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Rape trauma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927990/ptsd-correlates-with-somatization-in-sexually-abused-children-type-of-abuse-moderates-the-effect-of-ptsd-on-somatization
#1
Seung Min Bae, Jae Myeong Kang, Hyoung Yoon Chang, Woori Han, So Hee Lee
PURPOSE: Somatization is a major post-traumatic symptom in sexually abused children. Thus, the present study aimed to determine the relationship between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and somatization, and between intelligence and somatization in child sexual abuse victims and to elucidate whether type of abuse had an effect on the relationship between PTSD symptoms and somatization. METHODS: This study evaluated the somatizations (Child Behavioral Checklist/6-18 [CBCL]), PTSD symptoms (Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children [TSCC]), and intelligence levels of 63 sexually abused children...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875908/-stress-syndrome-in-patients-receiving-outpatient-treatment-at-the-general-hospital-in-bangui-in-a-context-of-armed-conflict
#2
Magloire Nkosi Mpembi, Thierry Lukeba, Damien Mayemba, Victoria Kubuta Massamba, Thierry Matonda Ma Nzuzi, Symphorien Gokara, Etienne Vermeiren, Gilbert Mananga Lelo, Samuel Mampunza Ma Miezi
Context: in Africa's zones of conflict, recent studies report a high frequency of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) particularly in community settings. Objective: This study aimed to contribute to a better management of patients experiencing violence subsequent to the Central African Republic socio-political conflict. Material and methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of the medical records of patients receiving outpatient treatment in the Doctors Without Borders/Médecins Sans Frontières (France) Trauma Center, Bangui...
2018: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792253/genocide-rape-trauma-a-conceptual-framework-for-understanding-the-psychological-suffering-of-rwandan-survivors
#3
Donatilla Mukamana, Anthony Collins, William E Rosa
In 1994, the Rwandan genocide claimed the lives of approximately 1 million Tutsi and moderate Hutu citizens. Systematic rape was a strategic component of the Hutu extremist plan to eradicate the Tutsi minority population. This involved collective and repeated sexual assaults with brutal violence, public humiliation, and torture. This article maps the ongoing psychological impact on Rwandan genocide rape survivors and identifies implications for international nursing practice. The research formalizes their narratives, identifying a number of interconnected elements that combine to produce myriad forms of chronic psychological suffering in the Rwandan context...
May 1, 2018: Research and Theory for Nursing Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738944/sex-differences-in-traumatic-events-and-psychiatric-morbidity-associated-to-probable-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-among-latino-prisoners
#4
Coralee Pérez-Pedrogo, Alfonso Martínez-Taboas, Rafael A González, José N Caraballo, Carmen E Albizu-García
Latinos comprised 17.1% of the U.S. population and 33.1% of US prisoners, yet they are underrepresented in the psychopathology literature. Despite higher rates of trauma among incarcerated individuals than in the general population, most of the previous research in this area focused primarily on women samples, and very few studies examined sex differences in PTSD and traumatic experiences. In addition, there is a need for research assessing traumatic experiences and probable PTSD in men and women Latino inmates to inform culturally competent care and sex sensitive care for this vulnerable and underserved population...
April 14, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687508/access-to-choice-examining-differences-between-adolescent-and-adult-abortion-fund-service-recipients
#5
Gretchen E Ely, Travis W Hales, D Lynn Jackson, Jenni Kotting, Kafuli Agbemenu
The results of a study examining differences between U.S. adolescent and adult abortion fund service recipients are presented in this paper. Using existing case data from 2010 to 2015 from the National Network of Abortion Funds (N = 3,288), a secondary data analysis was conducted to determine whether or not the experiences of adolescent (n = 481) and adult abortion patients (n = 2,807) who received financial assistance to help pay for an abortion differed. Fisher's exact tests examined differences in dichotomous variables, and regression examined differences in procedural costs, patient resources and expected travel distances to obtain an abortion...
April 23, 2018: Health & Social Care in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685056/individual-and-parental-risk-factors-for-sexual-exploitation-among-high-risk-youth-in-uganda
#6
Shannon Self-Brown, Rachel Culbreth, Rebecca Wilson, Lisa Armistead, Rogers Kasirye, Monica H Swahn
This study examined risk factors to determine associations with commercial sexual exploitation of children and youth (CSEC) in a convenience sample of adolescents living in the slums in Kampala, Uganda. Individual-level factors included demographic, adverse experiences (ever living on the streets; victim of dating violence, parental abuse, or rape), and behavioral risk (social media, alcohol use, age at first intercourse). Parental-risk factors included parent alcohol use and approval attitudes toward youth sex...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672106/mmpi-2-rf-characteristics-of-veterans-seeking-treatment-for-military-sexual-trauma
#7
Eliza S McManus, Lisa-Ann J Cuccurullo, Madeline Uddo, C Laurel Franklin
Military sexual trauma (MST) is defined as experiences of sexual assault or repeated, threatening, harassment during military service. MST events may not qualify within posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Criterion A, making symptoms associated with MST unique from trauma-related disorders. Little research has been done to understand those presenting for MST treatment. Thus, this article provides Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) scores of 33 U.S. veterans who experienced MST in an effort to better understand psychological and personality characteristics of this important and unique group of veterans...
April 2018: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669407/psychiatric-sequelae-of-former-comfort-women-survivors-of-the-japanese-military-sexual-slavery-during-world-war-ii
#8
REVIEW
Jeewon Lee, Young-Sook Kwak, Yoon-Jung Kim, Eun-Ji Kim, E Jin Park, Yunmi Shin, Bun-Hee Lee, So Hee Lee, Hee Yeon Jung, Inseon Lee, Jung Im Hwang, Dongsik Kim, Soyoung Irene Lee
"Comfort women" refers to young women and girls who were forced into sexual slavery by the Imperial Japanese military during World War II. They were abducted from their homes in countries under Imperial Japanese rule, mostly from Korea, and the rest from China, Philippines, Malaysia, Taiwan, Indonesia, the Netherlands, etc. "Comfort women" endured extreme trauma involving rape, sexual torture, physical abuse, starvation, threats of death, and witnessed many others being tortured and killed...
April 2018: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29489037/in-rape-trauma-ptsd-patient-characteristics-indicate-which-trauma-focused-treatment-they-are-most-likely-to-complete
#9
John R Keefe, Shannon Wiltsey Stirman, Zachary D Cohen, Robert J DeRubeis, Brian N Smith, Patricia A Resick
BACKGROUND: Dropout rates for effective therapies for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can be high, especially in practice settings. Although clinicians have intuitions regarding what treatment patients may complete, there are few systematic data to drive those judgments. METHODS: A multivariable model of dropout risk was constructed with randomized clinical trial data (n = 160) comparing prolonged exposure (PE) and cognitive processing therapy (CPT) for rape-induced PTSD...
April 2018: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454220/early-life-sexual-abuse-is-associated-with-increased-suicide-attempts-an-update-meta-analysis
#10
REVIEW
Qin Xiang Ng, Bob Zheng Jie Yong, Collin Yin Xian Ho, Donovan Yutong Lim, Wee-Song Yeo
Suicide is an emerging, yet preventable global health issue associated with significant mortality. Identification of underlying risk factors and antecedents may inform preventive strategies and interventions. This study serves to provide an updated meta-analysis examining the extent of association of early life sexual abuse with suicide attempts. Using the keywords [early abuse OR childhood abuse OR sexual OR rape OR molest* OR violence OR trauma OR PTSD] AND [suicid* OR premature OR unnatural OR deceased OR died OR mortality], a preliminary search on the PubMed, Ovid, PsychINFO, Web of Science and Google Scholar databases yielded 12,874 papers published in English between 1-Jan-1988 and 1-June-2017...
April 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377849/icd-11-prevalence-rates-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-complex-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-in-a-german-nationwide-sample
#11
Andreas Maercker, Tobias Hecker, Mareike Augsburger, Sören Kliem
Prevalence rates are still lacking for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and complex PTSD (CPTSD) diagnoses based on the new ICD-11 criteria. In a nationwide representative German sample (N = 2524; 14-99 years), exposure to traumatic events and symptoms of PTSD or CPTSD were assessed with the International Trauma Questionnaire. A clinical variant of CPTSD with a lower threshold for core PTSD symptoms was also calculated, in addition to conditional prevalence rates dependent on trauma type and differential predictors...
April 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360026/should-a-physician-comply-with-a-parent-s-demands-for-a-forensic-exam-on-a-16-year-old-trauma-patient
#12
Michelle Bowdler, Hannah Kent
Physicians must remain vigilant about their ethical duties to patients, especially in high-stakes situations. The question raised by this case-whether a physician should comply with a parent's demand for treatment against her underage child's wishes-is not one of life or death in which a guardian might more credibly argue her judgment should stand. Given that forcing a rape kit exam on a patient who refuses to give assent could be further traumatizing, we argue that the physician should not comply. Deciding upon a course of action in this situation will involve considering what is in the patient's best interest and what constitutes a physician's appropriate role in gathering evidence for criminal investigations...
January 1, 2018: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332557/evaluation-of-a-victim-centered-trauma-informed-victim-notification-protocol-for-untested-sexual-assault-kits-saks
#13
Rebecca Campbell, Jessica Shaw, Giannina Fehler-Cabral
Throughout the United States, hundreds of thousands of sexual assault kits (SAKs) have not been submitted by the police for forensic DNA testing, which raises complex issues regarding how victims ought to be notified about what happened to their kits. In this project, we evaluated a victim-centered, trauma-informed victim notification protocol that was implemented in Detroit, Michigan. Most victims (84%) did not have a strong negative emotional reaction to notification, and most (57%) decided to reengage with the criminal justice system...
March 2018: Violence Against Women
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332522/i-said-no-the-impact-of-voicing-non-consent-on-women-s-perceptions-of-and-responses-to-rape
#14
Natalie K Cook, Terri L Messman-Moore
The current study explored the impact of voicing non-consent in relation to rape. Aims of the study included determining (a) the prevalence of voicing non-consent, (b) the relationship of voicing non-consent to verbal and physical resistance, and (c) whether voicing non-consent predicts distress and rape acknowledgment. Out of 262 college women who experienced rape, 81% voiced non-consent. Voicing non-consent was related to verbal and physical resistance, but was distinct in prevalence and prediction of distress...
April 2018: Violence Against Women
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332512/rape-aggression-defense-unique-self-efficacy-benefits-for-survivors-of-sexual-trauma
#15
Caitlin M Pinciotti, Holly K Orcutt
Self-defense training is consistently linked to psychological benefits for survivors of sexual trauma, yet little is known about how training may uniquely benefit survivors compared with their nonsurvivor peers enrolled in the same course. Path analysis was used to examine how history of sexual trauma impacts pre- and post-training scores on three domains of self-efficacy using a national sample of Rape Aggression Defense (RAD) participants. All participants reported significant increases in self-efficacy domains, and sexual trauma history significantly predicted pre-training interpersonal self-efficacy and post-training self-defense self-efficacy, suggesting that self-defense training confers benefits for survivors above and beyond benefits for other participants...
April 2018: Violence Against Women
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316709/screaming-body-and-silent-healthcare-providers-a-case-study-with-a-childhood-sexual-abuse-survivor
#16
REVIEW
Sigrun Sigurdardottir, Sigridur Halldorsdottir
Stressful early life experiences cause immune dysregulation across the lifespan. Despite the fact that studies have identified childhood sexual abuse (CSA) survivors as a particularly vulnerable group, only a few attempts have been made to study their lived-experience of the physical health consequences of CSA. The aim of this study was to explore a female CSA survivor's lived-experience of the physical health consequences of CSA and how she experienced the reactions of healthcare providers. Seven interviews were conducted with this 40-year-old woman, Anne, using a phenomenological research approach...
January 8, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294964/rape-crisis-counseling-trauma-contagion-and-supervision
#17
Niveen Rizkalla, Maya Zeevi-Barkay, Steven P Segal
This study of rape crisis counselors considers whether increased exposure to victims' trauma is associated with increased supervision-believed necessary to combat trauma contagion-and whether such supervision will reduce the negative impact of such exposure. One hundred six women counselors in seven of nine rape crisis centers in Israel completed anonymous questionnaires documenting their work and trauma exposure. Trauma exposure was defined by counselors' number of victim-contact hours per week and their assessment of the trauma severity they experienced...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294893/who-helps-the-helpers-social-support-for-rape-crisis-advocates
#18
Jaclyn D Houston-Kolnik, Charlynn A Odahl-Ruan, Megan R Greeson
Secondary exposure to trauma may have negative effects on rape victim advocates' well-being. Self-care can help to mitigate these negative effects on advocates' well-being, and prior research suggests that social support is an especially important aspect of advocates' self-care. However, there is a lack of research on how rape crisis advocates access and receive social support in relationship to their advocacy work. Therefore, semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with 15 rape crisis advocates who volunteered for a rape crisis center in Chicago to understand how they accessed social support from informal and formal support providers, and when they did receive support, what was helpful versus unhelpful...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239701/variations-on-the-migratory-theme-immigrants-or-exiles-refugees-or-asylees
#19
Ruth M Lijtmaer
When a country is engulfed in war, or overrun by a dictator who begins killing, its citizens are forced to flee. In such situations, the only compassionate response is to take people in. With the ongoing mass migration to Europe, these refugees pay smugglers to take them to safety, but there is no safe place to go since nobody wants them. They leave in a rush to save their lives and their families due to political and religious fear, death threats, rape of women, or forced labor. They do not have time to mourn the losses, there is no time for "ideal migration" where destination countries can choose whom they will take in...
December 2017: Psychoanalytic Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221482/rejection-acceptance-and-the-spectrum-between-understanding-male-attitudes-and-experiences-towards-conflict-related-sexual-violence-in-eastern-democratic-republic-of-congo
#20
Jocelyn Kelly, Katherine Albutt, Justin Kabanga, Kimberley Anderson, Michael VanRooyen
BACKGROUND: Female survivors of sexual violence in conflict experience not only physical and psychological sequelae from the event itself, but often many negative social outcomes, such as rejection and ostracisation from their families and community. Male relatives - whether husbands, fathers, brothers - play a key role in determining how the family and community respond to a survivor of sexual violence. Understanding these perspectives could help improve services for survivors of sexual violence, as well as their families and communities...
December 8, 2017: BMC Women's Health
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