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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923001/a-molecular-view-of-the-normal-human-thyroid-structure-and-function-reconstructed-from-its-reference-transcriptome-map
#1
Lorenza Vitale, Allison Piovesan, Francesca Antonaros, Pierluigi Strippoli, Maria Chiara Pelleri, Maria Caracausi
BACKGROUND: The thyroid is the earliest endocrine structure to appear during human development, and thyroid hormones are necessary for proper organism development, in particular for the nervous system and heart, normal growth and skeletal maturation. To date a quantitative, validated transcriptional atlas of the whole normal human thyroid does not exist and the availability of a detailed expression map might be an excellent occasion to investigate the many features of the thyroid transcriptome...
September 18, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916737/determining-ribavirin-s-mechanism-of-action-against-lassa-virus-infection
#2
Paola Carrillo-Bustamante, Thi Huyen Tram Nguyen, Lisa Oestereich, Stephan Günther, Jeremie Guedj, Frederik Graw
Ribavirin is a broad spectrum antiviral which inhibits Lassa virus (LASV) replication in vitro but exhibits a minor effect on viremia in vivo. However, ribavirin significantly improves the disease outcome when administered in combination with sub-optimal doses of favipiravir, a strong antiviral drug. The mechanisms explaining these conflicting findings have not been determined, so far. Here, we used an interdisciplinary approach combining mathematical models and experimental data in LASV-infected mice that were treated with ribavirin alone or in combination with the drug favipiravir to explore different putative mechanisms of action for ribavirin...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898072/does-urban-form-affect-urban-no2-satellite-based-evidence-for-more-than-1-200-cities
#3
Matthew John Bechle, Dylan B Millet, Julian D Marshall
Evidence suggests urban form can affect motor vehicle usage, a major contributor to urban air pollution. Therefore, modifying urban form may be a strategy to mitigate urban air pollution. We use satellite-based measurements of urban form and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) to explore the effect of urban form on air pollution for a global data set of 1,274 cities. Three of the urban form metrics studied (contiguity, circularity, and vegetation) have a statistically significant effect on urban NO2; their combined effect could be substantial...
September 12, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886443/antiplasmodial-activities-of-dyes-against-plasmodium-falciparum-asexual-and-sexual-stages-contrasted-uptakes-of-triarylmethanes-brilliant-green-green-s-e142-and-patent-blue-v-e131-by-erythrocytes
#4
Louis-Jérôme Leba, Jean Popovici, Yannick Estevez, Stéphane Pelleau, Eric Legrand, Lise Musset, Christophe Duplais
The search for safe antimalarial compounds acting against asexual symptom-responsible stages and sexual transmission-responsible forms of Plasmodium species is one of the major challenges in malaria elimination programs. So far, among current drugs approved for human use, only primaquine has transmission-blocking activity. The discovery of small molecules targeting different Plasmodium falciparum life stages remains a priority in antimalarial drug research. In this context, several independent studies have recently reported antiplasmodial and transmission-blocking activities of commonly used stains, dyes and fluorescent probes against P...
August 2, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885271/isoniazid-preventive-therapy-completion-in-the-era-of-differentiated-hiv-care
#5
Khai Hoan Tram, Florence Mwangwa, Mucunguzi Atukunda, Asiphas Owaraganise, James Ayieko, Albert Plenty, Dalsone Kwariisima, Tamara D Clark, Moses R Kamya, Maya L Petersen, Edwin D Charlebois, Gabriel Chamie, Diane V Havlir, Carina Marquez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 6, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879203/a-stakeholder-survey-on-live-bird-market-closures-policy-for-controlling-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-in-vietnam
#6
Thi Thanh Thuy Nguyen, Lyle Fearnley, Xuan Tung Dinh, Thi Tram Anh Tran, Trong Tung Tran, Van Trong Nguyen, Damian Tago, Pawin Padungtod, Scott H Newman, Astrid Tripodi
Extensive research in Vietnam and elsewhere has shown that live bird markets (LBMs) play a significant role in the ecology and zoonotic transmission of avian influenzas (AIs) including H5N1 and H7N9. Vietnam has a large number of LBMs reflecting the consumer preferences for live poultry. Under pressure to mitigate risks for H7N9 and other zoonotic AIs, Vietnam is considering, among other mitigation measures, temporary closures of LBMs as a policy to reduce risk of AI outbreaks. However, the efficacy of market closure is debated, particularly because little is known about how poultry traders may react, and whether trading may emerge outside formal marketplaces...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878753/conserved-tram-domain-functions-as-an-archaeal-cold-shock-protein-via-rna-chaperone-activity
#7
Bo Zhang, Lei Yue, Liguang Zhou, Lei Qi, Jie Li, Xiuzhu Dong
Cold shock proteins (Csps) enable organisms to acclimate to and survive in cold environments and the bacterial CspA family exerts the cold protection via its RNA chaperone activity. However, most Archaea do not contain orthologs to the bacterial csp. TRAM, a conserved domain among RNA modification proteins ubiquitously distributed in organisms, occurs as an individual protein in most archaeal phyla and has a structural similarity to Csp proteins, yet its biological functions remain unknown. Through physiological and biochemical studies on four TRAM proteins from a cold adaptive archaeon Methanolobus psychrophilus R15, this work demonstrated that TRAM is an archaeal Csp and exhibits RNA chaperone activity...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871961/genetic-epidemiology-of-dengue-viruses-in-phase-iii-trials-of-the-cyd-tetravalent-dengue-vaccine-and-implications-for-efficacy
#8
Maia A Rabaa, Yves Girerd-Chambaz, Kien Duong Thi Hue, Trung Vu Tuan, Bridget Wills, Matthew Bonaparte, Diane van der Vliet, Edith Langevin, Margarita Cortes, Betzana Zambrano, Corinne Dunod, Anh Wartel-Tram, Nicholas Jackson, Cameron P Simmons
This study defined the genetic epidemiology of dengue viruses (DENV) in two pivotal phase III trials of the tetravalent dengue vaccine, CYD-TDV, and thereby enabled virus genotype-specific estimates of vaccine efficacy (VE). Envelope gene sequences (n = 661) from 11 DENV genotypes in 10 endemic countries provided a contemporaneous global snapshot of DENV population genetics and revealed high amino acid identity between the E genes of vaccine strains and wild-type viruses from trial participants, including at epitope sites targeted by virus neutralising human monoclonal antibodies...
September 5, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863473/targeting-type-iv-secretion-system-proteins-to-combat-multidrug-resistant-gram-positive-pathogens
#9
Diana Laverde, Ines Probst, Felipe Romero-Saavedra, Andrea Kropec, Dominique Wobser, Walter Keller, Elisabeth Grohmann, Johannes Huebner
For many gram-positive pathogens, conjugative plasmid transfer is an important means of spreading antibiotic resistance . Therefore, the search for alternative treatments to fight and prevent infections caused by these bacteria has become of major interest. In the present study, we evaluated the protein TraM, from the conjugative plasmid pIP501, as a potential vaccine candidate. Anti-TraM antiserum mediated in vitro opsonophagocytic killing of the strain harboring the pIP501 plasmid and also proved to be cross-reactive against other clinically relevant enterococcal and staphylococcal strains...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860456/the-paradox-of-highly-effective-sofosbuvir-based-combination-therapy-despite-slow-viral-decline-can-we-still-rely-on-viral-kinetics
#10
Thi Huyen Tram Nguyen, Jérémie Guedj, Susan L Uprichard, Anita Kohli, Shyam Kottilil, Alan S Perelson
High sustained virologic response (SVR) rates have been observed after 6 weeks of anti-HCV treatment using sofosbuvir, ledipasvir and a non-nucleoside polymerase-inhibitor (GS-9669) or a protease-inhibitor (GS-9451) and after 12 weeks with sofosbuvir + ledipasvir. Here we analyze the viral kinetics observed during these treatments to decipher the origin of the rapid cure and to evaluate the possibility of further reducing treatment duration. We found that viral kinetics were surprisingly slow in all treatment groups and could not reproduce the high SVR rates observed...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856027/cutaneous-erythema-at-scar-site-of-modified-radical-mastectomy-an-unexpected-manifestation-of-recurrent-carcinoma
#11
Awrad Mohammed-Reda Nasralla, Mohammed Abdulirazzaq Al-Duhileb, Ali Jamal-Aldein Arini, Samir Sami Amr
A 44-year-old woman presented with marked erythema over right mastectomy scar, while on Herceptin therapy. She had neoadjuvant chemotherapy, modified radical mastectomy, and radiotherapy less than one year earlier for the treatment of invasive ductal carcinoma. On physical examination, no palpable masses were detected in the erythematous skin. A biopsy revealed permeation of the skin lymphatics by emboli of metastatic ductal carcinoma, similar to what is seen in inflammatory carcinoma. The involved skin was excised, followed by immediate reconstruction with transverse rectus abdominis muscle (TRAM) flap...
2017: Case Reports in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833134/changes-in-shoulder-muscle-activity-pattern-on-surface-electromyography-after-breast-cancer-surgery
#12
Eun Joo Yang, YoungOk Kwon
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Alterations in muscle activation and restricted shoulder mobility, which are common in breast cancer patients, have been found to affect upper limb function. The purpose of this study was to determine muscle activity patterns, and to compare the prevalence of abnormal patterns among the type of breast surgery. METHODS: In total, 274 breast cancer patients were recruited after surgery. Type of breast surgery was divided into mastectomy without reconstruction (Mastectomy), reconstruction with tissue expander/implant (TEI), latissimus dorsi (LD) flap, or transverse rectus abdominis flap (TRAM)...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827342/human-genetic-variation-in-vac14-regulates-salmonella-invasion-and-typhoid-fever-through-modulation-of-cholesterol
#13
Monica I Alvarez, Luke C Glover, Peter Luo, Liuyang Wang, Elizabeth Theusch, Stefan H Oehlers, Eric M Walton, Trinh Thi Bich Tram, Yu-Lin Kuang, Jerome I Rotter, Colleen M McClean, Nguyen Tran Chinh, Marisa W Medina, David M Tobin, Sarah J Dunstan, Dennis C Ko
Risk, severity, and outcome of infection depend on the interplay of pathogen virulence and host susceptibility. Systematic identification of genetic susceptibility to infection is being undertaken through genome-wide association studies, but how to expeditiously move from genetic differences to functional mechanisms is unclear. Here, we use genetic association of molecular, cellular, and human disease traits and experimental validation to demonstrate that genetic variation affects expression of VAC14, a phosphoinositide-regulating protein, to influence susceptibility to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S Typhi) infection...
August 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822648/cyclooxygenase-2-inhibitors-and-free-flap-complications-after-autologous-breast-reconstruction-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#14
Christian Bonde, Hoda Khorasani, Jens Hoejvig, Henrik Kehlet
BACKGROUND: A key component of modern analgesics is the use of multimodal opioid-sparing analgesia (MOSA). In the past, our analgesic regime after autologous breast reconstruction (ABR) included either NSAID or a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor. COX-2 inhibitors are superior to NSAIDs because of the well-known side effects of NSAID treatment (bleeding/gastrointestinal ulcers). However, COX-2 inhibitors have been suggested to increase flap failure rates. We report our experience in using COX-2 inhibitors as part of our post-operative MOSA after ABR using free flaps...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816860/management-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-in-pregnancy
#15
Jie Li, Matthew S Chang, Tram T Tran, Mindie H Nguyen
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection due to mother-to-child transmission during the perinatal period remains an important global health problem. Despite standard passive-active immunoprophylaxis with hepatitis B immunoglobulin and hepatitis B vaccine in neonates, up to 8.5% of newborns still acquire HBV infection. Thus, management of chronic HBV during pregnancy and strategies to prevent mother-to-child transmission are important steps in eradicating or reducing the global burden of chronic HBV infection...
October 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812518/trust-s-nurse-of-the-year
#16
(no author information available yet)
Nursing student Christina O'Loughlin has had a tram named after her in her home city of Nottingham. The tram bears her name in recognition of her winning Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust's nurse of the year award after a public vote.
August 16, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810878/classification-of-chronic-radiation-induced-ulcers-in-the-chest-wall-after-surgery-in-breast-cancers
#17
Xiao Ma, Zengqiang Jin, Guojun Li, Wenfeng Yang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To explore the methods of clinical classification in chronic radiation-induced ulcers in the chest wall (CRUCWs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 64 patients with CRUCWs were treated. We divided the cases into 3 types (mild, moderate, or severe) according to their clinical manifestations. Conservative treatments, axial-pattern myocutaneous or local flaps, or filleted flaps were applied correspondingly. RESULTS: The cases were divided as follows: mild (n = 11), moderate (n = 45), and severe (n = 8)...
August 15, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806290/-clinical-and-quantitative-isokinetic-comparison-of-abdominal-morbidity-and-dynamics-following-diep-versus-muscle-sparing-free-tram-flap-breast-reconstruction
#18
Hirokazu Uda, Hideaki Kamochi, Syunji Sarukawa, Ataru Sunaga, Yasusih Sugawara, Kotaro Yoshimura
BACKGROUND: The deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap, which is a modification of the muscle-sparing free transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (msTRAM) flap, is being more frequently used in an effort to reduce postoperative abdominal morbidity. However, there is no consensus as to which of these flaps is superior. We aimed to compare quantitative measurements of abdominal function obtained with an isokinetic dynamometer after DIEP and msTRAM flap elevation. METHODS: Patients who underwent unilateral single-pedicled DIEP (n = 42) or msTRAM flap (n = 36) breast reconstruction performed by a single surgeon were included in this study...
August 3, 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799579/tramadol-hydrochloride-75-mg-dexketoprofen-25-mg-oral-fixed-dose-combination-in-moderate-to-severe-acute-pain-sustained-analgesic-effect-over-a-56-h-period-in-the-postoperative-setting
#19
A Montero Matamala, M Bertolotti, M P Contini, C Guerrero Bayón, A Nizzardo, I Paredes Lario, B Pizà Vallespir, S Scartoni, G Tonini, A Capriati, A Pellacani
Multimodal analgesia constitutes a common strategy in pain management. A tramadol hydrochloride 75 mg/dexketoprofen 25 mg oral fixed combination (TRAM/DKP 75 mg/25 mg) has been recently registered and released in Europe for the treatment of moderate-to-severe acute pain. This paper provides additional analyses on the results of two phase III clinical trials (DEX-TRA-04 and DEX-TRA-05) on postoperative pain to document its sustained effect. The analysis was applied to a modified intention-to-treat population (mITT, n = 933) of patients undergoing active treatment from the first dose, to assess the sustained effect of TRAM/DKP 75 mg/25 mg on pain intensity (PI-VAS 0-100) over 56 h from first drug intake...
June 2017: Drugs of Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740793/donor-site-complications-and-remnant-of-rectus-abdominis-muscle-status-after-transverse-rectus-abdominis-myocutaneous-flap-reconstruction
#20
Prakasit Chirappapha, Noppadol Trikunagonvong, Duangkamon Prapruttam, Sasiprapa Rongthong, Panuwat Lertsithichai, Thongchai Sukarayothin, Monchai Leesombatpaiboon, Rujira Panawattanakul, Panya Thaweepworadej
BACKGROUND: Transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap reconstruction after mastectomy in breast cancer patients has become one of the milestones in breast reconstruction. There are several techniques that have been used in an attempt to minimize untoward complications. We present the whole muscle with partial sheath-sparing technique that focuses on the anatomy of arcuate line and the closure of the anterior abdominal wall techniques with mesh and determine factors associated with its complications and outcomes...
June 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
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