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Candida drug resistance

Mona Mokhtari, Michael Jackson, Alistair Brown, David Ackerley, Nigel Ritson, Robert A Keyzers, Andrew Munkacsi
Pathogenic fungi continue to develop resistance against current antifungal drugs. To explore the potential of agricultural waste products as a source of novel antifungal compounds, we obtained an unbiased GC-MS profile of 151 compounds from 16 commercial and experimental cultivars of feijoa peels. Multivariate analysis correlated 93% of the compound profile with antifungal bioactivity. Of 18 compounds that significantly correlated with antifungal activity, five had not previously been described from feijoa...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Qingdi Quentin Li, Huei-Fung Tsai, Ajeet Mandal, Bryan A Walker, Jason A Noble, Yuichi Fukuda, John E Bennett
Pathogenic fungi, including Candida glabrata, develop strategies to grow and survive both in vitro and in vivo under azole stress. However, the mechanisms by which yeast cells counteract the inhibitory effects of azoles are not completely understood. In the current study, it was demonstrated that the expression of the ergosterol biosynthetic genes ERG2, ERG3, ERG4, ERG10, and ERG11 was significantly upregulated in C. glabrata following fluconazole treatment. Inhibiting ergosterol biosynthesis using fluconazole also increased the expression of the sterol influx transporter AUS1 and the sterol metabolism regulators SUT1 and UPC2 in fungal cells...
March 9, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
P Kooshki, A Rezaei-Matehkolaei, A Z Mahmoudabadi
OBJECTIVE: Usually, 7-20% of preterm neonates colonized by Candida species present invasive candidiasis. Candida albicans, and several non-albicans species cause invasive infection with C. albicans being the most dominant agent. In the last two decades, infection due to non-albicans have been increased dramatically due to their low sensitivity to antifungal drugs such as fluconazole. The aim of present study was to evaluate Candida colonization pattern and antifungal susceptibility among preterm neonates from Khorramabad, South west of Iran...
March 9, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
Kaitlin Benedict, Monika Roy, Sarah Kabbani, Evan J Anderson, Monica M Farley, Sasha Harb, Lee H Harrison, Lindsay Bonner, Vijitha Lahanda Wadu, Kaytlyn Marceaux, Rosemary Hollick, Zintar G Beldavs, Alexia Y Zhang, William Schaffner, Caroline R Graber, Gordana Derado, Tom M Chiller, Shawn R Lockhart, Snigdha Vallabhaneni
Introduction: Candida is a leading cause of healthcare-associated bloodstream infections in the United States. Infants and children have unique risk factors for candidemia, and the Candida species distribution in this group is different that among adults; however, candidemia epidemiology in this population has not been described recently. Methods: We conducted active population-based candidemia surveillance in 4 US metropolitan areas between 2009 and 2015. We calculated incidences among neonates (0-30 days old), infants (0-364 days old), and noninfant children (1-19 years old), documented their clinical features and antifungal drug resistance...
March 7, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Quan-Zhen Lv, Yu-Lin Qin, Lan Yan, Liang Wang, Chuyue Zhang, Yuan-Ying Jiang
Antifungal azole drugs inhibit the synthesis of ergosterol and cause the accumulation of sterols containing a 14α-methyl group, which is related to the properties of cell membrane. Due to the frequent recurrence of fungal infections and clinical long-term prophylaxis, azole resistance is increasing rapidly. In our research, Nsg2p, encoded by the ORF19.273 in Candida albicans , is found to be involved in the inhibition of 14α-methylated sterols and resistance to azoles. Under the action of fluconazole, nsg2 Δ/Δ mutants are seriously damaged in the integrity and functions of cell membranes with a decrease of ergosterol ratio and an increase of both obtusifoliol and 14α-methylfecosterol ratio...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Daniel Brustolin Ludwig, Luciana Erzinger Alves de Camargo, Najeh Maissar Khalil, Marcos Ereno Auler, Rubiana Mara Mainardes
Amphotericin B (AmB) is one of the most used drugs for the treatment of systemic fungal infections; however, the treatment causes several toxic manifestations, including nephrotoxicity and hemolytic anemia. Chitosan-coated poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles containing AmB were developed with the aim to decrease AmB toxicity and propose the oral route for AmB delivery. In this work, the antifungal efficacy of chitosan-coated PLGA nanoparticles containing AmB was evaluated in 20 strains of fungus isolates from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis (01 Candida glabrata and 03 Candida albicans), bloodstream infections (04 C...
March 1, 2018: Mycopathologia
Mobaswar Hossain Chowdhury, Lisa Kathleen Ryan, Kartikeya Cherabuddi, Katie B Freeman, Damian G Weaver, Jeffry C Pelletier, Richard W Scott, Gill Diamond
Invasive candidiasis caused by Candida albicans and non- albicans Candida (NAC) present a serious disease threat. Although the echinocandins are recommended as the first line of antifungal drug class, resistance to these agents is beginning to emerge, demonstrating the need for new antifungal agents. Host defense peptides (HDP) exhibit potent antifungal activity, but as drugs they are difficult to manufacture efficiently, and they are often inactivated by serum proteins. HDP mimetics are low molecular weight non-peptide compounds that can alleviate these problems and were shown to be membrane-active against C...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Mafalda Cavalheiro, Miguel Cacho Teixeira
Candida species are fungal pathogens known for their ability to cause superficial and systemic infections in the human host. These pathogens are able to persist inside the host due to the development of pathogenicity and multidrug resistance traits, often leading to the failure of therapeutic strategies. One specific feature of Candida species pathogenicity is their ability to form biofilms, which protects them from external factors such as host immune system defenses and antifungal drugs. This review focuses on the current threats and challenges when dealing with biofilms formed by Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis , and Candida parapsilosis , highlighting the differences between the four species...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
A R Khosravi, A Sharifzadeh, D Nikaein, Z Almaie, H Gandomi Nasrabadi
Systemic candidiasis has become an emerging fungal infection in recent years. Anti-Candida resistance to conventional antifungal agents has subsequently increased. This study reported the chemical composition, antioxidant and anti-Candida activity of Origanum majorana, Artemisia dracunculus, Cymbopogon citrate, Cinnamomum verum and Caryophyllus aromaticus essential oils. Different Candida species, from urine tracts of hospitalized patients, were included to be challenged with understudied essential oils. Chemical compositions were determined using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) analysis and antioxidant activity was measured using DDPH assay...
February 21, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
Qi Ni, Chen Wang, Yuan Tian, Danfeng Dong, Cen Jiang, Enqiang Mao, Yibing Peng
BACKGROUND: Recently, Candida glabrata has emerged as a health-threatening pathogen and the rising resistance to antifungal agent in C. glabrata often leads to clinical treatment failure. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the evolution of drug resistance and adherence ability in four paired clinical isolates collected before and after antifungal treatment. METHODS: Sequence analysis, gene disruption, drug-susceptibility, adhesion tests, and real-time quantitative PCR were performed...
February 21, 2018: Mycoses
Laiqiang Gao, Haiying Wang, Xuehong Wang, Ailan Li, Qiang Ma
Candida albicans, a human fungal pathogen, is able to tolerate certain levels of environmental stresses. Its cell wall plays an important role in cellular homeostasis, responding to environmental stimuli. SRB1 gene encodes a GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase that catalyzes the formation of the major cell wall component, mannan. The exact relationship between SRB1 and various stresses is not yet fully understood. In current study, C. albicans SC5314 cells were exposed to oxidative, hyperosmotic, and thermal stresses...
February 14, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Ganapathy Ashwinkumar Subramenium, Thirukannamangai Krishnan Swetha, Prasanth Mani Iyer, Krishnaswamy Balamurugan, Shunmugiah Karutha Pandian
Candida albicans is considered as the primary etiologic agent of candidiasis, a very common fungal infection in human. The yeast to hyphal transition and ability to form hypoxic biofilm on medical devices is well allied with virulence and antifungal resistance of C. albicans. Antagonistic agents that inhibit biofilm formation and alter susceptibility of C. albicans to conventional antifungals is of profound need. The present study explores the antibiofilm efficacy of Bacillus subtilis, a marine bacterial isolate from Palk Bay against C...
March 2018: Microbiological Research
Adnan Alatoom, Mohammad Sartawi, Karen Lawlor, Laila AbdelWareth, Jens Thomsen, Ahmad Nusair, Imran Mirza
In this case, we report an elderly patient with multiple chronic conditions and prolonged intensive care units (ICU) stay who had recurrent Candida auris (C. auris) in blood despite antifungal therapy. C. auris was misidentified using conventional automated identification system as Candida haemulonii resulting in delayed diagnosis. The isolate showed increasing minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) to different antifungal drugs and persisted in the patient's blood before the patient deceased. This is the first case of C...
February 13, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Mohammad Jalal, Mohammad Azam Ansari, Syed Ghazanfar Ali, Haris M Khan, Suriya Rehman
The pathogenicity of Candida species in human is dependent on a variety of virulence factor such as adhesion factors, germ tube and hyphal formation, secretion of hydrolytic phospholipases and proteinases and drug resistance biofilm. ZnO NPs have been synthesized by using leaf extract of Crinum latifolium and were characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometer, FTIR, SEM, EDX and TEM. In this study for the first time, potent inhibitory effects of ZnO NPs on principal virulence factors of Candida albicans and non-albicans such as germ tube formation, secretion of hydrolytic phospholipases and proteinases and biofilm formation has been investigated...
February 15, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Archana Anandrao Wakharde, Shivkrupa Devrao Halbandge, Datta Baburao Phule, Sankunny Mohan Karuppayil
The human pathogen Candida albicans can grow as a biofilm on host tissues and on the surfaces of different prosthetic devices in a patient's body. Various studies have reported that biofilms formed by C. albicans are resistant to most of the currently used antibiotics including the widely prescribed drug, fluconazole. As such, novel strategies for the treatment of drug-resistant biofilms are required. Drug repositioning or the use of drugs outside their unique indication has the potential to radically change drug development...
February 15, 2018: Assay and Drug Development Technologies
Wenli Feng, Jing Yang, Lu Yang, Qing Li, Xin Zhu, Zhiqin Xi, Zusha Qiao, Wen Cen
The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between Mrr1, adenylyl cyclase-associated protein 1 (Cap1) and multi-drug resistance gene 1 (MDR1), and to assess the mutations in Mrr1 and Cap1 in azole-resistant Candida albicans strains. The study isolated 68 C. albicans strains from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis. Drug susceptibility testing was conducted to characterize the resistance profile of these strains to fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification was performed for Cap1 and Mrr1, and the PCR products were sequenced to identify any mutations...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Magdalena Wypij, Magdalena Świecimska, Joanna Czarnecka, Hanna Dahm, Mahendra Rai, Patrycja Golinska
AIMS: Presently, the effective antimicrobial agents have been limited by emergence of microbial strains with multi-drug resistance and biofilm formation potential. In the present study, we report remarkable antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized from Streptomyces calidiresistens IF11 and IF17 strains, including inhibition of biofilm formation and synergistic effect of AgNPs and antibiotics against selected bacteria and yeasts. Cytotoxic effect of AgNPs on mammalian cell lines was also evaluated...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Michelle L Olson, Arul Jayaraman, Katy C Kao
Candida is a member of the normal human microbiota and often resides on mucosal surfaces such as the oral cavity or the gastrointestinal tract. In addition to their commensality, Candida species can opportunistically become pathogenic if the host microbiota is disrupted or if the host immune system becomes compromised. An important factor for Candida pathogenesis is its ability to form biofilm communities. The two most medically important species - Candida albicans and Candida glabrata - are often co-isolated from infection sites, suggesting the importance of Candida co-culture biofilms...
February 2, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira Brilhante, Jonathas Sales de Oliveira, Antonio José de Jesus Evangelista, Vandbergue Santos Pereira, Lucas Pereira Alencar, Débora de Souza Collares Maia Castelo-Branco, Lília Maria Carneiro Câmara, Reginaldo Gonçalves de Lima-Neto, Rossana de Aguiar Cordeiro, José Júlio Costa Sidrim, Marcos Fábio Gadelha Rocha
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of promethazine on the antifungal minimum inhibitory concentrations against planktonic cells and mature biofilms of Candida tropicalis, as well as investigate its potential mechanisms of cell damage against this yeast species. Three C. tropicalis isolates (two azole-resistant and one azole-susceptible) were evaluated for their planktonic and biofilm susceptibility to promethazine alone and in combination with itraconazole, fluconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B, and caspofungin...
October 9, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Meng Xiao, Xin Fan, Xin Hou, Sharon Ca Chen, He Wang, Fanrong Kong, Zi-Yong Sun, Yun-Zhuo Chu, Ying-Chun Xu
Echinocandin antifungal agents have become the first-line therapy for invasive candidiasis (IC) in many countries. Despite their increasing use, resistance to this class of drug is, overall, still uncommon. Here, we report two patients from the People's Republic of China with IC, one with infection caused by pan-echinocandin-resistant Candida tropicalis and the other by pan-echinocandin-resistant Candida glabrata. We also describe the mechanisms of drug resistance of these isolates. The echinocandin-resistant C...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
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