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Raji Balasubramanian, Mary Glenn Fowler, Kenneth Dominguez, Shahin Lockman, Pat A Tookey, Nicole Ngo Giang Huong, Steven Nesheim, Michael D Hughes, Marc Lallemant, Jennifer Tosswill, Nathan Shaffer, Gayle Sherman, Paul Palumbo, David E Shapiro
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of type and timing of prophylactic maternal and infant antiretroviral regimen with time to first positive HIV-1 DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test, in non-breastfed HIV-infected infants from populations infected predominantly with HIV-1 non-B subtype virus. DESIGN: Analysis of combined data on non-breastfed HIV-infected infants from prospective cohorts in Botswana, Thailand and the United Kingdom (n = 405). METHODS: Parametric models appropriate for interval-censored outcomes estimated the time to first positive PCR according to maternal or infant antiretroviral regimen category and timing of maternal antiretroviral initiation, with adjustment for covariates...
September 18, 2017: AIDS
Li Zhang, Qing Zhou, Wen Song, Kaimin Wu, Yumei Zhang, Yimin Zhao
Surface functionalization by siRNA is a novel strategy for improved implant osseointegration. Gene delivery system with safety and high transfection activity is a crucial factor for siRNA-functionalized implant to exert its biological function. To this end, polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyethylenimine (PEI) dual-functionalized graphene oxide (GO) (nGO-PEG-PEI) may present a promising siRNA vector. In this study, nano-sized nGO-PEG-PEI was prepared and optimized for siRNA delivery. Titania nanotubes (NT) fabricated by anodic oxidation were bio-modified with nGO-PEG-PEI/siRNA by cathodic electrodeposition, designated as NT-GPP/siRNA...
September 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
S V Manjunath, S Mathava Kumar, Huu Hao Ngo, Wenshan Guo
Metronidazole (MNZ) removal by two adsorbents, i.e., concrete-containing graphene (CG) and powder-activated carbon (PAC), was investigated via batch-mode experiments and the outcomes were used to analyze the kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamics of MNZ adsorption. MNZ sorption on CG and PAC has followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, and the thermodynamic parameters revealed that MNZ adsorption was spontaneous on PAC and non-spontaneous on CG. Subsequently, two-parameter isotherm models, i.e., Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, Dubinin-Radushkevich and Elovich models, were applied to evaluate the MNZ adsorption capacity...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Kerry Scott, Asha S George, Steven A Harvey, Shinjini Mondal, Gupteswar Patel, Kabir Sheikh
BACKGROUND: Participatory health initiatives ideally support progressive social change and stronger collective agency for marginalized groups. However, this empowering potential is often limited by inequalities within communities and between communities and outside actors (i.e. government officials, policymakers). We examined how the participatory initiative of Village Health, Sanitation, and Nutrition Committees (VHSNCs) can enable and hinder the renegotiation of power in rural north India...
September 15, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
Brett K Hayes, Jeremy Ngo, Guy E Hawkins, Ben R Newell
Three studies reexamined the claim that clarifying the causal origin of key statistics can increase normative performance on Bayesian problems involving judgment under uncertainty. Experiments 1 and 2 found that causal explanation did not increase the rate of normative solutions. However, certain types of causal explanation did lead to a reduction in the magnitude of errors in probability estimation. This effect was most pronounced when problem statistics were expressed in percentage formats. Experiment 3 used process-tracing methods to examine the impact of causal explanation of false positives on solution strategies...
September 13, 2017: Memory & Cognition
Van Minh Hoang, Cam Phuong Pham, Quynh Mai Vu, Thuy Trang Ngo, Dinh Ha Tran, Dieu Bui, Xuan Dung Pham, Dang Khoa Tran, Trong Khoa Mai
PURPOSE: This paper aims to analyze the household financial burden and poverty impacts of cancer treatment in Vietnam. METHODS: Under the "ASEAN CosTs in ONcology" study design, three major specialized cancer hospitals were employed to assemble the Vietnamese data. Factors of socioeconomic, direct, and indirect costs of healthcare were collected prospectively through both individual interviews and hospital financial records. RESULTS: The rates of catastrophic expenditure based on the cut-off points of 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% of household's income were 82...
2017: BioMed Research International
Huân M Ngô, Ying Zhou, Hernan Lorenzi, Kai Wang, Taek-Kyun Kim, Yong Zhou, Kamal El Bissati, Ernest Mui, Laura Fraczek, Seesandra V Rajagopala, Craig W Roberts, Fiona L Henriquez, Alexandre Montpetit, Jenefer M Blackwell, Sarra E Jamieson, Kelsey Wheeler, Ian J Begeman, Carlos Naranjo-Galvis, Ney Alliey-Rodriguez, Roderick G Davis, Liliana Soroceanu, Charles Cobbs, Dennis A Steindler, Kenneth Boyer, A Gwendolyn Noble, Charles N Swisher, Peter T Heydemann, Peter Rabiah, Shawn Withers, Patricia Soteropoulos, Leroy Hood, Rima McLeod
One third of humans are infected lifelong with the brain-dwelling, protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. Approximately fifteen million of these have congenital toxoplasmosis. Although neurobehavioral disease is associated with seropositivity, causality is unproven. To better understand what this parasite does to human brains, we performed a comprehensive systems analysis of the infected brain: We identified susceptibility genes for congenital toxoplasmosis in our cohort of infected humans and found these genes are expressed in human brain...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Wenying Pan, Thuy T M Ngo, Joan Camunas-Soler, Chun-Xiao Song, Mark Kowarsky, Yair J Blumenfeld, Ronald J Wong, Gary M Shaw, David K Stevenson, Stephen R Quake
BACKGROUND: Plasma cell-free RNA (cfRNA) encompasses a broad spectrum of RNA species that can be derived from both human cells and microbes. Because cfRNA is fragmented and of low concentration, it has been challenging to profile its transcriptome using standard RNA-seq methods. METHODS: We assessed several recently developed RNA-seq methods on cfRNA samples. We then analyzed the dynamic changes of both the human transcriptome and the microbiome of plasma during pregnancy from 60 women...
September 13, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
Xinbo Zhang, Zi Song, Wenshan Guo, Yanmin Lu, Li Qi, Haitao Wen, Huu Hao Ngo
This study aims to investigate the behavior of nitrogen removal in an aerobic sponge based moving bed biofilm reactor by evaluating nitrification and denitrification rates of sponge biocarriers from three aerobic moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBRs) with filling ratios of 10% (R-10), 20% (R-20) and 30% (R-30). Results showed that the highest removal efficiencies of total nitrogen in three reactors were 84.5% (R-10), 93.6% (R-20) and 95.3% (R-30). Correspondingly, simultaneous nitrification and denitrification rate (SND) was 90...
August 19, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Jan Martinek, Hana Svecova, Zuzana Vackova, Radek Dolezel, Ondrej Ngo, Jana Krajciova, Eva Kieslichova, Radim Janousek, Alexander Pazdro, Tomas Harustiak, Lucie Zdrhova, Pavla Loudova, Petr Stirand, Julius Spicak
The Given Names and Family Names were all inadvertently inverted. The correct order is: Jan Martinek, Hana Svecova, Zuzana Vackova, Radek Dolezel, Ondrej Ngo, Jana Krajciova, Eva Kieslichova, Radim Janousek, Alexander Pazdro, Tomas Harustiak, Lucie Zdrhova, Pavla Loudova, Petr Stirand, Julius Spicak. The original article was corrected.
September 11, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
Hong-Viet V Ngo, Bernhard P Staresina
A region of the brain called the putamen has a central role in procedural memory consolidation during sleep.
September 11, 2017: ELife
Martha Tibebu Lemma, Ali Mahmoud Ahmed, Mohamed Tamer Elhady, Huyen Thi Ngo, Tran Le-Huy Vu, To Kim Sang, Eduardo Campos-Alberto, Abdelrahman Sayed, Shusaku Mizukami, Kesara Na-Bangchang, Nguyen Tien Huy, Kenji Hirayama, Juntra Karbwang
The increasing resistance of malaria to drugs raise the need to new antimalarial agents. Antiplasmodial herbs and their active compounds are the most promising source the new antimalarial agents. This study aimed to identify the medicinal plants with very good in vitro antiplasmodial activities, with half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50)≤1μg/ml, and to determine trends in the process of screening their antiplasmodial activities. A total of 58 reports published in the English language were retrieved from the bibliographical databases...
September 7, 2017: Parasitology International
Aviad Rabinowich, Alan Jotkowitz
Activity of NGO's supporting living donor kidney donations can affect the shortage of kidneys. Matnat Chaim is a Jewish orthodox organization active in Israel since 2009. This is a voluntary organization with aims to shorten and eliminate the waiting list for kidneys. Since the beginning of its activity, it has said to play a key role in 379 kidney transplantations. In 2015, out of 174 live donor kidney transplantations that took place in Israel, Matnat Chaim had a key role in 88 of them (50.6%). We found some ethical issues concerning the organization's activity...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
Rakhmanbek Mamatkadyrovich Toichuev, Liudmila Victorovna Zhilova, Gulsanam Bakhtiyarovna Makambaeva, Timur Rashidinovich Payzildaev, Wouter Pronk, Matthijs Bouwknegt, Roland Weber
The current study describes the preliminary assessment and securing activities of the largest and most hazardous POPs-contaminated sites in Kyrgyzstan. In 2010, cattle died and population were found with high pesticide levels in blood, human milk, and placenta. In the first phase of the study, a historic assessment of the pesticide dumping at the landfill/dump sites have been conducted. In the second phase, soil analysis for organochlorine pesticides in the areas of the pesticide disposal sites, the former pesticides storehouses, agro-air strips, and the cotton-growing fields were conducted...
September 6, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Line Made Simo, Olivier Placide Noté, Joséphine Ngo Mbing, Sarah Ali Aouazou, Dominique Guillaume, Christian Dominique Muller, Dieudonné Emmanuel Pegnyemb, Annelise Lobstein
As part of our search of new bioactive saponins from Cameroonian medicinal plants, two new oleanane-type saponins, named gummiferaosides D-E (1-2), along with one known saponin, julibroside J8 (3), were isolated from the roots of Albizia gummifera. Their structures were established on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR ((1) H-, (13) C-NMR, DEPT, COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, HSQC, HSQC-TOCSY and HMBC) and HRESIMS studies, and by chemical evidence. The apoptotic effect of saponins 1-3 was evaluated on the A431 human epidermoid cancer cell...
September 6, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Duc Tung Ngo, Hang T T Le, Xuan-Manh Pham, Choong-Nyeon Park, Chan-Jin Park
We propose a simple method for direct synthesis of a Si@SiC composite derived from a SiO2@C precursor via a Mg thermal reduction method as an anode material for Li-ion batteries. Owing to the extremely high exothermic reaction between SiO2 and Mg, along with the presence of carbon, SiC can be spontaneously produced with the formation of Si. The synthesized Si@SiC was composed of well-mixed SiC and Si nanocrystallites. The SiC content of the Si@SiC was adjusted by tuning the carbon content of the precursor. Among the resultant Si@SiC materials, the Si@SiC-0...
September 6, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Van Thi Thuy Nguyen, Susan Best, Hong Thang Pham, Thi Xuan Lien Troung, Thi Thanh Ha Hoang, Kim Wilson, Thi Hong Hanh Ngo, Xuan Chien, Kim Anh Lai, Duc Duong Bui, Masaya Kato
INTRODUCTION: In Vietnam, HIV testing services had been available only at provincial and district health facilities, but not at the primary health facilities. Consequently, access to HIV testing services had been limited especially in rural areas. In 2012, Vietnam piloted decentralization and integration of HIV services at commune health stations (CHSs). As a part of this pilot, a three-rapid test algorithm was introduced at CHSs. The objective of this study was to assess the performance of a three-rapid test algorithm and the implementation of quality assurance measures to prevent misdiagnosis, at primary health facilities...
August 29, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Ijeoma Edoka, Barbara McPake, Tim Ensor, Rogers Amara, Joseph Edem-Hotah
BACKGROUND: At the end of the eleven-year conflict in Sierra Leone, a wide range of policies were implemented to address both demand- and supply-side constraints within the healthcare system, which had collapsed during the conflict. This study examines the extent to which households' exposure to financial risks associated with seeking healthcare evolved in post-conflict Sierra Leone. METHOD: This study uses the 2003 and 2011 cross-sections of the Sierra Leone Integrated Household Survey to examine changes in catastrophic health expenditure between 2003 and 2011...
September 4, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
Kenichi Kokubo, Kozue Kobayashi, Sunichiro Urabe, Hirokazu Matsubara, Tomotaka Naramura, Haruki Wakai, Toshihide Naganuma, Fumitaka Nakajima, Nobuhisa Shibahara, Toru Hyodo, Kenichi Matsuda, Kazunari Yoshida, Akihiro C Yamashita, Hideki Kawanishi
With recent economic development in Southeast Asia, there have been improvements in medical services and healthcare provision. This has led to increased numbers of dialysis patients and increased numbers of dialysis facilities in the region. To assist economically developing countries in managing this change, support projects from Japan have been conducted in the region since around 2007. This article summarizes and discusses Japan's support activities, in which some of the authors were directly involved, in Vietnam, Cambodia, and Myanmar...
2017: Blood Purification
Mykhaylo S Frasinyuk, Wen Zhang, Przemyslaw Wyrebek, Tianxin Yu, Xuehe Xu, Vitaliy M Sviripa, Svitlana P Bondarenko, Yanqi Xie, Huy X Ngo, Andrew J Morris, James L Mohler, Michael V Fiandalo, David S Watt, Chunming Liu
Cytisine-linked isoflavonoids (CLIFs) inhibited PC-3 prostate and LS174T colon cancer cell proliferation by inhibiting a peroxisomal bifunctional enzyme. A pull-down assay using a biologically active, biotin-modified CLIF identified the target of these agents as the bifunctional peroxisomal enzyme, hydroxysteroid 17β-dehydrogenase-4 (HSD17B4). Additional studies with truncated versions of HSD17B4 established that CLIFs specifically bind the C-terminus of HSD17B4 and selectively inhibited the enoyl CoA hydratase but not the d-3-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase activity...
September 4, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
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