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Fungi molecular typing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054522/antimicrobial-activity-of-a-newly-identified-kazal-type-serine-proteinase-inhibitor-cckpi1-from-the-jellyfish-cyanea-capillata
#1
Yonghong Zhou, Guoyan Liu, Xi Cheng, Qianqian Wang, Bo Wang, Beilei Wang, Hui Zhang, Qian He, Liming Zhang
In this study, we reported a jellyfish-derived Kazal-type serine protease inhibitor, named CcKPI1, from Cyanea capillata. CcKPI1 has a calculated molecular mass of 19.02kDa and contains three typical Kazal domains. Soluble recombinant CcKPI1 (rCcKPI1) was successfully expressed and purified. rCcKPI1 exhibited significant inhibitory activities against elastase, subtilisin A and proteinase K, but not against trypsin or chymotrypsin. Kinetic studies showed that all of the inhibitory effects of rCcKPI1 were competitive, indicating that it may be a microbial serine protease inhibitor and can exhibit antimicrobial activity...
October 17, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017925/evolution-of-catalytic-microenvironment-governs-substrate-and-product-diversity-in-trichodiene-synthase-and-other-terpene-fold-enzymes
#2
Indu Kumari, Mushtaq Ahmed, Yusuf Akhter
Trichodiene synthase, a terpene fold enzyme catalyzes the first reaction of trichodermin biosynthesis that is an economically important secondary metabolite. Sequence search analysis revealed that the proteins containing terpene fold are present in bacteria, fungi and plants. Terpene fold protein from Selaginella moellendorffii, a lycophyte, appeared at the interface of the microbes and plants in the evolutionary scale. Amino acid residues present around the catalytic pocket determines the size of the substrate as well as product molecules...
October 7, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992337/occurrence-and-species-distribution-of-pathogenic-mucorales-in-unselected-soil-samples-from-france
#3
B Mousavi, J M Costa, P Arné, J Guillot, R Chermette, F Botterel, E Dannaoui
Mucormycosis is a life-threatening invasive fungal disease that affects a variety of patient groups. Although Mucorales are mostly opportunistic pathogens originating from soil or decaying vegetation, there are currently few data on prevalence of this group of fungi in the environment. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence and diversity of species of Mucorales from soil samples collected in France. Two grams of soil were homogenized in sterile saline and plated on Sabouraud dextrose agar and RPMI agar supplemented with itraconazole or voriconazole...
July 28, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951729/regulatory-mechanisms-of-a-highly-pectinolytic-mutant-of-penicillium-occitanis-and-functional-analysis-of-a-candidate-gene-in-the-plant-pathogen-fusarium-oxysporum
#4
Gustavo Bravo-Ruiz, Azza Hadj Sassi, Marina Marcet-Houben, Antonio Di Pietro, Ali Gargouri, Toni Gabaldon, M Isabel G Roncero
Penicillium occitanis is a model system for enzymatic regulation. A mutant strain exhibiting constitutive overproduction of different pectinolytic enzymes both under inducing (pectin) or repressing conditions (glucose) was previously isolated after chemical mutagenesis. In order to identify the molecular basis of this regulatory mechanism, the genomes of the wild type and the derived mutant strain were sequenced and compared, providing the first reference genome for this species. We used a phylogenomic approach to compare P...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950891/microbes-and-associated-soluble-and-volatile-chemicals-on-periodically-wet-household-surfaces
#5
Rachel I Adams, Despoina S Lymperopoulou, Pawel K Misztal, Rita De Cassia Pessotti, Scott W Behie, Yilin Tian, Allen H Goldstein, Steven E Lindow, William W Nazaroff, John W Taylor, Matt F Traxler, Thomas D Bruns
BACKGROUND: Microorganisms influence the chemical milieu of their environment, and chemical metabolites can affect ecological processes. In built environments, where people spend the majority of their time, very little is known about how surface-borne microorganisms influence the chemistry of the indoor spaces. Here, we applied multidisciplinary approaches to investigate aspects of chemical microbiology in a house. METHODS: We characterized the microbial and chemical composition of two common and frequently wet surfaces in a residential setting: kitchen sink and bathroom shower...
September 26, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942502/insights-into-hydrocarbon-assimilation-by-eurotialean-and-hypocrealean-fungi-roles-for-cyp52-and-cyp53-clans-of-cytochrome-p450-genes
#6
Carla Huarte-Bonnet, Suresh Kumar, Mario C N Saparrat, Juan R Girotti, Marianela Santana, John E Hallsworth, Nicolás Pedrini
Several filamentous fungi are able to concomitantly assimilate both aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that are the biogenic by-products of some industrial processes. Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases catalyze the first oxidation reaction for both types of substrate. Among the cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes, the family CYP52 is implicated in the first hydroxylation step in alkane-assimilation processes, while genes belonging to the family CYP53 have been linked with oxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons...
September 23, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939987/dual-bacterial-fungal-symbiosis-in-deltocephalinae-leafhoppers-insecta-hemiptera-cicadomorpha-cicadellidae
#7
Michał Kobiałka, Anna Michalik, Marcin Walczak, Teresa Szklarzewicz
The symbiotic systems (types of symbionts, their distribution in the host insect body, and their transovarial transmission between generations) of four Deltocephalinae leafhoppers: Fieberiella septentrionalis, Graphocraerus ventralis, Orientus ishidae, and Cicadula quadrinotata have been examined by means of histological, ultrastructural, and molecular techniques. In all four species, two types of symbionts are present: bacterium Sulcia (phylum Bacteroidetes) and yeast-like symbionts closely related to the entomopathogenic fungi (phylum Ascomycota, class Sordariomycetes)...
September 23, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935612/use-of-aflp-for-the-study-of-eukaryotic-pathogens-affecting-humans
#8
REVIEW
Carlos M Restrepo, Alejandro Llanes, Ricardo Lleonart
Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) is a genotyping technique based on PCR amplification of specific restriction fragments from a particular genome. The methodology has been extensively used in plant biology to solve a variety of scientific questions, including taxonomy, molecular epidemiology, systematics, population genetics, among many others. The AFLP share advantages and disadvantages with other types of molecular markers, being particularly useful in organisms with no previous DNA sequence knowledge...
September 19, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918151/internal-transcribed-spacer-its-sequencing-reveals-considerable-fungal-diversity-in-dairy-products
#9
A J Buehler, R L Evanowski, N H Martin, K J Boor, M Wiedmann
Fungi are important spoilage organisms in dairy products. However, little is known about the diversity of naturally occurring spoilage fungi in raw milk and processed dairy products, due at least in part to the fact that classical fungal identification methods require considerable expertise. To gain further insight into the fungal diversity in the dairy system, we isolated fungi from raw milk, raw and pasteurized milk cheese, and yogurt using the selective dichloran rose bengal chloramphenicol agar. In total, 361 fungal isolates were obtained and further characterized by DNA sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and the nuclear ribosomal large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene if needed...
November 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916358/the-functional-characterization-and-comparison-of-two-single-crd-containing-c-type-lectins-with-novel-and-typical-key-motifs-from-portunus-trituberculatus
#10
Mengmeng Huang, Changkao Mu, Yuehong Wu, Fei Ye, Dan Wang, Cong Sun, Zhengbing Lv, Bingnan Han, Chunlin Wang, Xue-Wei Xu
C-type lectins are a superfamily of Ca(2+)-dependent carbohydrate-recognition proteins, which play crucial roles in innate immunity including nonself-recognition and pathogen elimination. In the present study, two single-CRD containing C-type lectins were identified from swimming crab Portunus trituberculatus (designated as PtCTL-2 and PtCTL-3). The open reading frame (ORF) of PtCTL-2 encoded polypeptides of 485 amino acids with a signal peptide and a single carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD), while PtCTL-3's ORF encoded polypeptides of 241 amino acids with a coiled-coil region and a single-CRD...
September 12, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892889/fungal-rhinosinusitis-microbiological-and-histopathological-perspective
#11
Ajay Kumar Singh, Prashant Gupta, Nitya Verma, Vineeta Khare, Abrar Ahamad, Virendra Verma, S P Agarwal
INTRODUCTION: On the basis of histopathology Fungal Rhinosinusitis (FRS) is categorized into non-invasive (allergic fungal rhinosinusitis, fungal ball) and invasive (acute invasive, chronic invasive and granulomatous invasive fungal sinusitis). This differentiation helps to decide the treatment. Role of latest molecular methods such as PCR and conventional methods such as KOH microscopy and culture also needs to be evaluated. Therefore, in this study we planned to categorise fungal rhinosinusitis on the basis of histopathology and compare it with other methods such as PCR, culture and KOH microscopy...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892488/self-fertility-in-chromocrea-spinulosa-is-a-consequence-of-direct-repeat-mediated-loss-of-mat1-2-subsequent-imbalance-of-nuclei-differing-in-mating-type-and-recognition-between-unlike-nuclei-in-a-common-cytoplasm
#12
Sung-Hwan Yun, Hee-Kyoung Kim, Theresa Lee, B Gillian Turgeon
The filamentous fungus Chromocrea spinulosa (Trichoderma spinulosum) exhibits both self-fertile (homothallic) and self-sterile (heterothallic) sexual reproductive behavior. Self-fertile strains produce progeny cohorts that are 50% homothallic, 50% heterothallic. Heterothallic progeny can mate only with homothallic strains, and progeny also segregate 50% homothallic, 50% heterothallic. Sequencing of the mating type (MAT) region of homothallic and heterothallic strains revealed that both carry an intact MAT1-1 locus with three MAT1-1 genes (MAT1-1-1, MAT1-1-2, MAT1-1-3), as previously described for the Sordariomycete group of filamentous fungi...
September 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882432/analysis-of-ambient-ph-stress-response-mediated-by-iron-and-copper-intake-in-schizosaccharomyces-pombe
#13
Yujiro Higuchi, Hikari Mori, Takeo Kubota, Kaoru Takegawa
The molecular mechanism of tolerance to alkaline pH is well studied in model fungi Aspergillus nidulans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, how fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe survives under alkaline stress remains largely unknown, as the genes involved in the alkaline stress response pathways of A. nidulans and S. cerevisiae were not found in the genome of this organism. Since uptake of iron and copper into cells is important for alkaline tolerance in S. cerevisiae, here we examined whether iron and copper uptake processes were involved in conferring tolerance to alkaline stress in S...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870445/gene-expression-and-molecular-characterization-of-a-novel-c-type-lectin-encapsulation-promoting-lectin-epl-in-the-rice-armyworm-mythimna-separata
#14
Teruhito Ishihara, Yuki Maruyama, Seiichi Furukawa
Insect cellular immune reactions differ depending on the target species. Phagocytosis is activated to scavenge microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi. On the other hand, larger invaders such as parasitoid wasps are eliminated by activation of encapsulation. In this study, we hypothesized that novel determinants regulate cellular immunities independent of surface molecular pattern recognition involving pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Immune-related genes differentially expressed depending on the treated material size were screened in larval hemocytes of the rice armyworm, Mythimna separata...
September 1, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856640/extraction-of-high-molecular-weight-dna-from-fungal-rust-spores-for-long-read-sequencing
#15
Benjamin Schwessinger, John P Rathjen
Wheat rust fungi are complex organisms with a complete life cycle that involves two different host plants and five different spore types. During the asexual infection cycle on wheat, rusts produce massive amounts of dikaryotic urediniospores. These spores are dikaryotic (two nuclei) with each nucleus containing one haploid genome. This dikaryotic state is likely to contribute to their evolutionary success, making them some of the major wheat pathogens globally. Despite this, most published wheat rust genomes are highly fragmented and contain very little haplotype-specific sequence information...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837732/candida-species-from-eye-infections-drug-susceptibility-virulence-factors-and-molecular-characterization
#16
Konduri Ranjith, Bhavani Sontam, Savitri Sharma, Joveeta Joseph, Kanchana N Chathoth, Kalyana C Sama, Somasheila I Murthy, Sisinthy Shivaji
Purpose: To determine the type of Candida species in ocular infections and to investigate the relationship of antifungal susceptibility profile to virulence factors. Methods: Fifty isolates of yeast-like fungi from patients with keratitis, endophthalmitis, and orbital cellulitis were identified by Vitek-2 compact system and DNA sequencing of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 regions of the rRNA gene, followed by phylogenetic analysis for phenotypic and genotypic identification, respectively...
August 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814586/molecular-diagnosis-of-invasive-aspergillosis-and-detection-of-azole-resistance-by-a-newly-commercialized-pcr-kit
#17
Eric Dannaoui, Frédéric Gabriel, Manuel Gaboyard, Gaëlle Lagardere, Lucile Audebert, Gilles Quesne, Sandrine Godichaud, Paul E Verweij, Isabelle Accoceberry, Marie-Elisabeth Bougnoux
Aspergillus fumigatus is the main species responsible for aspergillosis in humans. The diagnosis of aspergillosis remains difficult, and the rapid emergence of azole resistance in A. fumigatus, is worrisome. The aim of this study was to validate the new MycoGENIE® A. fumigatus real-time PCR kit and to evaluate its performance in clinical samples for the detection of A. fumigatus and its azole resistance. This multiplex assay detects DNA from the A. fumigatus species complex by targeting the 28S-rRNA multicopy gene and specific TR34 and L98H mutations in the cyp51A single copy gene of A...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813039/comparative-assessment-of-ssr-and-snp-markers-for-inferring-the-population-genetic-structure-of-the-common-fungus-armillaria-cepistipes
#18
T Tsykun, C Rellstab, C Dutech, G Sipos, S Prospero
During the last years, simple sequence repeats (SSRs, also known as microsatellites) and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have become the most popular molecular markers for describing neutral genetic variation in populations of a wide range of organisms. However, only a limited number of studies has focused on comparing the performance of these two types of markers for describing the underlying genetic structure of wild populations. Moreover, none of these studies targeted fungi, the group of organisms with one of the most complex reproductive strategies...
November 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808688/adaptive-mistranslation-accelerates-the-evolution-of-fluconazole-resistance-and-induces-major-genomic-and-gene-expression-alterations-in-candida-albicans
#19
Tobias Weil, Rodrigo Santamaría, Wanseon Lee, Johan Rung, Noemi Tocci, Darren Abbey, Ana R Bezerra, Laura Carreto, Gabriela R Moura, Mónica Bayés, Ivo G Gut, Attila Csikasz-Nagy, Duccio Cavalieri, Judith Berman, Manuel A S Santos
Regulated erroneous protein translation (adaptive mistranslation) increases proteome diversity and produces advantageous phenotypic variability in the human pathogen Candida albicans. It also increases fitness in the presence of fluconazole, but the underlying molecular mechanism is not understood. To address this question, we evolved hypermistranslating and wild-type strains in the absence and presence of fluconazole and compared their fluconazole tolerance and resistance trajectories during evolution. The data show that mistranslation increases tolerance and accelerates the acquisition of resistance to fluconazole...
July 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802264/crystal-structure-and-substrate-specificity-modification-of-acetyl-xylan-esterase-from-aspergillus-luchuensis
#20
Dai Komiya, Akane Hori, Takuya Ishida, Kiyohiko Igarashi, Masahiro Samejima, Takuya Koseki, Shinya Fushinobu
Acetyl xylan esterase (AXE) catalyzes the hydrolysis of the acetyl bonds present in plant cell wall polysaccharides. Here, we determined the crystal structure of AXE from Aspergillus luchuensis (AlAXEA), providing the three-dimensional structure of an enzyme in the Esterase_phb family. AlAXEA shares its core α/β-hydrolase fold structure with esterases in other families, but it has an extended central β-sheet at both its ends and an extra loop. Structural comparison with a ferulic acid esterase (FAE) from Aspergillus niger indicated that AlAXEA has a conserved catalytic machinery: a catalytic triad (Ser119, His259, and Asp202) and an oxyanion hole (Cys40 and Ser120)...
October 15, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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