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Fungi molecular typing

Jörg Bormann, Cornelia Heinze, Christine Blum, Michael Mentges, Anke Brockmann, Arne Alder, Svenja Kim Landt, Brian Josephson, Daniela Indenbirken, Michael Spohn, Birte Plitzko, Sandra Loesgen, Michael Freitag, Wilhelm Schäfer
Infections of fungi by mycoviruses are often symptomless but sometimes also fatal as they perturb sporulation, growth, and, if applicable, virulence of the fungal host. Hypovirulence-inducing mycoviruses, therefore, represent a powerful mean to defeat fungal epidemics on crop plants. Infection with Fusarium graminearum virus China 9 (FgV-ch9), a dsRNA chrysovirus-like mycovirus, debilitates Fusarium graminearum , the causal agent of Fusarium Head Blight. In search for potential symptom alleviation or aggravation factors in F...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Virology
Ping Wang
Cryptococcus neoformans and related species are encapsulated basidiomycetous fungi that cause meningoencephalitis in individuals with immune deficiency. This pathogen has a tractable genetic system; however, gene disruption via electroporation remains difficult, while biolistic transformation is often limited by lack of multiple genetic markers and the high initial cost of equipment. The approach using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) has become the technology of choice for gene editing in many organisms due to its simplicity, efficiency, and versatility...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
Tao Wang, Zheng Song, Li Wei, Lubin Li
The WRKY family of transcription factors is one of the most important families of plant transcriptional regulators, and the members regulate multiple biological processes. However, there is limited information on WRKYs in Dendrobium officinale. In this study, 52 WRKY family genes of D. officinale were surveyed for the first time. Conserved domain, phylogenetic, exon-intron construction, and expression analyses were performed for the DoWRKY genes. Two major types of intron splicing (PR and VQR introns) were found, and the intron insertion position was observed to be relatively conserved in the conserved DoWRKY domains...
March 2018: Genes & Genomics
Daniela Heilos, Clemens Röhrl, Christine Pirker, Bernhard Englinger, Dina Baier, Thomas Mohr, Michaela Schwaiger, Shahid Muhammad Iqbal, Sushilla van Schoonhoven, Kristaps Klavins, Tanja Eberhart, Ursula Windberger, Judith Taibon, Sonja Sturm, Hermann Stuppner, Gunda Koellensperger, Rita Dornetshuber-Fleiss, Walter Jäger, Rosa Lemmens-Gruber, Walter Berger
Destruxins, secondary metabolites of entomopathogenic fungi, exert a wide variety of interesting characteristics ranging from antiviral to anticancer effects. Although their mode of action was evaluated previously, the molecular mechanisms of resistance development are unknown. Hence, we have established destruxin-resistant sublines of HCT116 colon carcinoma cells by selection with the most prevalent derivatives, destruxin (dtx)A, dtxB and dtxE. Various cell biological and molecular techniques were applied to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms underlying these acquired and highly stable destruxin resistance phenotypes...
May 22, 2018: Oncotarget
Nagaraja Mudhigeti, Rashmi Patnayak, Usha Kalawat, Spoorthy Rekha C Yeddula
Rhytidhysteron is a saprophytic dematiaceous fungus which rarely infects humans. Though virtually all individuals are exposed, very few develop the disease. Only seven human cases are reported till date. The present case is the second case from South India. A 40-year-old immunocompetent female agricultural worker, presented with a swelling on the dorsum of the right hand. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the swelling revealed short, thick, branched septate fungal hyphae. The isolate was moderately slow growing; grayish white colonies were observed on Sabouraud's Dextrose Agar (SDA) slant...
April 2, 2018: Curēus
Janina Kluge, Dominik Terfehr, Ulrich Kück
In industry, filamentous fungi have a prominent position as producers of economically relevant primary or secondary metabolites. Particularly, the advent of genetic engineering of filamentous fungi has led to a growing number of molecular tools to adopt filamentous fungi for biotechnical applications. Here, we summarize recent developments in fungal biology, where fungal host systems were genetically manipulated for optimal industrial applications. Firstly, available inducible promoter systems depending on carbon sources are mentioned together with various adaptations of the Tet-Off and Tet-On systems for use in different industrial fungal host systems...
June 2, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Dhivya Ramakrishnan, Manish K Tiwari, Gomathi Manoharan, Thiagarajan Sairam, Rajesh Thangamani, Jung-Kul Lee, Jeya Marimuthu
Two putative type III polyketide synthase genes (PKS) were identified from Sordariomycetes fungi. These two type III PKS genes from Sordaria macrospora (SmPKS) and Chaetomium thermophilum (CtPKS), shared 59.8% sequence identity. Both, full-length and truncated versions of type III PKSs were successfully cloned and overexpressed in a bacterial host, Escherichia Coli BL21 (DE3) using a N-terminus hexa-histidine tag. The full-length and the truncated construct of PKSs showed similar activity profiles, suggesting that additional amino acid residues at the C-terminal of both SmPKS and CtPKS may not be involved in catalytic functions...
August 2018: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
Naoki Akasaka, Saori Kato, Saya Kato, Ryota Hidese, Yutaka Wagu, Hisao Sakoda, Shinsuke Fujiwara
Sake (rice wine) produced by multiple parallel fermentation (MPF) involving Aspergillus oryzae (strain RW) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae under solid-state cultivation conditions contained 3.5 mM agmatine, while that produced from enzymatically saccharified rice syrup by S. cerevisiae contained <0.01 mM agmatine. Agmatine was also produced in ethanol-free rice syrup prepared with A. oryzae under solid-state cultivation (3.1 mM) but not under submerged cultivation, demonstrating that A. oryzae in solid-state culture produces agmatine...
May 25, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Carla Huarte-Bonnet, Flávia R S Paixão, Juan C Ponce, Marianela Santana, Eduardo D Prieto, Nicolás Pedrini
The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana is able to grow on insect cuticle hydrocarbons, inducing alkane assimilation pathways and concomitantly increasing virulence against insect hosts. In this study, we describe some physiological and molecular processes implicated in growth, nutritional stress response, and cellular alterations found in alkane-grown fungi. The fungal cytology was investigated using light and transmission electron microscopy while the surface topography was examined using atomic force microscopy...
June 2018: Fungal Biology
Zijun Liu, Yanhong Zhang, Fengyu Zhang, Cuiting Hu, Genliang Liu, Jiao Pan
In the storeroom C7 of the Tianjin Museum, one wooden desk and two leather luggages dated back to Qing dynasty (1644-1912 AD) presented viable microbial contamination. The aim of the present study was to investigate microbial communities responsible for the biodeterioration of storeroom objects using a combination of culture-independent and culture-dependent methods as well microscopic techniques. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the microflora on three storeroom objects were characterized by a marked presence of Eurotium halophilicum ...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Sofie Lodens, Marilyn De Graeve, Sophie L K W Roelants, Sofie L De Maeseneire, Wim Soetaert
In this chapter, a step-by-step approach on how to transform non-conventional yeasts or fungi into platform organisms is described. The non-conventional glycolipid producing yeast Starmerella bombicola (and in some cases also Pseudohyphozyma bogoriensis) is used as a case study. And more specifically how to engineer it toward production of new-to-nature glycolipids like bola sophorolipids. When starting genetic engineering efforts for non-lab strains, one should start at the very basis: identifying selection markers and possibly developing auxotrophic strains...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Joyce S F D de Almeida, Samir F de A Cavalcante, Rafael Dolezal, Kamil Kuca, Kamil Musilek, Daniel Jun, Tanos C C França
Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites of the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Among them, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is the most frequent type in nature and also, the most carcinogenic for mammals. It can contaminate many kinds of food like seeds, oil, olives, milk, dairy products, corn and meat, causing acute and chronic damages to the organism, especially in the liver, being, for this reason, considered highly hepatotoxic. AFB1 is also a mixed inhibitor of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE). This fact, together with its high toxicity and carcinogenicity, turns AFB1 into a potential chemical and biological warfare agent, as well as its metabolites...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Daimeng Zhang, Weisong Wan, Tongtong Kong, Ming Zhang, Jude Juventus Aweya, Yi Gong, Shengkang Li
The clip domain serine proteinases (clip-SPs) play vital roles in embryonic development and in various innate immune functions in invertebrates such as antimicrobial activity, cell adhesion, hemolymph clotting, pattern recognition and regulation of the prophenoloxidase system. However, little is known about the role of the clip domain serine proteinase in Scylla paramamosain (designated SpcSP) immunity. In the present study, we cloned a clip-SP from S. paramamosain hemocytes using rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE) approach...
May 7, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Kei Hiruma, Yoshihiro Kobae, Hirokazu Toju
Brassicaceae plants have lost symbiotic interactions with mutualistic mycorrhizal fungi, but, nonmycorrhizal Brassicaceae associate with diverse taxonomic groups of mutualistic root-endophytic fungi. Distantly related fungal endophytes of Brassicaceae plants transfer phosphorus to the hosts and promote plant growth, thereby suggesting that the beneficial function was independently acquired via convergent evolution. These beneficial interactions appear tightly regulated by the tryptophan-derived secondary metabolite pathway, which specifically developed in Brassicaceae...
May 5, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Xiuyuan Lu, Masahiro Nagata, Sho Yamasaki
Macrophage-inducible C-type lectin, better known as Mincle, is a member of the C-type lectin receptor family and is encoded by Clec4e. Mincle was an orphan receptor for a long time after having been discovered as a lipopolysaccharide-induced protein, yet later an adjuvant glycolipid in mycobacteria-trehalose dimycolate-was identified as a ligand. Ligands for Mincle were also found existing in bacteria, fungi and even mammals. When confronted with foreign elements, Mincle can recognize characteristic pathogen-associated molecular patterns, mostly glycolipids, from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other pathogens, and thus induce immune responses against infection...
May 2, 2018: International Immunology
Maria Nordengrün, Stephan Michalik, Uwe Völker, Barbara M Bröker, Lidia Gómez-Gascón
Allergies are complex diseases featuring local tissue inflammation, which is characterized by an exaggerated type 2 immune response to environmental compounds known as allergens. Pollens, environmental fungi, and house dust mites are examples of common allergens. Bacteria have a dual role in allergy. Usually, they are associated with protection, however, certain bacterial species promote the development and exacerbation of allergic inflammation. Notably, IgE antibodies specific for bacterial antigens are found in the sera of allergic individuals...
April 26, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Nicomedes Valenzuela-Lopez, José F Cano-Lira, Alberto M Stchigel, Josep Guarro
The taxonomy of the fungi that produce human infections and that develop asexual fruiting bodies in culture has become very complex. Recent molecular studies have produced dramatic changes in their classification. Currently, the coelomycetes traditionally included in Sphaeropsidales and Melanconiales are in fact distributed across at least three different classes of the Phylum Ascomycota. Approximately 1,000 genera and 7,000 species have been grouped in the classes Dothideomycetes, Leotiomycetes and Sordariomycetes and their proper identification can only be made by analysing their DNA sequences and comparing them with those corresponding to type strains available in the adequate databases...
April 25, 2018: Mycoses
Vasileios Oikonomou, Giorgia Renga, Antonella De Luca, Monica Borghi, Marilena Pariano, Matteo Puccetti, Giuseppe Paolicelli, Claudia Stincardini, Claudio Costantini, Andrea Bartoli, Teresa Zelante, Luigina Romani
Phagocytes fight fungi using canonical and noncanonical, also called LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP), autophagy pathways. However, the outcomes of autophagy/LAP in shaping host immune responses appear to greatly vary depending on fungal species and cell types. By allowing efficient pathogen clearance and/or degradation of inflammatory mediators, autophagy proteins play a broad role in cellular and immune homeostasis during fungal infections. Indeed, defects in autophagic machinery have been linked with aberrant host defense and inflammatory states...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
T A McAllister, L Dunière, P Drouin, S Xu, Y Wang, K Munns, R Zaheer
Ensiling of forages was recognized as a microbial-driven process as early as the late 1800s, when it was associated with the production of "sweet" or "sour" silage. Classical microbiological plating techniques defined the epiphytic microbial populations associated with fresh forage, the pivotal role of lactic acid-producing bacteria in the ensiling process, and the contribution of clostridia, bacilli, yeast, and molds to the spoilage of silage. Many of these classical studies focused on the enumeration and characterization of a limited number of microbial species that could be readily isolated on selective media...
May 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
André Aptroot, Michael Stech
In the course of a multi-taxon biodiversity inventory for the island of St. Eustatius, lichens were collected from 11 plots representing different vegetation types. From these collections, 126 lichen species are reported, 54 of which are new reports for St. Eustatius. Most species could be identified to species level based on morphological and chemical characters. In a few cases, mtSSU DNA sequences were generated for a preliminary molecular identification and future phylogenetic studies. In total, 263 identified lichen species are currently known from St...
2018: MycoKeys
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