk and an economic burden. We identified and synthesized global evidence for poultry nonfoodborne zoonoses to better understand these diseases in people who were exposed to different poultry-related characteristics (e.g., occupational or nonoccupational, operational types, poultry species, outbreak conditions, health status of flocks)...
September 2016: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590698/aerobiology-of-the-built-environment-synergy-between-legionella-and-fungi
#20
Absar Alum, Galahad Zachariah Isaacs
BACKGROUND: The modern built environment (BE) design creates unique ecological niches ideal for the survival and mutual interaction of microbial communities. This investigation focused on the synergistic relations between Legionella and the fungal species commonly found in BEs and the impact of these synergistic relationships on the survival and transmission of Legionella. METHODS: A field study was conducted to identify the types and concentrations of fungi in BEs...
September 2, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
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