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Fungi molecular typing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629791/inositol-phosphate-signaling-as-mediator-for-growth-and-sexual-reproduction-in-podospora-anserina
#1
Ning Xie, Gwenaël Ruprich-Robert, Florence Chapeland-Leclerc, Evelyne Coppin, Hervé Lalucque, Sylvain Brun, Robert Debuchy, Philippe Silar
The molecular pathways involved in the development of multicellular fruiting bodies in fungi are still not well known. Especially, the interplay between the mycelium, the female tissues and the zygotic tissues of the fruiting bodies is poorly documented. Here, we describe PM154, a new strain of the model ascomycetes Podospora anserina able to mate with itself and that enabled the easy recovery of new mutants affected in fruiting body development. By complete genome sequencing of spod1, one of the new mutants, we identified an inositol phosphate polykinase gene as essential, especially for fruiting body development...
June 16, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623940/clonorchis-sinensis-lysophospholipase-a-upregulates-il-25-expression-in-macrophages-as-a-potential-pathway-to-liver-fibrosis
#2
Lina Zhou, Mengchen Shi, Lu Zhao, Zhipeng Lin, Zeli Tang, Hengchang Sun, Tingjin Chen, Zhiyue Lv, Jin Xu, Yan Huang, Xinbing Yu
BACKGROUND: Liver fibrosis is an excessive wound-healing reaction that requires the participation of inflammatory cells and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). The pathogenesis of liver fibrosis caused by viruses and alcohol has been well characterized, but the molecular mechanisms underlying liver fibrosis induced by the liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis are poorly understood. Lysophospholipase A (LysoPLA), which deacylates lysophospholipids, plays a critical role in mediating the virulence and pathogenesis of parasites and fungi; however, the roles of C...
June 17, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616054/an-investigation-on-non-invasive-fungal-sinusitis-molecular-identification-of-etiologic-agents
#3
Abdolrasoul Mohammadi, Seyed Mostafa Hashemi, Sayed Hamidreza Abtahi, Seyed Mohammad Lajevardi, Sahar Kianipour, Rasoul Mohammadi
BACKGROUND: Fungal sinusitis is increasing worldwide in the past two decades. It is divided into two types including invasive and noninvasive. Noninvasive types contain allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) and fungus ball. AFS is a hypersensitivity reaction to fungal allergens in the mucosa of the sinonasal tract in atopic individuals. The fungus ball is a different type of noninvasive fungal rhinosinusitis which is delineated as an accumulation of debris and fungal elements inside a paranasal sinus...
2017: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598396/embryotoxicity-caused-by-don-induced-oxidative-stress-mediated-by-nrf2-ho-1-pathway
#4
Miao Yu, Liangkai Chen, Zhao Peng, Di Wang, Yadong Song, Hanying Wang, Ping Yao, Hong Yan, Andreas K Nüssler, Liegang Liu, Wei Yang
Deoxynivalenol (DON) belongs to the type B group of trichothecenes family, which is composed of sesquiterpenoid metabolites produced by Fusarium and other fungi in grain. DON may cause various toxicities, such as cytotoxicity, immunotoxicity, genotoxicity as well as teratogenicity and carcinogenicity. In the present study, we focus on a hypothesis that DON alters the expressions of Nrf2/HO-1 pathway by inducing embryotoxicity in C57BL/6 mouse (5.0, 2.5, 1.0, and 0 mg/kg/day) and BeWo cell lines (0 and 50 nM; 3 h, 12 h and 24 h)...
June 9, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596577/development-of-an-efficient-vector-system-for-gene-knock-out-and-near-in-cis-gene-complementation-in-the-sugarcane-smut-fungus
#5
Shan Lu, Xiaorui Shen, Baoshan Chen
Sporisorium scitamineum is the causative agent responsible for smut disease of sugarcane worldwide. However, lack of efficient gene manipulation system makes this fungus much behind the type model of the smut fungi in molecular biology. Here, we report the development of a CRISPR/Cas9 and T-DNA based dual vector system that allowed efficient knock-out or knock-in of a gene of interest in the S. scitamineum in a site-specific manner. By using Mfa2, a key player in the mating event in S. scitamineum as a tester gene, site-specific insertions of the introduced fragments were achieved both for Mfa2 knockout and complementation...
June 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589247/challenges-in-laboratory-detection-of-fungal-pathogens-in-the-airways-of-cystic-fibrosis-patients
#6
Sharon C-A Chen, Wieland Meyer, Catherine H Pashley
Study of the clinical significance of fungal colonization/infection in the airways of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, especially by filamentous fungi, is challenged by the absence of standardized methodology for the detection and identification of an ever-broadening range of fungal pathogens. Culture-based methods remain the cornerstone diagnostic approaches, but current methods used in many clinical laboratories are insensitive and unstandardized, rendering comparative studies unfeasible. Guidelines for standardized processing of respiratory specimens and for their culture are urgently needed and should include recommendations for specific processing procedures, inoculum density, culture media, incubation temperature and duration of culture...
June 6, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577123/hepatic-disease-with-portal-hypertension-and-acute-juvenile-paracoccidioidomycosis-a-report-of-two-cases-and-literature-review
#7
REVIEW
Priscila Marques de Macedo, Rodrigo Almeida-Paes, Dayvison Francis Saraiva Freitas, Fabio Brito-Santos, Maria Helena Galdino Figueiredo-Carvalho, João Carlos de Almeida Soares, Andrea D'Ávila Freitas, Rosely Maria Zancopé-Oliveira, Antonio Carlos Francesconi do Valle
Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a neglected systemic mycosis endemic to Latin America caused by dimorphic fungi of the genus Paracoccidioides. The acute juvenile PCM is a severe type of presentation that usually affects young vulnerable patients and rarely progresses to portal hypertension. Here, two cases of liver disease and portal hypertension as complications of acute juvenile PCM are reported. Diagnosis of PCM was performed by isolation of the fungus and molecular identification of the strains provided through partial sequencing of two protein encoding genes, arf and gp43...
June 2, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558644/a-case-of-subcutaneous-phaeohyphomycosis-associated-with-leprosy
#8
Márcia M R Teixeira, Claudia B Assunção, Renata R Gomes, Fabiana Rocha-Silva, Sônia M de Figueiredo, Elen R R Teixeira, Adriana S Carneiro, Rogério J M B Júnior, Vânia Vicente, Rachel Basques Caligiorne
Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis is a form of infection caused by dematiaceous fungi and frequently reported in the literature. It is considered as an emerging mycosis because it is increasingly reported among immunosuppressive patients. The most commonly cited etiologic agent is Exophiala jeanselmei, followed by Alternaria spp. We present a case of a 48-year-old woman, with a history of lepromatous leprosy, using corticosteroid in immunosuppressive doses due to a type 2 repetitive reaction leprosy outbreak, revealing subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis lesions...
May 30, 2017: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536287/kisameet-glacial-clay-an-unexpected-source-of-bacterial-diversity
#9
Sarah L Svensson, Shekooh Behroozian, Wanjing Xu, Michael G Surette, Loretta Li, Julian Davies
Widespread antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens is providing the impetus to explore novel sources of antimicrobial agents. Recently, the potent antibacterial activity of certain clay minerals has stimulated scientific interest in these materials. One such example is Kisameet glacial clay (KC), an antibacterial clay from a deposit on the central coast of British Columbia, Canada. However, our understanding of the active principles of these complex natural substances is incomplete. Like soils, clays may possess complex mixtures of bacterial taxa, including the Actinobacteria, a clade known to be rich in antibiotic-producing organisms...
May 23, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527583/molecular-characterization-of-aspergillus-fumigatus-tcsc-a-characteristic-type-iii-hybrid-histidine-kinase-of-filamentous-fungi-harboring-six-hamp-domains
#10
Anja Spadinger, Frank Ebel
The type III hybrid histidine kinase (HHK) TcsC enables the pathogenic mold Aspergillus fumigatus to thrive under hyperosmotic conditions. It is, moreover, of particular interest, since it is the target of certain antifungal agents, such as fludioxonil. This study was aimed at a functional characterization of the domains that constitute the sensing and the kinase module of TcsC. The sensing module consists of six HAMP domains, an architecture that is commonly found in type III HHKs of filamentous fungi. To dissect the functional role of the individual domains, we have analyzed a set of truncated derivatives of TcsC with respect to their impact on fungal growth and their ability to respond to hyperosmotic stress and fludioxonil...
June 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527395/hydrogen-bonded-charge-transfer-molecular-salt-4-chloro-anilinium-3-nitrophthalate-for-photophysical-and-pharmacological-applications
#11
K Singaravelan, A Chandramohan, M Saravanabhavan, I V Muthu Vijayan Enoch, V S Suganthi
Radical scavenging activity against DPPH radical and binding properties of a hydrogen bonded charge transfer molecular salt 4-chloro anilinium-3-nitrophthalate(CANP) with calf thymus DNA has been studied by electronic absorption and emission spectroscopy. The molecular structure and crystallinity of the CANP salt have been established by carried out powder and single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis which indicated that cation and anion are linked through strong N(+)H(…)O(-) type of hydrogen bond. FTIR spectroscopic study was carried out to know the various functional groups present in the crystal...
May 10, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527179/making-time-conservation-of-biological-clocks-from-fungi-to-animals
#12
Jay C Dunlap, Jennifer J Loros
The capacity for biological timekeeping arose at least three times through evolution, in prokaryotic cyanobacteria, in cells that evolved into higher plants, and within the group of organisms that eventually became the fungi and the animals. Neurospora is a tractable model system for understanding the molecular bases of circadian rhythms in the last of these groups, and is perhaps the most intensively studied circadian cell type. Rhythmic processes described in fungi include growth rate, stress responses, developmental capacity, and sporulation, as well as much of metabolism; fungi use clocks to anticipate daily environmental changes...
May 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520621/outbreaks-in-the-adult-icus
#13
Hasan M Al-Dorzi, Yaseen M Arabi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Infectious disease outbreaks in the critical care setting are common and serious consequence. This article reviews and summarizes recent outbreaks in the adult ICUs. RECENT FINDINGS: Outbreaks of multidrug-resistant bacteria, fungi, and emerging viruses in ICUs from different countries are common. Outbreak investigation relies on epidemiologic methods, microbiologic studies, and molecular typing methods. Overuse of antibiotics, gaps in implementing infection prevention measures, and contaminated environment are common causes of ICU outbreaks...
May 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490578/investigating-clinical-issues-by-genotyping-of-medically-important-fungi-why-and-how
#14
REVIEW
Alexandre Alanio, Marie Desnos-Ollivier, Dea Garcia-Hermoso, Stéphane Bretagne
Genotyping studies of medically important fungi have addressed elucidation of outbreaks, nosocomial transmissions, infection routes, and genotype-phenotype correlations, of which secondary resistance has been most intensively investigated. Two methods have emerged because of their high discriminatory power and reproducibility: multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and microsatellite length polymorphism (MLP) using short tandem repeat (STR) markers. MLST relies on single-nucleotide polymorphisms within the coding regions of housekeeping genes...
July 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462022/exploring-the-binding-properties-and-structural-stability-of-an-opsin-in-the-chytrid-spizellomyces-punctatus-using-comparative-and-molecular-modeling
#15
Steven R Ahrendt, Edgar Mauricio Medina, Chia-En A Chang, Jason E Stajich
BACKGROUND: Opsin proteins are seven transmembrane receptor proteins which detect light. Opsins can be classified into two types and share little sequence identity: type 1, typically found in bacteria, and type 2, primarily characterized in metazoa. The type 2 opsins (Rhodopsins) are a subfamily of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), a large and diverse class of seven transmembrane proteins and are generally restricted to metazoan lineages. Fungi use light receptors including opsins to sense the environment and transduce signals for developmental or metabolic changes...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456118/dna-interaction-antimicrobial-anticancer-activities-and-molecular-docking-study-of-some-new-vo-ii-cr-iii-mn-ii-and-ni-ii-mononuclear-chelates-encompassing-quaridentate-imine-ligand
#16
Laila H Abdel-Rahman, Ahmed M Abu-Dief, Moustafa O Aboelez, Azza A Hassan Abdel-Mawgoud
The present study was conducted to synthesis of some new imine Cr(III), VO(II), Mn(II) and Ni(II) complexes derived from the condensation of 2-amino phenol with 2-hydroxynapthaldehyde were synthesized. The prepared HNPN imine ligand was analyzed by its melting point, IR, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR spectroscopies. The investigated HNPN imine complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, FT IR, UV-vis and thermal analysis (TGA) under nitrogen atmosphere from ambient temperature to 750°C. The experimental results revealed that the investigated complexes contain hydrated water molecules...
May 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443028/improved-model-of-proton-pump-crystal-structure-obtained-by-interactive-molecular-dynamics-flexible-fitting-expands-the-mechanistic-model-for-proton-translocation-in-p-type-atpases
#17
Dorota Focht, Tristan I Croll, Bjorn P Pedersen, Poul Nissen
The plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase is a proton pump of the P-type ATPase family and essential in plants and fungi. It extrudes protons to regulate pH and maintains a strong proton-motive force that energizes e.g., secondary uptake of nutrients. The only crystal structure of a H(+)-ATPase (AHA2 from Arabidopsis thaliana) was reported in 2007. Here, we present an improved atomic model of AHA2, obtained by a combination of model rebuilding through interactive molecular dynamics flexible fitting (iMDFF) and structural refinement based on the original data, but using up-to-date refinement methods...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421861/the-plant-dependent-life-cycle-of-thecaphora-thlaspeos-a-smut-fungus-adapted-to-brassicaceae
#18
Lamprinos Frantzeskakis, Kaitlyn J Courville, Lesley Plücker, Ronny Kellner, Julia Kruse, Andreas Brachmann, Michael Feldbrügge, Vera Göhre
Smut fungi are globally distributed plant pathogens that infect agriculturally important crop plants such as maize or potato. To date, molecular studies on plant responses to smut fungi are challenging due to the genetic complexity of their host plants. Therefore, we set out to investigate the known smut fungus of Brassicaceae hosts, Thecaphora thlaspeos. T. thlaspeos infects different Brassicaceae plant species throughout Europe, including the perennial model plant Arabis alpina. In contrast to characterized smut fungi, mature and dry T...
April 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376722/evolutionary-gradient-of-predicted-nuclear-localization-signals-nls-bearing-proteins-in-genomes-of-family-planctomycetaceae
#19
Min Guo, Ruifu Yang, Chen Huang, Qiwen Liao, Guangyi Fan, Chenghang Sun, Simon Ming-Yuen Lee
BACKGROUND: The nuclear envelope is considered a key classification marker that distinguishes prokaryotes from eukaryotes. However, this marker does not apply to the family Planctomycetaceae, which has intracellular spaces divided by lipidic intracytoplasmic membranes (ICMs). Nuclear localization signal (NLS), a short stretch of amino acid sequence, destines to transport proteins from cytoplasm into nucleus, and is also associated with the development of nuclear envelope. We attempted to investigate the NLS motifs in Planctomycetaceae genomes to demonstrate the potential molecular transition in the development of intracellular membrane system...
April 4, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376389/identification-and-characterization-of-the-verticillin-biosynthetic-gene-cluster-in-clonostachys-rogersoniana
#20
Ying Wang, Pengjie Hu, Yuanyuan Pan, Yaxin Zhu, Xingzhong Liu, Yongsheng Che, Gang Liu
Verticillin is one of the dimeric epipolythiodioxopiperazines (ETPs) which are toxic secondary metabolites produced only by fungi. ETPs have received substantial attention since its complex molecular architecture and a wide range of biological activities. Although biosynthesis of the monomeric gliotoxin has been studied extensively, the biosynthetic pathway of dimeric ETPs is far from being studied. To investigate the biosynthesis of dimeric ETPs and expand our understanding of their dimerization, the verticillin biosynthetic gene cluster (ver) was identified and cloned from a genomic DNA fosmid library of the Cordyceps-colonizing fungus Clonostachys rogersoniana with the designed primers based on the sequence of a nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) ChaP which was predicted to be responsible for chaetocin biosynthesis in Chaetomium virescens...
June 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
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