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Fungi molecular typing

Shuai Jiang, Lingling Wang, Mengmeng Huang, Zhihao Jia, Tobias Weinert, Eberhard Warkentin, Conghui Liu, Xiaorui Song, Haixia Zhang, Jennifer Witt, Limei Qiu, Guohong Peng, Linsheng Song
DM9 domain was first identified in Drosophila melanogaster, and it was subsequently found to integrate with or without other protein domains across a wide range of invertebrates and vertebrates. In the present study, a member of DM9 domain containing protein (DM9CP) family from marine invertebrate Crassostrea gigas (designated CgDM9CP-1), which was only composed of two DM9 domains, was taken as a protein model to study the biological functions of DM9 domain and its molecular determinants. CgDM9CP-1 was found to exhibit high binding specificity and avidity toward d-mannose residue...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
Lucia Muggia, Riccardo Mancinelli, Tor Tønsberg, Agnieszka Jablonska, Martin Kukwa, Zdeněk Palice
The genus Cheiromycina is one of the few genera of lichenized hyphomycetes for which no sexual reproductive stages have been observed. The genus includes species from boreal to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere where it is found growing on bark or wood. Congeners in Cheiromycina are characterized by a noncorticate thallus, nearly immersed in the substrate and presenting powdery unpigmented sporodochia, and containing chlorococcoid photobionts. The relationships of members of Cheiromycina with other fungi are not known...
November 1, 2017: Mycologia
S I R Videira, J Z Groenewald, C Nakashima, U Braun, R W Barreto, P J G M de Wit, P W Crous
The Mycosphaerellaceae represent thousands of fungal species that are associated with diseases on a wide range of plant hosts. Understanding and stabilising the taxonomy of genera and species of Mycosphaerellaceae is therefore of the utmost importance given their impact on agriculture, horticulture and forestry. Based on previous molecular studies, several phylogenetic and morphologically distinct genera within the Mycosphaerellaceae have been delimited. In this study a multigene phylogenetic analysis (LSU, ITS and rpb2) was performed based on 415 isolates representing 297 taxa and incorporating ex-type strains where available...
June 2017: Studies in Mycology
José da Silva, Lúcia Dias, Nihel Bekhti, Maxim L Kuznetsov, José A B Ferreira, Maria C Bacariza
Reactions of two vanadium(IV) complex anions - homologues of amavadin, [V(HIDPA)2]2- and [V(HIDA)2]2- (HIDPA = N-oxyiminodiproprionate, HIDA = N-oxyiminodiacetate) with nitrite-ion (NO2-) in aqueous solution were investigated by experimental (absorption spectroscopy in the visible range, by measurements of the dioxygen formed into solution from water oxidation and identification of nitrogen oxide species of gaseous atmosphere from nitrite reduction by an infrared analyser) and theoretical methods. Two reactions, mediated by the V complexes, with environmental and biological significance were observed in this system, i...
November 27, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
François L Mayer, James W Kronstad
Fungal pathogens rely on the production of specific virulence factors during infection. Inhibiting such factors generally results in reduced fungal pathogenicity. Most studies in the past have focused on understanding the molecular mechanisms of fungal virulence factor expression during mono-culture, or during interaction with the host. However, a potentially important, second type of interaction has been less well studied thus far - the interplay of fungal pathogens of humans with other microbes found in their natural habitat...
October 30, 2017: Microbial Cell
Anil Kumar Verma, Abha Bishnoi, Shaheen Fatma, Huda Parveen, Vineeta Singh
A simple and highly efficient procedure for the synthesis of novel thiazol-2-amines, via Mannich reaction with secondary amines, is described. The newly synthesized derivatives 8(a-e) and 9(a-e) were characterized by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, IR, Mass spectroscopy and elemental analysis. All the derivatives were evaluated for their in-vitro anti-microbial activity against a panel of pathogenic strains of bacteria and fungi. The SAR showed that the secondary amines had a significant impact on the in-vitro antimicrobial activity of this class of agents...
November 20, 2017: Drug Research
Y Li, J Xiao, G S de Hoog, X Wang, Z Wan, J Yu, W Liu, R Li
Phialophora as defined by its type species P. verrucosa is a genus of Chaetothyriales, and a member of the group known as 'black yeasts and relatives'. Phialophora verrucosa has been reported from mutilating human infections such as chromoblastomycosis, disseminated phaeohyphomycosis and mycetoma, while morphologically similar fungi are rather commonly isolated from the environment. Phenotypes are insufficient for correct species identification, and molecular data have revealed significant genetic variation within the complex of species currently identified as P...
June 2017: Persoonia
Congming Zou, Wei Huang, Gaokun Zhao, Xiao Wan, Xiaodong Hu, Yan Jin, Junying Li, Junjun Liu
Tyrosinase is a type-3 copper enzyme that is widely distributed in plants, fungi, insects, and mammals. Developing high potent inhibitors against tyrosinase is of great interest in diverse fields including tobacco curing, food processing, bio-insecticides development, cosmetic development, and human healthcare-related research. In the crystal structure of Agaricus bisporus mushroom tyrosinase, there is an oxygen atom bridging the two copper ions in the active site. It is unclear whether the identity of this bridging oxygen is a water molecule or a hydroxide anion...
October 28, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Jing-Wen Huang, Chang-Jiang-Sheng Lai, Yuan Yuan, Min Zhang, Jun-Hui Zhou, Lu-Qi Huang
Medicinal Polyporus umbellatus is the dry sclerotia of P. umbellatus, with the effect of diuresis; Armillaria mellea is a parasitic fungus which can infect plants up to 300 genera, with sedative, anticonvulsant and some other biological activities. As the medicinal value of P. umbellatus and A. mellea is increasingly wide concerned, the market quantity demanded of them is gradually increased and the demand outstrips the supply. The symbiotic A. mellea and P. umbellatus are both the medicinal and edible fungi with diverse activities, including hypoglycemic action, improve immunity and antitumor and so on...
August 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Xavier Pochon, Anastasija Zaiko, Lauren M Fletcher, Olivier Laroche, Susanna A Wood
High-throughput sequencing metabarcoding studies in marine biosecurity have largely focused on targeting environmental DNA (eDNA). DNA can persist extracellularly in the environment, making discrimination of living organisms difficult. In this study, bilge water samples (i.e., water accumulating on-board a vessel during transit) were collected from 15 small recreational and commercial vessels. eDNA and eRNA molecules were co-extracted and the V4 region of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene targeted for metabarcoding...
2017: PloS One
Thomson Patrick Joseph, Warren Chanda, Arshad Ahmed Padhiar, Samana Batool, Shao LiQun, MinTao Zhong, Min Huang
Cancer is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality around the globe. For certain types of cancer, chemotherapy drugs have been extensively used for treatment. However, severe side effects and the development of resistance are the drawbacks of these agents. Therefore, development of new agents with no or minimal side effects is of utmost importance. In this regard, natural compounds are well recognized as drugs in several human ailments, including cancer. One class of fungi, "mushrooms," contains numerous compounds that exhibit interesting biological activities, including antitumor activity...
October 1, 2017: Integrative Cancer Therapies
Hugo Mélida, Sara Sopeña-Torres, Laura Bacete, María Garrido-Arandia, Lucía Jordá, Gemma López, Antonio Muñoz, Luis F Pacios, Antonio Molina
Fungal cell walls, essential for environmental adaptation and host colonization, have been evolutionarily selected by plants and animals as a source of Microbe-Associated Molecular Patterns (MAMPs) that upon recognition by host Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) trigger immune responses conferring disease resistance. Chito-oligosaccharides (β-1,4-N-acetylglucosamine oligomers, (GlcNAc)n ) are the only glycosidic structures from fungal walls well-shown to function as MAMPs in plants. Perception of (GlcNAc)4-8 by Arabidopsis involves CERK1, LYK4 and LYK5, three of the eight members of LysM PRR family...
October 30, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Yuanye Zhu, Xiaoyu Liang, Yanjun Li, Yabing Duan, Zhitian Zheng, Jianxin Wang, Zhou Mingguo
β-tubulin is the target of benzimidazole fungicides and the most wildly used one of which is Carbendazim (methyl benzimidazol-2-yl-carbamate, MBC). MBC sensitivity is determined by the differential affinity of MBC for β-tubulins. However, the mechanism of less sensitivity of F. graminearum to MBC compared to other fungi including Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum gloeosporiodies, and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum remains exclusive. Alignment of β-tubulin acid amino sequences showed that position 240 of β-tubulins is leucine (L) in most pathogenic fungi but is phenylalanine (F) in the Fgβ2-tubulin of F...
October 24, 2017: Phytopathology
Zhen Bai, Qiang Ma, Yucheng Dai, Haisheng Yuan, Ji Ye, Wantai Yu
White- and brown-rot fungal decay via distinct pathways imparts characteristic molecular imprints on decomposing wood. However, the effect that a specific wood-rotting type of fungus has on proximal soil organic matter (SOM) accumulation remains unexplored. We investigated the potential influence of white- and brown-rot fungi-decayed Abies nephrolepis logs on forest SOM stocks (i.e., soil total carbon (C) and nitrogen (N)) and the concentrations of amino sugars (microbial necromass) at different depths and horizontal distances from decaying woody debris...
October 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yonghong Zhou, Guoyan Liu, Xi Cheng, Qianqian Wang, Bo Wang, Beilei Wang, Hui Zhang, Qian He, Liming Zhang
In this study, we reported a jellyfish-derived Kazal-type serine protease inhibitor, named CcKPI1, from Cyanea capillata. CcKPI1 has a calculated molecular mass of 19.02kDa and contains three typical Kazal domains. Soluble recombinant CcKPI1 (rCcKPI1) was successfully expressed and purified. rCcKPI1 exhibited significant inhibitory activities against elastase, subtilisin A and proteinase K, but not against trypsin or chymotrypsin. Kinetic studies showed that all of the inhibitory effects of rCcKPI1 were competitive, indicating that it may be a microbial serine protease inhibitor and can exhibit antimicrobial activity...
October 17, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Indu Kumari, Mushtaq Ahmed, Yusuf Akhter
Trichodiene synthase, a terpene fold enzyme catalyzes the first reaction of trichodermin biosynthesis that is an economically important secondary metabolite. Sequence search analysis revealed that the proteins containing terpene fold are present in bacteria, fungi and plants. Terpene fold protein from Selaginella moellendorffii, a lycophyte, appeared at the interface of the microbes and plants in the evolutionary scale. Amino acid residues present around the catalytic pocket determines the size of the substrate as well as product molecules...
October 7, 2017: Biochimie
B Mousavi, J M Costa, P Arné, J Guillot, R Chermette, F Botterel, E Dannaoui
Mucormycosis is a life-threatening invasive fungal disease that affects a variety of patient groups. Although Mucorales are mostly opportunistic pathogens originating from soil or decaying vegetation, there are currently few data on prevalence of this group of fungi in the environment. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence and diversity of species of Mucorales from soil samples collected in France. Two grams of soil were homogenized in sterile saline and plated on Sabouraud dextrose agar and RPMI agar supplemented with itraconazole or voriconazole...
July 28, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Gustavo Bravo-Ruiz, Azza Hadj Sassi, Marina Marcet-Houben, Antonio Di Pietro, Ali Gargouri, Toni Gabaldon, M Isabel G Roncero
Penicillium occitanis is a model system for enzymatic regulation. A mutant strain exhibiting constitutive overproduction of different pectinolytic enzymes both under inducing (pectin) or repressing conditions (glucose) was previously isolated after chemical mutagenesis. In order to identify the molecular basis of this regulatory mechanism, the genomes of the wild type and the derived mutant strain were sequenced and compared, providing the first reference genome for this species. We used a phylogenomic approach to compare P...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Rachel I Adams, Despoina S Lymperopoulou, Pawel K Misztal, Rita De Cassia Pessotti, Scott W Behie, Yilin Tian, Allen H Goldstein, Steven E Lindow, William W Nazaroff, John W Taylor, Matt F Traxler, Thomas D Bruns
BACKGROUND: Microorganisms influence the chemical milieu of their environment, and chemical metabolites can affect ecological processes. In built environments, where people spend the majority of their time, very little is known about how surface-borne microorganisms influence the chemistry of the indoor spaces. Here, we applied multidisciplinary approaches to investigate aspects of chemical microbiology in a house. METHODS: We characterized the microbial and chemical composition of two common and frequently wet surfaces in a residential setting: kitchen sink and bathroom shower...
September 26, 2017: Microbiome
Carla Huarte-Bonnet, Suresh Kumar, Mario C N Saparrat, Juan R Girotti, Marianela Santana, John E Hallsworth, Nicolás Pedrini
Several filamentous fungi are able to concomitantly assimilate both aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that are the biogenic by-products of some industrial processes. Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases catalyze the first oxidation reaction for both types of substrate. Among the cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes, the family CYP52 is implicated in the first hydroxylation step in alkane-assimilation processes, while genes belonging to the family CYP53 have been linked with oxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons...
September 23, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
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