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Fungi molecular typing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421861/the-plant-dependent-life-cycle-of-thecaphora-thlaspeos-a-smut-fungus-adapted-to-brassicaceae
#1
Lamprinos Frantzeskakis, Kaitlyn J Courville, Lesley Plücker, Ronny Kellner, Julia Kruse, Andreas Brachmann, Michael Feldbrügge, Vera Göhre
Smut fungi are globally distributed plant pathogens that infect agriculturally important crop plants such as maize or potato. To date, molecular studies on plant responses to smut fungi are challenging due to the genetic complexity of their host plants. Therefore, we set out to investigate the known smut fungus of Brassicaceae hosts, Thecaphora thlaspeos. T. thlaspeos infects different Brassicaceae plant species throughout Europe, including the perennial model plant Arabis alpina. In contrast to characterized smut fungi, mature and dry T...
April 19, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376722/evolutionary-gradient-of-predicted-nuclear-localization-signals-nls-bearing-proteins-in-genomes-of-family-planctomycetaceae
#2
Min Guo, Ruifu Yang, Chen Huang, Qiwen Liao, Guangyi Fan, Chenghang Sun, Simon Ming-Yuen Lee
BACKGROUND: The nuclear envelope is considered a key classification marker that distinguishes prokaryotes from eukaryotes. However, this marker does not apply to the family Planctomycetaceae, which has intracellular spaces divided by lipidic intracytoplasmic membranes (ICMs). Nuclear localization signal (NLS), a short stretch of amino acid sequence, destines to transport proteins from cytoplasm into nucleus, and is also associated with the development of nuclear envelope. We attempted to investigate the NLS motifs in Planctomycetaceae genomes to demonstrate the potential molecular transition in the development of intracellular membrane system...
April 4, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376389/identification-and-characterization-of-the-verticillin-biosynthetic-gene-cluster-in-clonostachys-rogersoniana
#3
Ying Wang, Pengjie Hu, Yuanyuan Pan, Yaxin Zhu, Xingzhong Liu, Yongsheng Che, Gang Liu
Verticillin is one of the dimeric epipolythiodioxopiperazines (ETPs) which are toxic secondary metabolites produced only by fungi. ETPs have received substantial attention since its complex molecular architecture and a wide range of biological activities. Although biosynthesis of the monomeric gliotoxin has been studied extensively, the biosynthetic pathway of dimeric ETPs is far from being studied. To investigate the biosynthesis of dimeric ETPs and expand our understanding of their dimerization, the verticillin biosynthetic gene cluster (ver) was identified and cloned from a genomic DNA fosmid library of the Cordyceps-colonizing fungus Clonostachys rogersoniana with the designed primers based on the sequence of a nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) ChaP which was predicted to be responsible for chaetocin biosynthesis in Chaetomium virescens...
April 1, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373739/phylogeny-and-taxonomy-of-the-scab-and-spot-anthracnose-fungus-elsino%C3%A3-myriangiales-dothideomycetes
#4
X L Fan, R W Barreto, J Z Groenewald, J D P Bezerra, O L Pereira, R Cheewangkoon, L Mostert, C M Tian, P W Crous
Species of Elsinoë are phytopathogens causing scab and spot anthracnose on many plants, including some economically important crops such as avocado, citrus, grapevines, and ornamentals such as poinsettias, field crops and woody hosts. Disease symptoms are often easily recognisable, and referred to as signature-bearing diseases, for the cork-like appearance of older infected tissues with scab-like appearance. In some Elsinoë-host associations the resulting symptoms are better described as spot anthracnose...
June 2017: Studies in Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371918/functional-lycopene-cyclase-crua-in-cyanobacterium-arthrospira-platensis-nies-39-and-its-role-in-carotenoid-synthesis
#5
Kenjiro Sugiyama, Masashi Ebisawa, Masaharu Yamada, Yoshiki Nagashima, Hideyuki Suzuki, Takashi Maoka, Shinichi Takaichi
The genus Arthrospira is filamentous, non-nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria that is commercially important. We identified the molecular structures of carotenoids in Arthrospira platensis NIES-39. The major carotenoid identified was β-carotene. In addition, the hydroxyl derivatives of β-cryptoxanthin and (3R,3'R)-zeaxanthin were also found to be present. The carotenoid glycosides were identified as (3R,2'S)-myxol 2'-methylpentoside and oscillol 2,2'-dimethylpentoside. The methylpentoside moiety was a mixture of fucoside and chinovoside in an approximate ratio of 1 : 4...
April 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338801/evolutionary-origin-of-mitochondrial-cytochrome-p450
#6
Tsuneo Omura, Osamu Gotoh
Different molecular species of cytochrome P450 (P450) are distributed between endoplasmic reticulum (microsomes) and mitochondria in animal cells. Plants and fungi have many microsomal P450s, but no mitochondrial P450 has so far been reported. To elucidate the evolutionary origin of mitochondrial P450s in animal cells, available evidence is examined, and the virtual absence of mitochondrial P450 in plants and fungi is confirmed. It is also suggested that a microsomal P450 is the ancestor of animal mitochondrial P450s...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334113/you-are-what-you-get-from-your-fungi-nitrogen-stable-isotope-patterns-in-epipactis-species
#7
Julienne M-I Schiebold, Martin I Bidartondo, Peter Karasch, Barbara Gravendeel, Gerhard Gebauer
Background and Aims: Partially mycoheterotrophic plants are enriched in 13 C and 15 N compared to autotrophic plants. Here, it is hypothesized that the type of mycorrhizal fungi found in orchid roots is responsible for variation in 15 N enrichment of leaf tissue in partially mycoheterotrophic orchids. Methods: The genus Epipactis was used as a case study and carbon and nitrogen isotope abundances of eight Epipactis species, fungal sporocarps of four Tuber species and autotrophic references were measured...
February 22, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333108/the-biology-of-pichia-membranifaciens-killer-toxins
#8
REVIEW
Ignacio Belda, Javier Ruiz, Alejandro Alonso, Domingo Marquina, Antonio Santos
The killer phenomenon is defined as the ability of some yeast to secrete toxins that are lethal to other sensitive yeasts and filamentous fungi. Since the discovery of strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae capable of secreting killer toxins, much information has been gained regarding killer toxins and this fact has substantially contributed knowledge on fundamental aspects of cell biology and yeast genetics. The killer phenomenon has been studied in Pichia membranifaciens for several years, during which two toxins have been described...
March 23, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299913/endophytic-fungi-harbored-in-the-root-of-sophora-tonkinensis-gapnep-diversity-and-biocontrol-potential-against-phytopathogens
#9
Yu Qun Yao, Fang Lan, Yun Ming Qiao, Ji Guang Wei, Rong Shao Huang, Liang Bo Li
This work, for the first time, investigated the diversity of endophytic fungi harbored in the xylem and phloem of the root of Sophora tonkinensis Gapnep from three geographic localities with emphasis on the influence of the tissue type and geographic locality on endophytic fungal communities and their potential as biocontrol agents against phytopathogens of Panax notoginseng. A total of 655 fungal strains representing 47 taxa were isolated. Forty-two taxa (89.4%) were identified but not five taxa (10.6%) according to morphology and molecular phylogenetics...
March 15, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298352/the-interactions-of-ants-with-their-biotic-environment
#10
EDITORIAL
Guillaume Chomicki, Susanne S Renner
This special feature results from the symposium 'Ants 2016: ant interactions with their biotic environments' held in Munich in May 2016 and deals with the interactions between ants and other insects, plants, microbes and fungi, studied at micro- and macroevolutionary levels with a wide range of approaches, from field ecology to next-generation sequencing, chemical ecology and molecular genetics. In this paper, we review key aspects of these biotic interactions to provide background information for the papers of this special feature After listing the major types of biotic interactions that ants engage in, we present a brief overview of ant/ant communication, ant/plant interactions, ant/fungus symbioses, and recent insights about ants and their endosymbionts...
March 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298348/a-phylogenetic-perspective-on-the-association-between-ants-hymenoptera-formicidae-and-black-yeasts-ascomycota-chaetothyriales
#11
Marie Vasse, Hermann Voglmayr, Veronika Mayer, Cécile Gueidan, Maximilian Nepel, Leandro Moreno, Sybren de Hoog, Marc-André Selosse, Doyle McKey, Rumsaïs Blatrix
The frequency and the geographical extent of symbiotic associations between ants and fungi of the order Chaetothyriales have been highlighted only recently. Using a phylogenetic approach based on seven molecular markers, we showed that ant-associated Chaetothyriales are scattered through the phylogeny of this order. There was no clustering according to geographical origin or to the taxonomy of the ant host. However, strains tended to be clustered according to the type of association with ants: strains from ant-made carton and strains from plant cavities occupied by ants ('domatia') rarely clustered together...
March 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277930/wobble-uridine-modifications-a-reason-to-live-a-reason-to-die
#12
Raffael Schaffrath, Sebastian A Leidel
Wobble uridines (U34) are generally modified in all species. U34 modifications can be essential in metazoans but are not required for viability in fungi. In this review, we provide an overview on the types of modifications and how they affect the physico-chemical properties of wobble uridines. We describe the molecular machinery required to introduce these modifications into tRNA posttranscriptionally and discuss how posttranslational regulation may affect the activity of the modifying enzymes. We highlight the activity of anticodon specific RNases that target U34 containing tRNA...
February 23, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261805/structure-and-function-of-complex-i-in-animals-and-plants-a-comparative-view
#13
Jennifer Senkler, Michael Senkler, Hans-Peter Braun
The mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase complex (complex I) has a molecular mass of about 1000 kDa and includes 40-50 subunits in animals, fungi and plants. It is composed of a membrane arm and a peripheral arm and has a conserved L-like shape in all species investigated. However, in plants and possibly some protists it has a second peripheral domain which is attached to the membrane arm on its matrix exposed side at a central position. The extra domain includes proteins resembling prokaryotic gamma-type carbonic anhydrases...
March 6, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251581/chitin-and-its-effects-on-inflammatory-and-immune-responses
#14
REVIEW
Daniel Elieh Ali Komi, Lokesh Sharma, Charles S Dela Cruz
Chitin, a potential allergy-promoting pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP), is a linear polymer composed of N-acetylglucosamine residues which are linked by β-(1,4)-glycosidic bonds. Mammalians are potential hosts for chitin-containing protozoa, fungi, arthropods, and nematodes; however, mammalians themselves do not synthetize chitin and thus it is considered as a potential target for recognition by mammalian immune system. Chitin is sensed primarily in the lungs or gut where it activates a variety of innate (eosinophils, macrophages) and adaptive immune cells (IL-4/IL-13 expressing T helper type-2 lymphocytes)...
March 1, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242721/a-putative-o-linked-%C3%AE-n-acetylglucosamine-transferase-is-essential-for-hormogonium-development-and-motility-in-the-filamentous-cyanobacterium-nostoc-punctiforme
#15
Behzad Khayatan, Divleen K Bains, Monica H Cheng, Ye Won Cho, Jessica Huynh, Rachelle Kim, Osagie H Omoruyi, Adriana P Pantoja, Jun Sang Park, Julia K Peng, Samantha D Splitt, Mason Y Tian, Douglas D Risser
Most species of filamentous cyanobacteria are capable of gliding motility, likely via a conserved type IV pilus-like system that may also secrete a motility associated polysaccharide. In a subset of these organisms, motility is only achieved after the transient differentiation of hormogonia, specialized filaments that enter a non-growth state dedicated to motility. Despite the fundamental importance of hormogonia to the life cycle of many filamentous cyanobacteria, the molecular regulation of hormogonium development is largely undefined...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238081/dna-methyltransferases-contribute-to-the-fungal-development-stress-tolerance-and-virulence-of-the-entomopathogenic-fungus-metarhizium-robertsii
#16
Yulong Wang, Tiantian Wang, Lintao Qiao, Jianyu Zhu, Jinrui Fan, Tingting Zhang, Zhang-Xun Wang, Wanzhen Li, Anhui Chen, Bo Huang
DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mark in mammals, plants, and fungi and depends on multiple genetic pathways involving de novo and maintenance DNA methyltransferases (DNMTases). Metarhizium robertsii, a model system for investigating insect-fungus interactions, has been used as an environmentally friendly alternative to chemical insecticides. However, little is known concerning the molecular basis for DNA methylation. Here, we report on the roles of two DNMTases (MrRID and MrDIM-2) by characterizing ΔMrRID, ΔMrDIM-2, and ΔRID/ΔDIM-2 mutants...
February 25, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236353/evaluation-of-growth-conditions-and-dna-extraction-techniques-used-in-the-molecular-analysis-of-dermatophytes
#17
S Gnat, A Nowakiewicz, G Ziółkowska, A Trościańczyk, B Majer-Dziedzic, P Zięba
AIMS: Recent molecular methods for diagnosis of superficial mycoses have determined the need for a rapid and easy method of extracting DNA. The aim of study was to determine growth conditions and techniques of DNA extraction for Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and T. verrucosum. METHODS AND RESULTS: Samples were prepared of each of the DNA extraction methods (phenol-chloroform, CTAB and four different kits) for all of the incubation periods (4, 7 and 10 days) of the cultures on the solid and in the liquid medium...
February 25, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219758/resolving-relationships-at-the-animal-fungal-divergence-a-molecular-phylogenetic-study-of-the-protist-trichomycetes-ichthyosporea-eccrinida
#18
Nicole K Reynolds, Matthew E Smith, Eric D Tretter, Justin Gause, Dustin Heeney, Matías J Cafaro, James F Smith, Stephen J Novak, William A Bourland, Merlin M White
Trichomycetes is a group of microorganisms that was considered a class of fungi comprising four orders of commensal, gut-dwelling endosymbionts obligately associated with arthropods. Since molecular phylogenies revealed two of those orders (Amoebidiales and Eccrinales="protist trichos") to be closely related to members of the protist class Ichthyosporea (=Mesomycetozoea), trichomycetes have been considered an ecological association of both early-diverging fungi and protists. Understanding of the taxonomy, evolution, and diversity of the protist trichos is lacking largely due to the difficulties inherent in species collection that have contributed to undersampling and understudy...
April 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214601/the-inhibition-of-mating-in-phycomyces-blakesleeanus-by-light-is-dependent-on-the-mada-madb-complex-that-acts-in-a-sex-specific-manner
#19
Viplendra P S Shakya, Alexander Idnurm
Light is an environmental signal that influences reproduction in the Mucoromycotina fungi, as it does in many other species of fungi. Mating in Phycomyces blakesleeanus is inhibited by light, but the molecular mechanisms for this inhibition are uncharacterized. In this analysis, the role of the light-sensing MadA-MadB complex in mating was tested. The MadA-MadB complex is homologous to the Neurospora crassa White Collar complex. Three genes required for cell type determination in the sex locus or pheromone biosynthesis are transcriptionally-regulated by light and are controlled by MadA and MadB...
February 16, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208790/%C3%AE-glucans-relationships-between-modification-conformation-and-functional-activities
#20
REVIEW
Qiang Wang, Xiaojing Sheng, Aimin Shi, Hui Hu, Ying Yang, Li Liu, Ling Fei, Hongzhi Liu
β-glucan is a type of polysaccharide which widely exists in bacteria, fungi, algae, and plants, and has been well known for its biological activities such as enhancing immunity, antitumor, antibacterial, antiviral, and wound healing activities. The conformation of β-glucan plays a crucial role on its biological activities. Therefore, β-glucans obtained from different sources, while sharing the same basic structures, often show different bioactivities. The basic structure and inter-molecular forces of polysaccharides can be changed by modification, which leads to the conformational transformation in solution that can directly affect bioactivity...
February 9, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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