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Rape trauma

Erhabor Sunday Idemudia
OBJECTIVE: This paper is a report of 4 published papers on posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS)/posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD) and traumas experienced by homeless Zimbabwean refugees living in South Africa. The general purpose of the papers was to explore how pre- and postmigration difficulties predicts posttraumatic stress symptoms/disorder; to understand gender differences in PTSS/PTSD reports using quantitative and qualitative approaches; and finally, to understand the nature of abuses, perpetrators, and sex of perpetrators...
May 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Elizabeth R Volkmann
Early in my medical training, I cared for a patient who survived a brutal sexual assault necessitating ICU level care. Months later, I was raped. This essay is a reflection on my experience as a survivor of sexual violence and as a provider for patients whose wounds from these traumas have flourished in atmospheres of shame and stigma. In this essay, I further explore how physicians and other health care providers can play a central role in restoring the health of individuals who silently suffer after these unspeakable events...
January 2017: Annals of Family Medicine
Mark Shevlin, Siobhan Murphy, Ask Elklit, Jamie Murphy, Philip Hyland
OBJECTIVE: The deleterious psychological effects of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) have been extensively documented in the research literature. A limitation of this research, however, has been a reliance on overly restrictive and limiting measurements of CSA. Researchers have most commonly referred to discrete instances of rape and molestation; however, evidence suggests that sexual abuse in childhood can include a wide array of acts and that individual survivors can endure many of these...
April 3, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Sepali Guruge, Marilyn Ford-Gilboe, Colleen Varcoe, Vathsala Jayasuriya-Illesinghe, Mahesan Ganesan, Sivagurunathan Sivayogan, Parvathy Kanthasamy, Pushparani Shanmugalingam, Hemamala Vithanarachchi
BACKGROUND: Exposure to armed conflict and/or war have been linked to an increase in intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. A substantial body of work has focused on non-partner rape and sexual violence in war and post-war contexts, but research about IPV is limited, particularly in Asian settings. This paper presents the finding of a study conducted in the Eastern Province of Sri Lanka. The study explored women's experiences of and responses to IPV as well as how health and social service providers perceive the problem...
2017: PloS One
Michelle J Bovin, Erika J Wolf, Patricia A Resick
This study evaluated how change in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms was associated with residualized change in comorbid personality disorder (PD) features and vice versa over the course of 5-10 years. The sample was comprised of 79 female rape survivors who met criteria for PTSD and who were a part of a larger study examining the effects of trauma-focused therapy. PTSD was assessed with the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) version of the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale [CAPS-IV (1)] and PD features were assessed with the DSM-IV dimensional PD scales on the Schedule for Non-adaptive and Adaptive Personality [SNAP (2)]...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Christine D Scher, Michael K Suvak, Patricia A Resick
OBJECTIVES: This study examined (a) relationships between trauma-related cognitions and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms from pretreatment through a long-term period after cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for PTSD and (b) whether these relationships were impacted by treatment type. METHOD: Participants were 171 women randomized into treatment for PTSD after rape. Measures of self-reported trauma-related cognitions and interviewer-assessed PTSD symptoms (i...
February 9, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
M M M Leye, P Ndiaye, D Ndiaye, I Seck, A Faye, A Tal Dia
INTRODUCTION: To contribute to the fight against physical violence against women, this work aimed to make a 10-year review of cases treated at the Regional Court of Tambacounda. METHODOLOGY: This observational, retrospective, descriptive and analytical study was conducted from 15 October 2014 to 15 April 2015. It covered all the court records of victims of intentional injury from 2006 to 2015. The data was entered and analyzed using Epi info 3.3.2 software. RESULTS: In all, 113 cases were treated...
January 30, 2017: Revue D'épidémiologie et de Santé Publique
Nolwandle Mgoqi-Mbalo, Muyu Zhang, Sam Ntuli
OBJECTIVE: To investigate association of the sociodemographic factors, characteristics of rape and social support to the development of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder at 6 months after the rape. METHOD: A cross-sectional survey with female survivors of rape was carried out in 3 provinces of South Africa 6 months after the rape. RESULTS: One hundred female survivors s of sexual assault were interviewed. More than half (53%) were from Limpopo, 25% from Western Cape, and 22% from KwaZulu-Natal (KZN)...
May 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Yewande Oshodi, Muiruri Macharia, Anusha Lachman, Soraya Seedat
Rape is considered a stressful trauma and often has long-lasting health consequences. Compared with adult females, limited data exist on the psychological impact of rape in adolescents. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of emotional distress in a cohort of adolescent rape survivors in Cape Town. Participants in this prospective longitudinal study were 31 adolescent female rape survivors recruited from a rape clinic in Cape Town and assessed within 2 weeks of the assault...
December 11, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Richard Neugebauer, Allana Forde, Kinga E Fodor, Prudence W Fisher, J Blake Turner, Tasha Stehling-Ariza, Saori Yamabe
Whether children or adolescents exhibit higher levels of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in response to violence is an unresolved research question. We examine this issue in UNICEF's 1995 National Trauma Survey (NTS) of 8-19-year-olds (n = 942) who survived the Rwandan Genocide and lived and attended schools in the community. PTSS were assessed with a symptom checklist based on DSM-IV indexed using an overall score comprising the sum of scores on all items and mean item scores of each of five distinct factors identified in a factor analysis within this sample...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Laura C Wilson, Katherine E Miller, Emma K Leheney, Alesha D Ballman, Angela Scarpa
OBJECTIVE: Although the majority of rape survivors do not label their experiences as rape (i.e., unacknowledged rape), the literature is mixed in terms of how this affects survivors' psychological functioning. To elucidate the discrepancies, the present study examined the interaction between rape acknowledgement and ambivalent sexism in relation to depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. METHOD: The analyzed sample included 128 female rape survivors who were drawn from a larger college sample of 1,595 participants...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Gaboipolelwe M Masilo, Mashudu Davhana-Maselesele
BACKGROUND: Sexual violence against children is increasing at an alarming rate in South Africa. In 2010 the South African Police Service (SAPS) reported 21 538 rape cases of children under 18 years. In the North-West province (NWP) 5039 incidents of rape cases were reported in 2009. Mothers often experience emotional pain following child sexual abuse disclosure. It is seldom acknowledged that these mothers experience trauma and need support, post disclosure. The researcher has no known evidence of research conducted on the experiences of these mothers in NWP...
2016: Curationis
Hanna T Pinsky, Molly E Shepard, Elizabeth R Bird, Amanda K Gilmore, Jeanette Norris, Kelly Cue Davis, William H George
Little is known based on the stratification and localization of penetration type of rape: oral, vaginal, and/or anal. The current study examined associations between type of rape and mental and sexual health symptoms in 865 community women. All penetration types were positively associated with negative mental and sexual health symptoms. Oral and/or anal rape accounted for additional variance in anxiety, depression, some trauma-related symptoms, and dysfunctional sexual behavior than the association with vaginal rape alone...
July 10, 2016: Violence Against Women
Jee Hoon Andrew Park, KyongWeon Kathy Lee, Michelle D Hand, Keith A Anderson, Tess E Schleitwiler
Prior to and during World War II, thousands of girls and young women were abducted from Korea and forced into sexual slavery by the Japanese government. Termed "comfort women", these girls and young women suffered extreme sexual, physical, and emotional abuse and trauma. Research on this group is not well-developed and we know little of impact of this early life trauma on the lives of these women who are now in later life. Using snowball sampling, 16 older adult survivors of the "comfort women" system participated in semi-structured qualitative interviews...
June 28, 2016: Journal of Gerontological Social Work
Helene Flood Aakvaag, Siri Thoresen, Tore Wentzel-Larsen, Grete Dyb, Espen Røysamb, Miranda Olff
BACKGROUND: There is increasing interest in trauma-related shame and guilt. However, much remains unknown in terms of how these emotions relate to the type of event, gender and mental health. We investigated shame and guilt in men and women following various types of severe violence and their relation to mental health. METHODS: Telephone interviews were conducted with a Norwegian general population sample (n=4529; age=18-75; response rate=42.9%). Measures included child sexual abuse, child and adult rape, severe physical violence from/between parents, severe violence from a partner and non-partners, less severe violence and non-violent trauma, the new Shame and Guilt After Trauma Scale, and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Rachel Jewkes, Mzikazi Nduna, Nwabisa Jama-Shai, Esnat Chirwa, Kristin Dunkle
BACKGROUND: Interventions to prevent rape perpetration must be designed to address its drivers. This paper seeks to extend understanding of drivers of single and multiple perpetrator rape (referred to here as SPR and MPR respectively) and the relationships between socio-economic status, childhood trauma, peer pressure, other masculine behaviours and rape. METHOD: 1370 young men aged 15 to 26 were interviewed as part of the randomised controlled trial evaluation of Stepping Stones in the rural Eastern Cape...
2016: PloS One
Erica R Scioli-Salter, Benjamin D Johnides, Karen S Mitchell, Brian N Smith, Patricia A Resick, Ann M Rasmusson
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relative contributions of depression and dissociation, as well as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), to physical health symptoms and to examine the relationships among somatic symptoms, PTSD, depression, and dissociation in relation to childhood and adult trauma exposure. METHOD: Cross-sectional data are from 132 female rape survivors with PTSD assessed before engaging in a study of trauma-focused cognitive therapy for PTSD. Measures included the Pennebaker Inventory of Limbic Languidness, Clinician Administered PTSD Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, Trauma Symptom Inventory-Dissociation Subscale, Childhood Sexual Abuse Exposure Questionnaire, and Assessing Environments-III-Physical Punishment Scale...
September 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Colin Ross
Jean-Martin Charcot who studied hysteria at the Salpetriere hospital in Paris late in the nineteenth century is often portrayed as a great neurologist. According to standard accounts, his female hysterical patients imitated the seizures of epileptic patients at the Salpetriere in order to get attention because of their dramatic, self-centered natures. They were also prone to making false allegations of childhood sexual abuse. In fact, the so-called hysterical seizures were often abreactions of rapes. The patients commonly had extensive childhood sexual abuse histories, and sexual misconduct by doctors was endemic at the Salpetriere...
2016: Journal of Psychohistory
Agnes Gisladottir, Miguel Angel Luque-Fernandez, Bernard L Harlow, Berglind Gudmundsdottir, Eyrun Jonsdottir, Ragnheidur I Bjarnadottir, Arna Hauksdottir, Thor Aspelund, Sven Cnattingius, Unnur A Valdimarsdottir
BACKGROUND: There is a scarcity of data on the association of sexual violence and women's subsequent obstetric outcomes. Our aim was to investigate whether women exposed to sexual violence as teenagers (12-19 years of age) or adults present with different obstetric outcomes than women with no record of such violence. METHODS: We linked detailed prospectively collected information on women attending a Rape Trauma Service (RTS) to the Icelandic Medical Birth Registry (IBR)...
2016: PloS One
Álvaro Frías, Carol Palma, Núria Farriols, Laura González
OBJECTIVE: Sexuality is somewhat neglected in clinical research on borderline personality disorder (BPD). METHOD: We performed a systematic review from 1980 to November 2014 through PubMed and PsycINFO. RESULTS: Empirical evidence underscores that childhood sexual trauma may be considered a non-specific risk factor for BPD. Furthermore, individuals with BPD also display higher sexual identity disturbances and homosexual relationships than non-BPD individuals...
August 2016: Personality and Mental Health
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