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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668010/molecular-evolution-and-functional-divergence-of-alcohol-dehydrogenases-in-animals-fungi-and-plants
#1
Claudia E Thompson, Loreta B Freitas, Francisco M Salzano
Alcohol dehydrogenases belong to the large superfamily of medium-chain dehydrogenases/reductases, which occur throughout the biological world and are involved with many important metabolic routes. We considered the phylogeny of 190 ADH sequences of animals, fungi, and plants. Non-class III Caenorhabditis elegans ADHs were seen closely related to tetrameric fungal ADHs. ADH3 forms a sister group to amphibian, reptilian, avian and mammalian non-class III ADHs. In fishes, two main forms are identified: ADH1 and ADH3, whereas in amphibians there is a new ADH form (ADH8)...
2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625660/the-transcription-factor-encoding-gene-crtf-is-involved-in-clonostachys-chloroleuca-mycoparasitism-on-sclerotinia-sclerotiorum
#2
Zhan-Bin Sun, Qi Wang, Jun Zhang, Wei-Zhi Jiang, Qi Wang, Shi-Dong Li, Gui-Zhen Ma, Man-Hong Sun
Clonostachys chloroleuca 67-1 (formerly C. rosea 67-1) is a potential biocontrol fungus active against various fungal plant pathogens. From transcriptome sequencing of 67-1 parasitizing sclerotia of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, we identified the transcription factor-encoding gene crtf that is significantly up-regulated during mycoparasitism. Transcription factors are widely distributed in fungi and involved in multiple biological processes. However, their role and regulatory mechanisms in mycoparasitism remain poorly understood...
May 2018: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601138/reaction-mechanism-of-prephenate-dehydrogenase-from-the-alternate-tyrosine-biosynthesis-pathway-in-plants
#3
Cynthia K Holland, Joseph M Jez
Unlike metazoans, plants, bacteria, and fungi retain the enzymatic machinery necessary to synthesize the three aromatic amino acids, L¬-phenylalanine, L-tyrosine, and L-tryptophan de novo. In legumes, such as soybean, alfalfa, and common bean, prephenate dehydrogenase (PDH) catalyzes the tyrosine-insensitive biosynthesis of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate, a precursor to tyrosine. The three-dimensional structure of soybean PDH1 was recently solved in complex with the NADP+ cofactor. This structure allowed for the identification of both the cofactor- and ligand-binding sites...
March 30, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599747/circadian-and-metabolic-perspectives-in-the-role-played-by-nadph-in-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Isabel Méndez, Mauricio Díaz-Muñoz
Physiological activity in healthy conditions requires a coordinated interaction between the molecular circadian clock and the network of biochemical pathways. An important metabolic parameter in the interface between these two entities is the redox state. Among the redox coenzymes that regulate the fluxes of enzymatic reactions is the NADP+ /NADPH pair. Indeed, the main biosynthetic pathways need NADPH to serve as an electron donor for cellular anabolic transformations. The existence of a metabolic circadian clock is well established, and it was first identified in mammalian red blood cells...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580621/heat-stress-induced-reactive-oxygen-species-participate-in-the-regulation-of-hsp-expression-hyphal-branching-and-ganoderic-acid-biosynthesis-in-ganoderma-lucidum
#5
Rui Liu, Xue Zhang, Ang Ren, Deng-Ke Shi, Liang Shi, Jing Zhu, Han-Shou Yu, Ming-Wen Zhao
Heat stress (HS) is an important environmental factor that affects the growth and metabolism of edible fungi, but the molecular mechanism of the heat stress response (HSR) remains unclear. We previously reported that HS treatment increased the length between two hyphal branches and induced the accumulation of ganoderic acid biosynthesis and the gene expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in Ganoderma lucidum. In this study, we found that HS induced a significant increase in the cytosolic ROS concentration, and exogenously added ROS scavengers NAC, VC and NADPH oxidase (Nox) inhibitor DPI reduce the cytosolic ROS accumulation in G...
April 2018: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559822/taxonomic-annotation-of-public-fungal-its-sequences-from-the-built-environment-a-report-from-an-april-10-11-2017-workshop-aberdeen-uk
#6
R Henrik Nilsson, Andy F S Taylor, Rachel I Adams, Christiane Baschien, Johan Bengtsson-Palme, Patrik Cangren, Claudia Coleine, Heide-Marie Daniel, Sydney I Glassman, Yuuri Hirooka, Laszlo Irinyi, Reda Iršėnaitė, Pedro M Martin-Sanchez, Wieland Meyer, Seung-Yoon Oh, Jose Paulo Sampaio, Keith A Seifert, Frantisek Sklenář, Dirk Stubbe, Sung-Oui Suh, Richard Summerbell, Sten Svantesson, Martin Unterseher, Cobus M Visagie, Michael Weiss, Joyce Hc Woudenberg, Christian Wurzbacher, Silke Van den Wyngaert, Neriman Yilmaz, Andrey Yurkov, Urmas Kõljalg, Kessy Abarenkov
Recent DNA-based studies have shown that the built environment is surprisingly rich in fungi. These indoor fungi - whether transient visitors or more persistent residents - may hold clues to the rising levels of human allergies and other medical and building-related health problems observed globally. The taxonomic identity of these fungi is crucial in such pursuits. Molecular identification of the built mycobiome is no trivial undertaking, however, given the large number of unidentified, misidentified, and technically compromised fungal sequences in public sequence databases...
2018: MycoKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556000/environmental-allergens-induce-allergic-inflammation-through-proteolytic-maturation-of-il-33
#7
Corinne Cayrol, Anais Duval, Pauline Schmitt, Stephane Roga, Mylène Camus, Alexandre Stella, Odile Burlet-Schiltz, Anne Gonzalez-de-Peredo, Jean-Philippe Girard
Allergic inflammation has crucial roles in allergic diseases such as asthma. It is therefore important to understand why and how the immune system responds to allergens. Here we found that full-length interleukin 33 (IL-33FL ), an alarmin cytokine with critical roles in type 2 immunity and asthma, functioned as a protease sensor that detected proteolytic activities associated with various environmental allergens across four kingdoms, including fungi, house dust mites, bacteria and pollens. When exposed to allergen proteases, IL-33FL was rapidly cleaved in its central 'sensor' domain, which led to activation of the production of type 2 cytokines in group 2 innate lymphoid cells...
March 19, 2018: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551207/isolation-identification-and-the-growth-promoting-effects-of-two-antagonistic-actinomycete-strains-from-the-rhizosphere-of-mikania-micrantha-kunth
#8
Dandan Han, Lanying Wang, Yanping Luo
Actinomycetes are an important group of gram-positive bacteria that play an essential role in the rhizosphere ecosystem. The confrontation culture and Oxford cup method were used to evaluate the antagonistic activities of strains, which were isolated from the rhizosphere soil of Mikania micrantha. The two isolates were identified using morphological and physiological tests combined with 16S rRNA-based molecular analysis, respectively. The type I polyketone synthase (PKS-I) was amplified. The constituents of fermentation metabolites were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry...
March 2018: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550547/symbiosis-genes-for-immunity-and-vice-versa
#9
REVIEW
Thomas Rey, Christophe Jacquet
Basic molecular knowledge on plant-pathogen interactions has largely been gained from reverse and forward genetics in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, as this model plant is unable to establish endosymbiosis with mycorrhizal fungi or rhizobia, plant responses to mutualistic symbionts have been studied in parallel in other plant species, mainly legumes. The resulting analyses led to the identification of gene networks involved in various functions, from microbe recognition to signalling and plant responses, thereafter assigned to either mutualistic symbiosis or immunity, according to the nature of the initially inoculated microbe...
March 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543834/mip-diversity-from-trichoderma-structural-considerations-and-transcriptional-modulation-during-mycoparasitic-association-with-fusarium-solani-olive-trees
#10
Maroua Ben Amira, Robin Mom, David Lopez, Hatem Chaar, Ali Khouaja, Valérie Pujade-Renaud, Boris Fumanal, Aurélie Gousset-Dupont, Gisèle Bronner, Philippe Label, Jean-Louis Julien, Mohamed Ali Triki, Daniel Auguin, Jean-Stéphane Venisse
Major intrinsic proteins (MIP) are characterized by a transmembrane pore-type architecture that facilitates transport across biomembranes of water and a variety of low molecular weight solutes. They are found in all parts of life, with remarkable protein diversity. Very little is known about MIP from fungi. And yet, it can legitimately be stated that MIP are pivotal molecular components in the privileged relationships fungi enjoy with plants or soil fauna in various environments. To date, MIP have never been studied in a mycoparasitism situation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534051/vdplp-a-patatin-like-phospholipase-in-verticillium-dahliae-is-involved-in-cell-wall-integrity-and-required-for-pathogenicity
#11
Xiliang Qi, Xiaokang Li, Huiming Guo, Ning Guo, Hongmei Cheng
The soil-borne ascomycete fungus Verticillium dahliae causes vascular wilt disease and can seriously diminish the yield and quality of important crops. Functional analysis of growth- and pathogenicity-related genes is essential for revealing the pathogenic molecular mechanism of V. dahliae . Phospholipase is an important virulence factor in fungi that hydrolyzes phospholipids into fatty acid and other lipophilic substances and is involved in hyphal development. Thus far, only a few V. dahliae phospholipases have been identified, and their involvement in V...
March 13, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518906/innate-immunity-against-cryptococcus-from-recognition-to-elimination
#12
REVIEW
Althea Campuzano, Floyd L Wormley
Cryptococcus species, the etiological agents of cryptococcosis, are encapsulated fungal yeasts that predominantly cause disease in immunocompromised individuals, and are responsible for 15% of AIDS-related deaths worldwide. Exposure follows the inhalation of the yeast into the lung alveoli, making it incumbent upon the pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) of pulmonary phagocytes to recognize highly conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPS) of fungi. The main challenges impeding the ability of pulmonary phagocytes to effectively recognize Cryptococcus include the presence of the yeast's large polysaccharide capsule, as well as other cryptococcal virulence factors that mask fungal PAMPs and help Cryptococcus evade detection and subsequent activation of the immune system...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512606/molecular-strain-typing-of-trichophyton-mentagrophytes-t-mentagrophytes-var-interdigitale-using-non-transcribed-spacer-region-as-a-molecular-marker
#13
Vijayakumar Ramaraj, Rajyoganandh S Vijayaraman, Veena Hemanth, Sudha Rangarajan, Anupma Jyoti Kindo
Background & objectives: : Dermatophytes are keratinophilic fungi that infect keratinized tissues of human and animal origin. Trichophyton mentagrophytes is considered to be a species complex composed of several strains, which include both anthropophiles and zoophiles. Accurate discrimination is critical for comprehensive understanding of the clinical and epidemiological implications of the genetic heterogeneity of this complex. Molecular strain typing renders an effective way to discriminate each strain...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503476/a-synopsis-of-the-saddle-fungi-helvella-ascomycota-in-europe-species-delimitation-taxonomy-and-typification
#14
I Skrede, T Carlsen, T Schumacher
Helvella is a widespread, speciose genus of large apothecial ascomycetes ( Pezizomycete : Pezizales ) that are found in terrestrial biomes of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. This study represents a beginning on assessing species limits and applying correct names for Helvella species based on type material and specimens in the university herbaria (fungaria) of Copenhagen (C), Harvard (FH) and Oslo (O). We use morphology and phylogenetic evidence from four loci - heat shock protein 90 ( hsp ), translation elongation factor alpha ( tef ), RNA polymerase II ( rpb2 ) and the nuclear large subunit ribosomal DNA (LSU) - to assess species boundaries in an expanded sample of Helvella specimens from Europe...
December 2017: Persoonia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503475/-cortinarius-section-bicolores-and-section-saturnini-basidiomycota-agaricales-a-morphogenetic-overview-of-european-and-north-american-species
#15
K Liimatainen, X Carteret, B Dima, I Kytövuori, A Bidaud, P Reumaux, T Niskanen, J F Ammirati, J-M Bellanger
Cortinarius is the largest genus of ectomycorrhizal fungi worldwide. Recent molecular studies have shown high levels of morphological homoplasy within the genus. Importantly, DNA phylogenies can reveal characteristics that have been either over- or underemphasized in taxonomic studies. Here we sequenced and phylogenetically analysed a large set of pan-European and North American collections taxonomically studied and placed in Cortinarius sect. Bicolores and sect. Saturnini , according to traditional morpho-anatomical criteria...
December 2017: Persoonia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503472/phylogenetic-placement-within-lecanoromycetes-of-lichenicolous-fungi-associated-with-cladonia-and-some-other-genera
#16
R Pino-Bodas, M P Zhurbenko, S Stenroos
Though most of the lichenicolous fungi belong to the Ascomycetes , their phylogenetic placement based on molecular data is lacking for numerous species. In this study the phylogenetic placement of 19 species of lichenicolous fungi was determined using four loci (LSU rDNA, SSU rDNA, ITS rDNA and mtSSU). The phylogenetic analyses revealed that the studied lichenicolous fungi are widespread across the phylogeny of Lecanoromycetes . One species is placed in Acarosporales , Sarcogyne sphaerospora ; five species in Dactylosporaceae , Dactylospora ahtii , D...
December 2017: Persoonia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503471/phylogeny-of-the-order-phyllachorales-ascomycota-sordariomycetes-among-and-within-order-relationships-based-on-five-molecular-loci
#17
M Mardones, T Trampe-Jaschik, S Oster, M Elliott, H Urbina, I Schmitt, M Piepenbring
The order Phyllachorales ( Pezizomycotina , Ascomycota ) is a group of biotrophic, obligate plant parasitic fungi with a tropical distribution and high host specificity. Traditionally two families are recognised within this order: Phyllachoraceae and Phaeochoraceae , based mostly on morphological and host characteristics. Currently, the position of the order within the class Sordariomycetes is inconclusive, as well as the monophyly of the order, and its internal phylogenetic structure. Here we present a phylogeny of the order Phyllachorales based on sequence data of 29 species with a broad host range resulting from a wide geographical sampling...
December 2017: Persoonia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500373/structure-based-function-annotation-of-hypothetical-protein-mgg_01005-from-magnaporthe-oryzae-reveals-it-is-the-dynein-light-chain-orthologue-of-dynlt1-3
#18
Guorui Li, Jinguang Huang, Jun Yang, Dan He, Chao Wang, Xiaoxuan Qi, Ian A Taylor, Junfeng Liu, You-Liang Peng
Magnaporthe oryzae is a model fungal plant pathogen employed for studying plant-fungi interactions. Whole genome sequencing and bioinformatics analyses revealed that this fungal pathogen has more than 12,000 protein-coding genes with 65% of the genes remaining functionally un-annotated. Here, we determine the structure of the hypothetical protein, MGG_01005 and show that it is the Magnaporthe oryzae Dynein light chain Tctex-type 1 (dynlt1/3), demonstrated by its structural similarity to other orthologous dynlt1 proteins and its conserved interaction with the N-terminus of the Magnaporthe oryzae dynein intermediate chain, MoDyn1I2...
March 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497408/recent-insights-on-biological-and-ecological-aspects-of-ectomycorrhizal-fungi-and-their-interactions
#19
REVIEW
Antonietta Mello, Raffaella Balestrini
The roots of most terrestrial plants are colonized by mycorrhizal fungi. They play a key role in terrestrial environments influencing soil structure and ecosystem functionality. Around them a peculiar region, the mycorrhizosphere, develops. This is a very dynamic environment where plants, soil and microorganisms interact. Interest in this fascinating environment has increased over the years. For a long period the knowledge of the microbial populations in the rhizosphere has been limited, because they have always been studied by traditional culture-based techniques...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482727/a-new-point-mutation-in-%C3%AE-2-tubulin-confers-resistance-to-carbendazim-in-fusarium-asiaticum
#20
Ying Yang, Mei-Xia Li, Ya-Bing Duan, Tao Li, Yi-Yuan Shi, Dong-Lei Zhao, Ze-Hua Zhou, Wen-Jing Xin, Jian Wu, Xia-Yan Pan, Yan-Jun Li, Yuan-Ye Zhu, Ming-Guo Zhou
Resistance to benzimidazole fungicides in many phytopathogenic fungi is caused by specific point mutations in the β-tubulin gene (β-tubulin). However, the mutated locus and genotype of β-tubulin differ among phytopathogenic fungi. To validate the point mutation in Fusarium asiaticum β2 -tubulin that confers resistance to carbendazim and to analyze the molecular interaction between carbendazim and F. asiaticum β2 -tubulin. In this study, a new point mutation (GAG→GCG, E198A) at codon 198 of β2 -tubulin in a wild-type F...
February 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
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