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Evidenced-based medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315426/an-e-learning-module-on-chronic-low-back-pain-in-older-adults-effect-on-medical-resident-attitudes-confidence-knowledge-and-clinical-skills
#1
Zachary G Jacobs, D Michael Elnicki, Subashan Perera, Debra K Weiner
Objective: To determine 1) the feasibility of implementing an e-learning module on chronic low back pain (CLBP) in an older adult into an existing internal medicine residency curriculum and 2) the impact of this module on resident attitudes, confidence, knowledge, and clinical skills relating to CLBP. Methods: Participants were assigned to complete either the online module (N = 73) or the Yale Office-based curriculum on CLBP (N = 70). Attitudes, confidence, and knowledge were evaluated pre- and postintervention via survey...
January 5, 2018: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288521/indigenous-cultural-competence-a-dental-faculty-curriculum-review
#2
C Forsyth, M Irving, M Tennant, S Short, J Gilroy
BACKGROUND: Indigenous Australians have more than double the rate of poor oral health than their non-Indigenous counterparts. Cultural competence of dental and oral health practitioners is fundamental to health care and quality of life in addressing health disparities in minority cultural groups in Australia. Higher education curricula reviews have identified the need for institutions to incorporate Indigenous culture and knowledge more widely into the curricula to improve educational outcomes for Indigenous Australians and to increase cultural competence for all students...
December 30, 2017: European Journal of Dental Education: Official Journal of the Association for Dental Education in Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282330/whole-genome-sequence-analyses-of-brain-imaging-measures-in-the-framingham-study
#3
Chloé Sarnowski, Claudia L Satizabal, Charles DeCarli, Achilleas N Pitsillides, L Adrienne Cupples, Ramachandran S Vasan, James G Wilson, Joshua C Bis, Myriam Fornage, Alexa S Beiser, Anita L DeStefano, Josée Dupuis, Sudha Seshadri
OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify rare variants influencing brain imaging phenotypes in the Framingham Heart Study by performing whole genome sequence association analyses within the Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine Program. METHODS: We performed association analyses of cerebral and hippocampal volumes and white matter hyperintensity (WMH) in up to 2,180 individuals by testing the association of rank-normalized residuals from mixed-effect linear regression models adjusted for sex, age, and total intracranial volume with individual variants while accounting for familial relatedness...
December 27, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169731/a-composition-of-medicinal-plants-with-an-enhanced-ability-to-suppress-microsomal-lipid-peroxidation-and-a-protective-activity-against-carbon-tetrachloride-induced-hepatotoxicity
#4
Araylim N Aralbaeva, Aigul T Mamataeva, Nazgul I Zhaparkulova, Raisa S Utegalieva, Marina Khanin, Michael Danilenko, Maira K Murzakhmetova
Treatment of liver injury induced by various toxicants represents a serious clinical challenge. Here, we utilized the ability of natural agents to inhibit microsomal lipid peroxidation (LPO) as the in-vitro screening paradigm for selecting efficacious tissue-protective combinations of cooperatively acting medicinal plants. Based on screening of 70 water-ethanol extracts obtained from different parts of 65 plants we prepared a highly active phytocomposition (PC-1) containing oregano (Origanum vulgare), wild thyme (Thymus serpyllum) and coltsfoot (Tussilago farfara) aerial parts, valerian (Valeriana officinalis) leaves and little-leaf linden (Tilia cordata) flowers...
November 20, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150897/determining-best-outcomes-from-community-acquired-pneumonia-and-how-to-achieve-them
#5
REVIEW
Jane Hadfield, Lesley Bennett
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common acute medical illness with a standard, effective treatment that was introduced before the evidenced-based medicine era. Mortality rates have improved in recent decades but improvements have been minimal when compared to other conditions such as acute coronary syndromes. The standardized approach to treatment makes CAP a target for comparative performance and outcome measures. While easy to collect, simplistic outcomes such as mortality, readmission and length of stay are difficult to interpret as they can be affected by subjective choices and health care resources...
November 17, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145436/scrambled-eggs-proteomic-portraits-and-novel-biomarkers-of-egg-quality-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#6
Ozlem Yilmaz, Amélie Patinote, Thao Vi Nguyen, Emmanuelle Com, Regis Lavigne, Charles Pineau, Craig V Sullivan, Julien Bobe
Egg quality is a complex biological trait and a major determinant of reproductive fitness in all animals. This study delivered the first proteomic portraits of egg quality in zebrafish, a leading biomedical model for early development. Egg batches of good and poor quality, evidenced by embryo survival for 24 h, were sampled immediately after spawning and used to create pooled or replicated sample sets whose protein extracts were subjected to different levels of fractionation before liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119938/adenosine-receptor-ligands-on-cancer-therapy-a-review-of-patent-literature
#7
Carmen Diniz, Joana Beatriz Sousa, Paula Fresco, Jorge Goncalves
BACKGROUND: Adenosine is a purine, with an adenine group and a ribose sugar, formed endogenously by ATP catabolism both intracellularly and extracellularly. Among the medicinal features of adenosine and of its receptors (A1, A2A, A2B and A3), anticancer activity has been an intense field of research. The anticancer potential of adenosine receptor ligands has been brought forefront of research and evidenced in innumerous research articles and patents. OBJECTIVE: The present review focuses on the patent literature from 2002 onwards (2002-2017)...
November 7, 2017: Recent Patents on Anti-cancer Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103459/protective-effect-of-shouwu-yizhi-decoction-against-vascular-dementia-by-promoting-angiogenesis
#8
Xiao-Ni Yang, Chang-Sheng Li, Chao Chen, Xiao-Yong Tang, Guang-Qing Cheng, Xia Li
Shouwu is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with neuroprotective effect. Shouwu Yizhi decoction (SYD) was designed based on TCM theory. However, little is known about the roles of SYD in Vascular dementia (VaD). The present study aimed to evaluate the potential effects of SYD on the vascular cognitive impairment and explore the underlying mechanism by establishing focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) rat model to induce VaD. SYD administration (54 mg·kg-1) for 40 days obviously improved the vascular cognitive impairment in the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rats as evidenced by the declined neurological deficit score and shortened escape latency via neurological deficit assessment and Morris water maze test...
October 2017: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065057/using-the-cdc-worksite-health-scorecard-to-assess-employer-health-promotion-efforts-a-case-study-at-johns-hopkins-medicine
#9
Richard Safeer, Wendy Bowen, Zaw Maung, Meg Lucik
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the CDC Worksite Health ScoreCard (ScoreCard) is an effective vehicle for measuring workplace health promotion programs and causing change in a large employer with multiple entities defined by different physical environments and types of workers. METHODS: Johns Hopkins Medicine (JHM) representatives completed a baseline ScoreCard for each of their entities. In the subsequent year, improvement of the ScoreCard was tied to leadership performance evaluation...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987025/an-integrated-bioprocess-for-the-expansion-and-chondrogenic-priming-of-human-periosteum-derived-progenitor-cells-in-suspension-bioreactors
#10
Priyanka Gupta, Liesbet Geris, Frank P Luyten, Ioannis Papantoniou
The increasing use of microcarrier based suspension bioreactors for scalable expansion of adult progenitor cells in recent years reveals the necessity of such approaches to address bio manufacturing challenges of advanced therapeutic medicinal products. However, the differentiation of progenitor cells within suspension bioreactors for the production of tissue modules is of equal importance but not well investigated. This study reports on the development of a bioreactor based integrated process for expansion and chondrogenic priming of human periosteum derived stem cells (hPDCs) using Cultispher S microcarriers...
October 7, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965012/attenuation-of-dermal-wounds-via-downregulating-oxidative-stress-and-inflammatory-markers-by-protocatechuic-acid-rich-n-butanol-fraction-of-trianthema-portulacastrum-linn-in-wistar-albino-rats
#11
Ekta Yadav, Deepika Singh, Pankajkumar Yadav, Amita Verma
Oxidative stress and inflammation contribute as a key factor for retarding the process of dermal wound healing. Trianthema portulcastrum Linn. (TP) leaves reported to possess antioxidant, antifungal, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties, which could make TP a promising wound healing agent. The current study was aimed to estimate the antioxidant potential of the fractionated hydroethanolic extract of TP leaves and evaluate wound healing activity by excision and incision wound models along with the assessment of possible underlying mechanism...
September 28, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963865/treating-late-life-depression-comparing-the-effects-of-internet-delivered-cognitive-behavior-therapy-across-the-adult-lifespan
#12
Megan J Hobbs, Amy E Joubert, Alison E J Mahoney, Gavin Andrews
BACKGROUND: The burden attributable to late-life depression is set to increase with the ageing population. The size of the workforce trained to deliver psychogeriatric medicine is limited. Internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT) is an efficacious and scalable treatment option for depression. Yet older adults are underrepresented in iCBT research. This study examines the effects of iCBT for depression across the adult lifespan among patients seeking help in routine clinical care (N = 1288)...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914203/phytomedicines-are-efficient-complementary-therapies-for-the-treatment-of-atopic-dermatitis-a-review-of-mechanistic-insight-and-recent-updates
#13
Mohamad Aidil Tumpang, Nor Amlizan Ramli, Zahid Hussain
BACKGROUND: Phytomedicines have been well-accepted alternative complementary therapies for the treatment of a wide range of acute and chronic skin inflammatory diseases including chronic herpes, prurigo, psoriasis, and atopic dermatitis (AD). Plethora of in vitro and in vivo studies have evidenced the therapeutic viability of phytomedicines, polyherbal formulations, plant-based materials and their decoctions for the treatment of mild-to-severe AD. OBJECTIVE: This review was aimed to summarize and critically discuss the convincing evidence for the therapeutic effectiveness of phytomedicines for the treatment of AD and explore their anti-AD efficacy...
September 13, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900317/evaluation-of-cytotoxicity-effects-of-oleo-gum-resin-and-its-essential-oil-of-ferula-assa-foetida-and-ferulic-acid-on-4t1-breast-cancer-cells
#14
Seyyed Majid Bagheri, Amir Abdian Asl, Ali Shams, Seyyed Ali Mirghanizadeh-Bafghi, Zeynab Hafizibarjin
BACKGROUND: Cancer causes significant morbidity and mortality and is a major public health problem worldwide. Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-associated mortality in women, and the incidence is also on the rise in the entire world. Medicinal plants have been an important source of several clinically useful anticancer agents. AIM: In this study, we studied the growth inhibitory effect of asafoetida and its essential oil and ferulic acid on antitumor activity using mouse breast cancer cell line...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Medical and Paediatric Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899847/enhancing-seasonal-influenza-surveillance-topic-analysis-of-widely-used-medicinal-drugs-using-twitter-data
#15
Ireneus Kagashe, Zhijun Yan, Imran Suheryani
BACKGROUND: Uptake of medicinal drugs (preventive or treatment) is among the approaches used to control disease outbreaks, and therefore, it is of vital importance to be aware of the counts or frequencies of most commonly used drugs and trending topics about these drugs from consumers for successful implementation of control measures. Traditional survey methods would have accomplished this study, but they are too costly in terms of resources needed, and they are subject to social desirability bias for topics discovery...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884282/efficiency-analysis-of-integrated-public-hospital-networks-in-outpatient-internal-medicine
#16
Miguel Angel Ortíz-Barrios, Juan P Escorcia-Caballero, Fabián Sánchez-Sánchez, Fabio De Felice, Antonella Petrillo
Healthcare systems are evolving towards a complex network of interconnected services due to the increasing costs and the increasing expectations for high service levels. It is evidenced in the literature the importance of implementing management techniques and sophisticated methods to improve the efficiency of healthcare systems, especially in emerging economies. This paper proposes an integrated collaboration model between two public hospitals to reach the reduction of weighted average lead time in outpatient internal medicine department...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852136/high-predictive-values-of-rbc-membrane-based-diagnostics-by-biophotonics-in-an-integrated-approach-for-autism-spectrum-disorders
#17
Giorgia Giacometti, Carla Ferreri, Anna Sansone, Chryssostomos Chatgilialoglu, Carla Marzetti, Ellas Spyratou, Alexandros G Georgakilas, Marina Marini, Provvidenza M Abruzzo, Alessandra Bolotta, Alessandro Ghezzo, Renato Minguzzi, Annio Posar, Paola Visconti
Membranes attract attention in medicine, concerning lipidome composition and fatty acid correlation with neurological diseases. Hyperspectral dark field microscopy (HDFM), a biophotonic imaging using reflectance spectra, provides accurate characterization of healthy adult RBC identifying a library of 8 spectral end-members. Here we report hyperspectral RBC imaging in children affected by Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) (n = 21) compared to healthy age-matched subjects (n = 20), investigating if statistically significant differences in their HDFM spectra exist, that can comprehensively map a membrane impairment involved in disease...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830252/macrophage-repolarization-using-emu-oil-based-electrospun-nanofibers-possible-application-in-regenerative-medicine
#18
Reza Zamani, Younes Pilehvar-Soltanahmadi, Effat Alizadeh, Nosratollah Zarghami
In the regenerative medicine therapies, the availability of engineered scaffolds that modulate inflammatory states is highly required. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds containing natural substances with anti-inflammatory properties such as Emu oil (EO) to control inflammation and re-polarization of macrophages toward M2 anti-inflammatory phonotype. For this purpose, bead free and smooth EO-blended PCL/PEG electrospun nanofibrous mats were successfully fabricated and characterized using FE-SEM, FTIR, and Universal Testing Machine...
August 23, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811974/ex-vivo-assessment-of-drug-response-on-breast-cancer-primary-tissue-with-preserved-microenvironments
#19
Manuele G Muraro, Simone Muenst, Valentina Mele, Luca Quagliata, Giandomenica Iezzi, Alexandar Tzankov, Walter P Weber, Giulio C Spagnoli, Savas D Soysal
Interaction between cancerous, non-transformed cells, and non-cellular components within the tumor microenvironment plays a key role in response to treatment. However, short-term culture or xenotransplantation of cancer specimens in immunodeficient animals results in dramatic modifications of the tumor microenvironment, thus preventing reliable assessment of compounds or biologicals of potential therapeutic relevance. We used a perfusion-based bioreactor developed for tissue engineering purposes to successfully maintain the tumor microenvironment of freshly excised breast cancer tissue obtained from 27 breast cancer patients and used this platform to test the therapeutic effect of antiestrogens as well as checkpoint-inhibitors on the cancer cells...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798924/diagnostic-performance-of-high-resolution-computed-tomography-in-otosclerosis
#20
Todd Kanzara, Jagdeep Singh Virk
AIM: To determine the sensitivity and specificity of high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in the diagnosis of otosclerosis. METHODS: A systematic literature review was undertaken to include Level I-III studies (Oxford Centre for Evidenced based Medicine) that utilised HRCT to detect histology confirmed otosclerosis. Quantitative synthesis was then performed. RESULTS: Based on available level III literature, HRCT has a relatively low sensitivity of 58% (95%CI: 49...
July 16, 2017: World Journal of Clinical Cases
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