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Fungi molecular typing

Sunniva Katharina Thode, Ewelina Rojek, Mikolaj Kozlowski, Rafi Ahmad, Peik Haugen
Siderophores are small molecules synthesized and secreted by bacteria and fungi to scavenge iron. Extracellular ferri-siderohores are recognized by cognate receptors on the cell surface for transport over membranes. Several siderophore systems from Vibrionaceae representatives are known and well understood, e.g., the molecular structure of the siderophore, the biosynthesis gene cluster and pathway, and the gene expression pattern. Less is known about how these systems are distributed among the ~140 Vibrionaceae species, and which evolutionary processes contributed to the present-day distribution...
2018: PloS One
Kangkang Zhi, Haitian Zhao, Xin Yang, Hua Zhang, Jiacheng Wang, Jing Wang, Joe M Regenstein
Since the late 1980s, low molecular weight gelators (LMWGs) based on different classes of natural products have been reported. Until 2011, pure natural LMWGs (i.e., natural product gelators, NPGs) were not found. However, today only five NPGs are reported. We think that this may be due to the lack of awareness about the importance of NPGs and suitable methods to discover new NPGs. Here we illustrate the potential significance of NPGs, and present a general and efficient method for obtaining NPGs from organisms, which provides specific and important guidance to researchers for easy discovery of new NPGs from organisms in the future...
February 9, 2018: Nanoscale
Guillaume Desoubeaux, Anne Debourgogne, Nathan P Wiederhold, Marie Zaffino, Deanna Sutton, Rachel E Burns, Salvatore Frasca, Michael W Hyatt, Carolyn Cray
Fusarium spp. are saprobic moulds that are responsible for severe opportunistic infections in humans and animals. However, we need epidemiological tools to reliably trace the circulation of such fungal strains within medical or veterinary facilities, to recognize environmental contaminations that might lead to infection and to improve our understanding of factors responsible for the onset of outbreaks. In this study, we used molecular genotyping to investigate clustered cases of Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) infection that occurred in eight Sphyrnidae sharks under managed care at a public aquarium...
October 9, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Xujun Zhang, Stephanie M Kirby, Yuwu Chen, Shelley L Anna, Lynn M Walker, Francisco R Hung, Paul S Russo
Protein surfactants show great potential to stabilize foams, bubbles, and emulsions. An important family of surface active proteins, the hydrophobins, is secreted by filamentous fungi. Two hydrophobin classes have been recognized, with Class II exhibiting slightly better solubility than Class I, although neither is very soluble in water. Hydrophobins are small proteins (8-14 kDa), but they are larger and more rigid than typical surfactants such as sodium dodecyl sulfate. This rigidity seems to be manifested in the strength of adsorbed hydrophobin layers on oil droplets or air bubbles...
February 1, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Jianchai Liu, Huanzhang Liu, Jinkun Yan, Na Liu, Heping Zhang, Chengrui Zhao, Yanwei Liu
Candida albicans is the most prevalent opportunistic fungus of humans and animals. While most studies focus on human isolates, they rarely focus on poultry isolates. In this study, C. albicans strains were recovered from poultry in the southern Hebei Province (China) and identified. Molecular typing and analyses were performed to understand the molecular epidemiology and genetic relatedness of the strains. The fungi were isolated from live birds with presumed candidiasis or their corpses. The isolates were identified based on morphology, differential medium culture, and rDNA internal transcribed spacer sequencing...
February 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Priscila Dallé da Rosa, Claudete Locatelli, Karla Scheid, Diane Marinho, Lúcia Kliemann, Alexandre Fuentefria, Luciano Zubaran Goldani
Lasiodiplodia theobromae is a rare ocular pathogen. We report a patient with fungal keratitis caused by L. theobromae. The patient was a 75-year-old male, a farmer with diabetes type II, and no previous history of ocular trauma. Histopathology analysis revealed the presence fungi invading Descemet's membrane of the cornea. The fungus was characterized by septate, highly bulged fungal filaments involving full corneal thickness in the corresponding histopathology specimens. A dematiaceous mold was isolated and initally identified as L...
January 30, 2018: Mycopathologia
Chelsea D Villanueva, Petr Hašler, Petr Dvořák, Aloisie Poulíčková, Dale A Casamatta
Cyanolichens are an assemblage of fungi and cyanobacteria from diverse, cosmopolitan habitats. Typically composed of a single species of cyanobacterium, with or without another eukaryotic alga, here we present two novel cyanobionts isolated from an undescribed tripartite lichen. This endolithic lichen was isolated from a granite cemetery tombstone from Jacksonville, FL, and contains two potentially nitrogen-fixing cyanobionts. Employing a total evidence approach, we characterized the cyanobionts using molecular (the 16S rDNA and ITS gene region), morphological, and ecological data...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Phycology
Mohamed Mannaa, Ki Deok Kim
Cereal grains are the most important food source for humans. As the global population continues to grow exponentially, the need for the enhanced yield and minimal loss of agricultural crops, mainly cereal grains, is increasing. In general, harvested grains are stored for specific time periods to guarantee their continuous supply throughout the year. During storage, economic losses due to reduction in quality and quantity of grains can become very significant. Grain loss is usually the result of its deterioration due to fungal contamination that can occur from preharvest to postharvest stages...
December 2017: Mycobiology
Guohua Yin, Yuliang Zhang, Kayla K Pennerman, Guangxi Wu, Sui Sheng T Hua, Jiujiang Yu, Wayne M Jurick, Anping Guo, Joan W Bennett
Penicillium is a large genus of common molds with over 400 described species; however, identification of individual species is difficult, including for those species that cause postharvest rots. In this study, blue rot fungi from stored apples and pears were isolated from a variety of hosts, locations, and years. Based on morphological and cultural characteristics and partial amplification of the β-tubulin locus, the isolates were provisionally identified as several different species of Penicillium. These isolates were investigated further using a suite of molecular DNA markers and compared to sequences of the ex-type for cognate species in GenBank, and were identified as P...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Dulce Catalina Díaz-Quiroz, César Salvador Cardona-Félix, José Luis Viveros-Ceballos, Miguel Angel Reyes-González, Franciso Bolívar, Mario Ordoñez, Adelfo Escalante
Shikimic acid (SA) pathway is the common route used by bacteria, plants, fungi, algae, and certain Apicomplexa parasites for the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids and other secondary metabolites. As this essential pathway is absent in mammals designing inhibitors against implied enzymes may lead to the development of antimicrobial and herbicidal agents harmless to humans. Shikimate dehydrogenase (SDH) is the fourth enzyme of the SA pathway. In this contribution, a series of SA amide derivatives were synthesised and evaluated for in vitro SDH inhibition and antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli...
December 2018: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
Pãmella A Macêdo-Sales, Simone R L S Souto, Carolina A Destefani, Ricardo P Lucena, Ricardo Luiz D Machado, Marcia R Pinto, Anderson M Rodrigues, Leila M Lopes-Bezerra, Elisabeth M S Rocha, Andréa Regina S Baptista
BACKGROUND: Sporotrichosis is a neglected zoonosis caused by pathogenic fungi belonging to the Sporothrix schenckii complex. In Rio de Janeiro state, this disease reached an epidemic status with over 4700 domestic felines and around 4000 humans affected since the mid-90s. The present study evaluated clinical and epidemiological aspects and also the frequency of colonization and infection by these fungi in healthy cats and among those with suspicious cutaneous lesions, inhabiting four Rio de Janeiro state distinct areas...
January 18, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Bhookya Shankar, Pochampally Jalapathi, Balabadra Saikrishna, Shaym Perugu, Vijjulatha Manga
BACKGROUND: There is a dire need for the discovery and development of new antimicrobial agents after several experiments for a better resistance of microorganisms towards antimicrobial agents become a serious health problem for a few years in the past. As benzimidazole possess various types of biological activities, it has been synthesized, in the present study, a new series of (5-(3-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)-4-hydroxybenzyl)benzofuran-2-yl)(phenyl)methanone analogs by using the condensation and screened for its in vitro antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity...
January 9, 2018: Chemistry Central Journal
Mostafa Rahnama, Richard Johnson, Christine Rosalie Voisey, Wayne R Simpson, Damien J Fleetwood
Epichloë species fungi form bioprotective endophytic symbioses with many cool-season grasses, including agriculturally important forage grasses. Despite its importance, relatively little is known about the molecular details of the interaction and the regulatory genes involved. One of the key global regulators in fungal secondary metabolism and development is the VelA protein. In this study, velA was functionally characterised in vitro and in fungal interaction with its host perennial ryegrass. The velA gene is required for E...
January 9, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Shan Chen, Kevin K Fuller, Jay C Dunlap, Jennifer J Loros
Circadian rhythms govern immune cell function, giving rise to time-of-day variation in the recognition and clearance of bacterial or viral pathogens; to date, however, no such regulation of the host-fungal interaction has been described. In this report, we use murine models to explore circadian control of either fungal-macrophage interactions in vitro or pathogen clearance from the lung in vivo. First, we show that expression of the important fungal pattern recognition receptor Dectin-1 ( clec7a), from either bone marrow-derived or peritoneum-derived macrophages, is not under circadian regulation at either the level of transcript or cell surface protein expression...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
Ralph Stadhouders, Erik Lubberts, Rudi W Hendriks
Since the original identification of the T helper 17 (Th17) subset in 2005, it has become evident that these cells do not only contribute to host defence against pathogens, such as bacteria and fungi, but that they are also critically involved in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases. In contrast to the classic Th1 and Th2 cells, which represent rather stably polarized subsets, Th17 cells display remarkable heterogeneity and plasticity. This has been attributed to the characteristics of the key transcription factor that guides Th17 differentiation, retinoic acid receptor-related orphan nuclear receptor gamma (RORγ)...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
Igor Shuryak, Vera Y Matrosova, Elena K Gaidamakova, Rok Tkavc, Olga Grichenko, Polina Klimenkova, Robert P Volpe, Michael J Daly
Understanding chronic ionizing radiation (CIR) effects is of utmost importance to protecting human health and the environment. Diverse bacteria and fungi inhabiting extremely radioactive waste and disaster sites (e.g. Hanford, Chernobyl, Fukushima) represent new targets of CIR research. We show that many microorganisms can grow under intense gamma-CIR dose rates of 13-126 Gy/h, with fungi identified as a particularly CIR-resistant group of eukaryotes: among 145 phylogenetically diverse strains tested, 78 grew under 36 Gy/h...
2017: PloS One
Suiyi Tan, Bin Yang, Juan Liu, Tianrong Xun, Yonghong Liu, Xuefeng Zhou
Marine micro-organisms have been proven to be excellent sources of bioactive compounds against HIV-1. Several natural products obtained from marine-derived Aspergillus fungi were screened for their activities to inhibit HIV-1 infection. Penicillixanthone A (PXA), a natural xanthone dimer from jellyfish-derived fungus Aspergillus fumigates, displayed potent anti-HIV-1 activity by inhibiting infection against CCR5-tropic HIV-1 SF162 and CXCR4-tropic HIV-1 NL4-3, with IC50 of 0.36 and 0.26 μM, respectively. Molecular docking study was conducted to understand the possible binding mode of PXA with the CCR5/CXCR4...
December 19, 2017: Natural Product Research
Aline M Katsurayama, Ligia M Martins, Beatriz T Iamanaka, Maria Helena P Fungaro, Josué J Silva, Jens C Frisvad, John I Pitt, Marta H Taniwaki
The guarantee of the high quality of rice is of utmost importance because any toxic contaminant may affect consumer health, especially in countries such as Brazil where rice is part of the daily diet. A total of 187 rice samples, from field, processing and market from two different production systems, wetland from the state of Rio Grande do Sul, dryland, from the state of Maranhão and market samples from the state of São Paulo, were analyzed for fungi belonging to Aspergillus section Flavi and the presence of aflatoxins...
December 11, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Shuai Jiang, Lingling Wang, Mengmeng Huang, Zhihao Jia, Tobias Weinert, Eberhard Warkentin, Conghui Liu, Xiaorui Song, Haixia Zhang, Jennifer Witt, Limei Qiu, Guohong Peng, Linsheng Song
DM9 domain was first identified in Drosophila melanogaster, and it was subsequently found to integrate with or without other protein domains across a wide range of invertebrates and vertebrates. In the present study, a member of DM9 domain containing protein (DM9CP) family from marine invertebrate Crassostrea gigas (designated CgDM9CP-1), which was only composed of two DM9 domains, was taken as a protein model to study the biological functions of DM9 domain and its molecular determinants. CgDM9CP-1 was found to exhibit high binding specificity and avidity toward d-mannose residue...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
Lucia Muggia, Riccardo Mancinelli, Tor Tønsberg, Agnieszka Jablonska, Martin Kukwa, Zdeněk Palice
The genus Cheiromycina is one of the few genera of lichenized hyphomycetes for which no sexual reproductive stages have been observed. The genus includes species from boreal to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere where it is found growing on bark or wood. Congeners in Cheiromycina are characterized by a noncorticate thallus, nearly immersed in the substrate and presenting powdery unpigmented sporodochia, and containing chlorococcoid photobionts. The relationships of members of Cheiromycina with other fungi are not known...
November 1, 2017: Mycologia
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