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Candida drug resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700656/unexpected-effects-of-azole-transporter-inhibitors-on-antifungal-susceptibility-in-candida-glabrata-and-other-pathogenic-candida-species
#1
Yohsuke Nagayoshi, Taiga Miyazaki, Shintaro Shimamura, Hironobu Nakayama, Asuka Minematsu, Shunsuke Yamauchi, Takahiro Takazono, Shigeki Nakamura, Katsunori Yanagihara, Shigeru Kohno, Hiroshi Mukae, Koichi Izumikawa
The pathogenic fungus Candida glabrata is often resistant to azole antifungal agents. Drug efflux through azole transporters, such as Cdr1 and Cdr2, is a key mechanism of azole resistance and these genes are under the control of the transcription factor Pdr1. Recently, the monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) inhibitor clorgyline was shown to inhibit the azole efflux pumps, leading to increased azole susceptibility in C. glabrata. In the present study, we have evaluated the effects of clorgyline on susceptibility of C...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696923/whole-genome-sequence-of-the-heterozygous-clinical-isolate-candida-krusei-81-b-5
#2
Christina A Cuomo, Terrance Shea, Bo Yang, Reeta Rao, Anja Forche
Candida krusei is a diploid, heterozygous yeast that is an opportunistic fungal pathogen in immunocompromised patients. This species also is utilized for fermenting cocoa beans during chocolate production. One major concern in the clinical setting is the innate resistance of this species to the most commonly used antifungal drug fluconazole. Here we report a high-quality genome sequence and assembly for the first clinical isolate of C. krusei, strain 81-B-5, into 11 scaffolds generated with PacBio sequencing technology...
July 10, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683399/incorporation-of-triclosan-and-acridine-orange-into-liposomes-for-evaluating-the-susceptibility-of-candida-albicans
#3
Karla B Romio, Kevin F Dos Santos, Romário J da Silva, Maria F C Pedro, Alessandro S Kalck, Marcos da Silva Sousa, Leandro M Possamai, Paula C S Souto, Josmary R Silva, Nara C de Souza
Candida albicans is responsible for many of the infections affecting immunocompromised individuals. Although most C. albicans are susceptible to antifungal drugs, uncontrolled use of these drugs has promoted the development of resistance to current antifungals. The clinical implication of resistant strains has led to the search for safer and more effective drugs as well as alternative approaches, such as controlled drug release using liposomes and photodynamic inactivation (PDI), to eliminate pathogens by combining light and photosensitizers...
June 24, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680970/nbiochip-a-lab-on-a-chip-platform-of-mono-and-polymicrobial-biofilms-for-high-throughput-downstream-applications
#4
Anand Srinivasan, Nelson S Torres, Kai P Leung, Jose L Lopez-Ribot, Anand K Ramasubramanian
Current in vitro techniques for the culture of microorganisms, and particularly of delicate microbial biofilms, are still mostly limited to low-density plates and manual labor and are not amenable to automation and true high-throughput (HT) applications. We have developed a novel fully automated platform for the formation of mono- and polymicrobial biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans at the nanoscale level. The nBioChip is robotically printed, robustly handled, and scanned using a standard microarray reader...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678309/fenticonazole-an-effective-topical-treatment-for-superficial-mycoses-as-the-first-step-of-antifungal-stewardship-program
#5
F Tumietto, L Giacomelli
The resistance of microorganisms to antimicrobial drugs is a major issue for public health, with important consequences in terms of morbidity, mortality and resource use. The phenomenon is so serious that in some areas of the world resistant strains to all available drugs have been selected. Many conditions may result in the development of resistance: they include the indiscriminate or inappropriate (e.g., for viral infection or colonization) use of antibiotics, the excessive duration of the prescribed treatment regimens, as well as inadequate dosing or administration routes...
June 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676673/formulation-and-candidacidal-activity-of-magnetic-nanoparticles-coated-with-cathelicidin-ll-37-and-ceragenin-csa-13
#6
Katarzyna Niemirowicz, Bonita Durnaś, Grażyna Tokajuk, Ewelina Piktel, Grzegorz Michalak, Xiaobo Gu, Alina Kułakowska, Paul B Savage, Robert Bucki
Fungal infections caused by Candida spp. represent an emerging problem during treatment of immunocompromised patients and those hospitalized with serious principal diseases. The ever-growing number of fungal strains exhibiting drug resistance necessitates the development of novel antimicrobial therapies including those based on membrane-permeabilizing agents and nanomaterials as drug carriers. In this study, the fungicidal activities of LL-37 peptide, ceragenin CSA-13 and its magnetic derivatives (MNP@LL-37, MNP@CSA-13) against laboratory and clinical strains of C...
July 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676004/evaluation-of-1-3-benzoxathiol-2-one-derivatives-as-potential-antifungal-agents
#7
Luciana Terra, Eliza de L Chazin, Paola de S Sanches, Max Saito, Marcus V N de Souza, Claudia R B Gomes, James L Wardell, Solange M S V Wardell, Plínio C Sathler, Gabriela C C Silva, Viviane O Lione, Marcos Kalil, Ana Joffily, Helena C Castro, Thatyana R A Vasconcelos
BACKGROUND: Over the last few years, fungal infections have emerged as a worrisome global public health problem. Candidiasis is a disease caused by Candida species and has been a problem worldwide mainly for immunosuppressed patients. Lately, the resistant strains and side effects have been reported as important issues for treating Candidiasis, which have to be solved by identifying new drugs. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this work was to synthesize a series of 1,3-benzoxathiol-2-one derivatives, XY-benzo[d][1,3]oxathiol-2-ones, and evaluate their antifungal activity against five Candida species...
July 3, 2017: Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674054/identification-and-mode-of-action-of-a-plant-natural-product-targeting-human-fungal-pathogens
#8
Stéphane Dorsaz, Tiia Snäka, Quentin Favre-Godal, Pierre Maudens, Nathalie Boulens, Pascal Furrer, Samad Nejad Ebrahimi, Matthias Hamburger, Eric Allémann, Katia Gindro, Emerson Ferreira Queiroz, Howard Riezman, Jean-Luc Wolfender, Dominique Sanglard
Candida albicans is a major cause of fungal diseases in humans and its resistance to available drugs is of concern. In an attempt to identify novel antifungal agents, we initiated a small scale screening of a 199 natural plant compounds (NPs) library. In vitro susceptibility profiling experiments identified 33 NPs with activity against C. albicans (MIC50 ≤ 32 μg/ml). Among the selected NPs, the sterol alkaloid tomatidine was further investigated. Tomatidine originates from Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) and exhibited high fungistatic activity against Candida species (MIC50 ≤ 1 μg/ml) but no cytotoxicity against mammalian cells...
July 3, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673609/strong-synergism-of-dexamethasone-in-combination-with-fluconazole-against-resistant-candida-albicans-mediated-by-inhibiting-drug-efflux-and-reducing-virulence
#9
Wenwen Sun, Decai Wang, Cuixiang Yu, Xin Huang, Xiuyun Li, Shujuan Sun
Candida albicans are the most common isolated strains in the clinic and their resistance to fluconazole has beenemergingrapidly.Combinatorial therapy would be is a potentially effective approach against drugresistance. In this study, the combinatorial antifungal effects of dexamethasone and fluconazoleagainst resistant Candida albicans in vitrowere assayed usingminimum inhibitory concentrations, sessile minimum inhibitory concentrations, and time-kill curves. In vivo efficacy of this drug combination was evaluated usingthe Galleria mellonellamodel...
June 30, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669835/molecular-basis-of-antifungal-drug-resistance-in-yeasts
#10
Florent Morio, Rasmus Hare Jensen, Patrice Le Pape, Maiken Cavling Arendrup
Besides inherent differences in in vitro susceptibilities, clinically relevant yeast species may acquire resistance upon exposure to most antifungal drugs used in the clinic. In recent years, major fundamental research studies have been conducted to improve our understanding of the molecular basis of antifungal resistance. This topic is of major interest as antifungal resistance in yeast is correlated to clinical failure and is clearly evolving. In this minireview, we provide an overview including the most recent findings about key molecular mechanisms evolving in human pathogenic yeasts, especially Candida spp...
June 29, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669831/epidemiology-of-antifungal-resistance-in-human-pathogenic-yeasts-current-viewpoint-and-practical-recommendations-for-management
#11
Dimitrios Farmakiotis, Dimitrios P Kontoyiannis
In this review, we describe the epidemiology and clinical significance of resistance in Candida spp. and other non-Cryptococcus yeasts. The rise in echinocandin resistance, azole resistance and cross-resistance to ≥2 antifungal classes (multi-drug resistance: MDR) has been a worrisome trend, mainly in US large tertiary and oncology centers, particularly as it relates to C. glabrata. C. kefyr is also a concern, as it can be resistant to echinocandins and polyenes, especially in patients with hematologic malignancies...
June 29, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664376/functional-analysis-of-selected-deletion-mutants-in-candida-glabrata-under-hypoxia
#12
Payal Gupta, Ramesh Chand Meena, Navin Kumar
Increased drug resistance in Candida glabrata (a model non-albicans Candida) calls for the identification of potential molecular targets for the development of effective drugs. Hypoxia (a state of low oxygen) is an important host factor, which affects the virulence of the pathogen and efficacy of drugs. In the present study, in vitro characterization of 13 null mutants of C. glabrata were done under hypoxic condition (1% O2). These mutants have a major role to play in cellular pathways, viability and pathogenesis (cell wall biosynthesis, ergosterol synthesis, calcium-calcineurin, etc...
July 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662728/actions-of-sesquiterpene-lactones-isolated-from-moquiniastrum-polymorphum-subsp-floccosum-in-mcf7-cell-line-and-their-potentiating-action-on-doxorubicin
#13
Mariana de Oliveira Mauro, Renata Matuo, Natan de David, Regiane Lauriano Batista Strapasson, Rodrigo Juliano Oliveira, Maria Élida Alves Stefanello, Cândida Aparecida Leite Kassuya, Maria de Fátima de Cepa Matos, Fábio José Carvalho Faria, Deiler Sampaio Costa
BACKGROUND: In order to obtain better clinical results in anticancer therapies, polychemotherapy or combination therapies are used. For this, the combinations are required to increase the efficacy and reduce the adverse reactions of the associated chemotherapies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic, apoptotic and (anti)proliferative potential of two sesquiterpene lactones isolated from Moquiniastrum polymorphum, 11,13-diidrozaluzanin C (1) and gochnatiolide C (2), and their associations with chemotherapeutic agents irinotecan, tamoxifen, cisplatin, 5-fluouracyl and doxorubicin in the tumoral lineage of MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma...
June 29, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659617/potent-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-antifungal-activity-of-a-small-molecule-host-defense-peptide-mimic-through-a-membrane-active-mechanism
#14
Lorenzo P Menzel, Hossain Mobaswar Chowdhury, Jorge Adrian Masso-Silva, William Ruddick, Klaudia Falkovsky, Rafael Vorona, Andrew Malsbary, Kartikeya Cherabuddi, Lisa K Ryan, Kristina M DiFranco, David C Brice, Michael J Costanzo, Damian Weaver, Katie B Freeman, Richard W Scott, Gill Diamond
Lethal systemic fungal infections of Candida species are increasingly common, especially in immune compromised patients. By in vitro screening of small molecule mimics of naturally occurring host defense peptides (HDP), we have identified several active antifungal molecules, which also exhibited potent activity in two mouse models of oral candidiasis. Here we show that one such compound, C4, exhibits a mechanism of action that is similar to the parent HDP upon which it was designed. Specifically, its initial interaction with the anionic microbial membrane is electrostatic, as its fungicidal activity is inhibited by cations...
June 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657070/use-of-rna-protein-complexes-for-genome-editing-in-non-albicans-candida-species
#15
Nora Grahl, Elora G Demers, Alex W Crocker, Deborah A Hogan
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas9 genome modification systems have greatly facilitated the genetic analysis of fungal pathogens. In CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing methods designed for use in Candida albicans, DNAs that encode the necessary components are expressed in the target cells. Unfortunately, expression constructs that work efficiently in C. albicans are not necessarily expressed well in other pathogenic species within the genus Candida or the related genus Clavispora...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652784/current-perspective-on-emergence-diagnosis-and-drug-resistance-in-candida-auris
#16
REVIEW
Smita Sarma, Shalini Upadhyay
Candida auris is an emerging fungus that presents a serious threat to global health. The organism is difficult to identify using conventional biochemical methods. C. auris has also attracted attention because of its reduced susceptibility to azoles, polyenes, and echinocandins, with a few strains even resistant to all three classes of antifungals. In this review paper we discuss the trends in emergence of C. auris in different parts of the world, associated risk factors, drug resistance, and diagnostic challenges...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648496/fruits-as-the-vehicle-of-drug-resistant-pathogenic-yeasts
#17
Hsiu-Jung Lo, Sheng-Hua Tsai, Wen-Li Chu, Yin-Zhi Chen, Zi-Li Zhou, Hong-Fu Chen, Ching-Fu Lee, Yun-Liang Yang
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the diversity and drug susceptibility of pathogenic yeasts on fruit surfaces. METHOD: Fruits were purchased from supermarkets and washed with buffer. The pellets were re-suspended in medium after centrifugation. The cell suspensions were plated onto CHROMagar Candida medium. Yeasts were identified by ribosomal DNA sequencing and their drug susceptibilities were determined by broth microdilution assay. RESULTS: Of 184 isolates, comprised of 55 species, from 22 different types of fruits, 29 species, including Candida famata, Candida fermentati, Candida guilliermondii, Candida intermedia, Candida krusei, Candida orthopsilosis, Candida parapsilosis, Candida pelliculosa, Candida tropicalis, and others have been reported to cause diseases in humans...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646915/isolation-speciation-and-antifungal-susceptibility-testing-of-candida-isolates-from-various-clinical-specimens-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital-nepal
#18
Sundar Khadka, Jeevan Bahadur Sherchand, Bharat Mani Pokhrel, Keshab Parajuli, Shyam Kumar Mishra, Sangita Sharma, Niranjan Shah, Hari Prasad Kattel, Subhash Dhital, Sulochana Khatiwada, Narayan Parajuli, Manoj Pradhan, Basista Prasad Rijal
BACKGROUND: Candida species are responsible for various clinical infections ranging from mucocutaneous infection to life threatening invasive diseases along with increased resistance to antifungal drugs has made a serious concern. Resistance to antifungal agents has increased during the last decade. Thus, identification of Candida up to species level and its antifungal susceptibility testing has a paramount significance in the management of Candidal infections. The aim of the study was to speciate Candida species and to determine antifungal susceptibility pattern of Candida species to antifungal agents...
June 24, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642139/clinical-characteristics-and-epidemiology-of-sepsis-in-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-in-the-era-of-multi-drug-resistant-organisms-a-retrospective-review
#19
Dawood Yusef, Tala Shalakhti, Samah Awad, Hana'a Algharaibeh, Wasim Khasawneh
BACKGROUND: Sepsis in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) remains one of the most significant causes of morbidity and mortality, especially for preterm newborns. Multi-drug resistant organisms (MDROs) are emerging as important pathogens that cause neonatal sepsis in NICU. Therefore, studying the epidemiology, clinical features, and outcome caused by MDROs vs. non-MDROs, and identifying risk factors that may predispose patients to sepsis by MDROs are important. METHODS: Episodes of blood culture-proven sepsis (age: 0-90 days) in the NICU at our institution from January 2012 to December 2015 were retrospectively reviewed...
June 9, 2017: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640746/a-chromosome-4-trisomy-contributes-to-increased-fluconazole-resistance-in-a-clinical-isolate-of-candida-albicans
#20
Matthew Z Anderson, Amrita Saha, Abid Haseeb, Richard J Bennett
Candida albicans is an important opportunistic fungal pathogen capable of causing both mucosal and disseminated disease. Infections are often treated with fluconazole, a front-line antifungal drug that targets the biosynthesis of ergosterol, a major component of the fungal cell membrane. Resistance to fluconazole can arise through a variety of mechanisms, including gain-of-function mutations, loss of heterozygosity events and aneuploidy. The clinical isolate P60002 was found to be highly resistant to azole-class drugs, yet lacked mutations or chromosomal rearrangements known to be associated with azole resistance...
June 22, 2017: Microbiology
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