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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023137/sexual-vs-nonsexual-currently-most-upsetting-trauma-a-fresh-look-at-attenuation-of-sexual-response-alcohol-intoxication-and-post-traumatic-stress
#1
Elizabeth R Bird, Martin Seehuus, Julia R Heiman, Kelly Cue Davis, Jeanette Norris, William H George
This study examined the dependence of sexual response (vaginal pulse amplitude [VPA] and subjective sexual arousal) on alcohol intoxication (.10% breath alcohol concentration [BrAC] versus no alcohol) and the nature of a woman's currently most upsetting traumatic event (C-MUTE), whether it was sexual (e.g., rape) or nonsexual (e.g., combat). Self-reported sexual outcomes were also compared by C-MUTE type. A total of 117 women completed background measures and either drank alcoholic or nonalcoholic beverages...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Sex Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988171/post-trauma-coping-in-the-context-of-significant-adversity-a-qualitative-study-of-young-people-living-in-an-urban-township-in-south-africa
#2
Rachel M Hiller, Sarah L Halligan, Mark Tomlinson, Jackie Stewart, Sarah Skeen, Hope Christie
OBJECTIVE: Compared with knowledge of the post-trauma needs of young people living in developed countries, little is known about the needs of those in low-middle-income countries. Such information is crucial, particularly as young people in these environments can be at increased risk of experiencing trauma, coupled with less available resources for formal support. The aim of this study was to explore post-trauma coping and support-seeking of young people living in a high-adversity settlement in South Africa...
October 6, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972706/trauma-informed-care-survey-of-psychiatrists-and-primary-care-physicians-in-the-middle-east
#3
Ossama T Osman, Laeth Nasir, Richard F Mollica, Taoufik Zoubeidi, James Lavelle, Noor Amawi
Objective: To explore in Arab communities the prevalence, dynamics, and resources available to address the physical and psychological consequences that may arise from psychiatric disorders. Methods: An online survey of psychiatrists and primary care physicians from 17 Arab countries was conducted between September 2011 and June 2012. The survey serves as a needs assessment in a scientifically valid and culturally sensitive manner. Additionally, it focuses attention on the clinical strengths and weaknesses of Middle Eastern primary health care and mental health centers in identifying and treating trauma-related health and mental health issues...
September 28, 2017: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934344/care-requirements-for-clients-who-present-after-rape-and-clients-who-presented-after-consensual-sex-as-a-minor-at-a-clinic-in-harare-zimbabwe-from-2011-to-2014
#4
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Rebecca E Harrison, Linda Pearson, Michael Vere, Prosper Chonzi, Brian Tafadzwa Hove, Sharon Mabaya, Margaret Chigwamba, Juliana Nhamburo, Juliet Gura, An Vandeborne, Sandra Simons, Daphne Lagrou, Eva De Plecker, Rafael Van den Bergh
STUDY GOALS: To describe the differences between clients presenting after rape and clients who have consented to sex as a minor to an SGBV clinic in Harare, Zimbabwe, and how these differences affect their care requirements. BACKGROUND: Adolescents and adults presenting at the specialized Sexual and Gender Based Violence clinic in Harare are offered a standardised package of free medical and psychosocial care. Zimbabwe has an HIV prevalence of 14%, so prevention of HIV infection using PEP for those that present within 72 hours is a key part of the response...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924183/the-associations-of-earlier-trauma-exposures-and-history-of-mental-disorders-with-ptsd-after-subsequent-traumas
#5
R C Kessler, S Aguilar-Gaxiola, J Alonso, E J Bromet, O Gureje, E G Karam, K C Koenen, S Lee, H Liu, B-E Pennell, M V Petukhova, N A Sampson, V Shahly, D J Stein, L Atwoli, G Borges, B Bunting, G de Girolamo, S F Gluzman, J M Haro, H Hinkov, N Kawakami, V Kovess-Masfety, F Navarro-Mateu, J Posada-Villa, K M Scott, A Y Shalev, M Ten Have, Y Torres, M C Viana, A M Zaslavsky
Although earlier trauma exposure is known to predict posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after subsequent traumas, it is unclear whether this association is limited to cases where the earlier trauma led to PTSD. Resolution of this uncertainty has important implications for research on pretrauma vulnerability to PTSD. We examined this issue in the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys with 34 676 respondents who reported lifetime trauma exposure. One lifetime trauma was selected randomly for each respondent...
September 19, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880807/-my-heart-is-in-his-hands-the-lived-spiritual-experiences-of-congolese-refugee-women-survivors-of-sexual-violence
#6
Melissa A Smigelsky, Alison R Gill, Deb Foshager, Jamie D Aten, Hannah Im
The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has experienced widespread violence, including sexual violence. Sexual violence toward women includes rape, genital mutilation, and sexual slavery. Many Congolese have sought to escape such conditions as refugees in the USA. In the present study, we examined lived spiritual experiences of nine Congolese refugee women survivors of sexual violence. Overall, this study provides new insights into participants' experiences of spirituality in the aftermath of sexual trauma and in living as a refugees...
October 2017: Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873087/women-s-and-men-s-reports-of-past-year-prevalence-of-intimate-partner-violence-and-rape-and-women-s-risk-factors-for-intimate-partner-violence-a-multicountry-cross-sectional-study-in-asia-and-the-pacific
#7
Rachel Jewkes, Emma Fulu, Ruchira Tabassam Naved, Esnat Chirwa, Kristin Dunkle, Regine Haardörfer, Claudia Garcia-Moreno
BACKGROUND: Understanding the past-year prevalence of male-perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV) and risk factors is essential for building evidence-based prevention and monitoring progress to Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 5.2, but so far, population-based research on this remains very limited. The objective of this study is to compare the population prevalence rates of past-year male-perpetrated IPV and nonpartner rape from women's and men's reports across 4 countries in Asia and the Pacific...
September 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753041/students-perceptions-of-trigger-warnings-in-medical-education
#8
Elizabeth A Beverly, Sebastián Díaz, Anna M Kerr, Jane T Balbo, Kayla E Prokopakis, Todd R Fredricks
Phenomenon: Trigger warnings are verbal statements or written warnings that alert students in advance to potentially distressing material. Medical education includes numerous subjects frequently identified as triggers, such as abuse, rape, self-injurious behaviors, eating disorders, drug and alcohol addiction, and suicide. Thus, exploring medical students' perceptions of trigger warnings may provide a valuable perspective on the use of these warnings in higher education. APPROACH: As part of a larger descriptive, cross-sectional survey study on medical education, we assessed 1st- and 2nd-year medical students' perceptions of trigger warnings in the preclinical curriculum...
July 28, 2017: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746330/updates-on-pharmacological-treatment-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#9
R Koirala, E G I Søegaard, S B Thapa
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder affects a significant proportion of those who have been exposed to exceptionally threatening or catastrophic events or situations such as earthquakes, rape and civil war. The condition can often become chronic and disabling. Medical intervention can therefore be of paramount importance. There are no national guidelines for trauma disorders in Nepal and there is a lack of adequate knowledge regarding drug treatment of PTSD among doctors and other service providers. Though psychotherapy is internationally regarded as the first line treatment for PTSD, it is often not feasible in Nepal due to lack of resources and skilled health workers in this field...
April 2017: JNMA; Journal of the Nepal Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704207/the-adult-male-rape-victim-forensic-description-of-a-series-of-57-cases
#10
Michelangelo Bruno Casali, Elisa Palazzo, Alberto Blandino, Alessio Battistini, Francesca Motta, Alessandra Kustermann, Cristina Cattaneo
A retrospective analysis on 57 adult male victims of sexual violence has been performed. Age, nationality and anamnesis of the victims, location of the assault, type of violence, number and identity of the assailants, presence of physical injuries, lapse of time between the assault and the request of medical assistance, and toxicological and semen detection tests were analyzed. Victims were mostly in the 31- to 40-year age group. Ten victims referred themselves as either active homosexuals or bisexuals. Forced oral and/or anal penetration was registered in 86...
September 2017: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703951/secondary-prevention-of-chronic-ptsd-by-early-and-short-term-administration-of-escitalopram-a-prospective-randomized-placebo-controlled-double-blind-trial
#11
Joseph Zohar, Leah Fostick, Alzabeta Juven-Wetzler, Zeev Kaplan, Hadar Shalev, Gavriel Schreiber, Natalie Miroshnik, Arieh Y Shalev, Dan J Stein, Soraya Seedat, Sharain Suliman, Ehud Klein
OBJECTIVE: Prospective studies have not identified a viable pharmacologic strategy for secondary prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The authors examined whether preventive intervention via early and short-term administration of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), within 1 month of exposure to a traumatic event (before diagnosis of PTSD could be made), may reduce the severity of PTSD symptoms according to DSM-IV at 13 months' follow-up. METHODS: Over 25,000 screening calls to patients referred to an emergency department for a traumatic event performed between June 2006 and December 2008 yielded 353 participants who were recruited within the month following a traumatic event ...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614103/genocide-rape-trauma-management-an-integrated-framework-for-supporting-survivors
#12
Donatilla Mukamana, Petra Brysiewicz, Anthony Collins, William Rosa
During the 1994 Rwandan genocide, rape was widely used as a strategic weapon against Tutsi women. More than 20 years later, many of these women are still suffering devastating psychological, social, and physical effects of these experiences and remain in need of effective interventions that address their complex trauma. This article develops the theory of genocide rape trauma management as a conceptual framework for promoting the holistic health and recovery of female genocide rape survivors. A qualitative study using grounded theory explored the lived experiences of genocide rape survivors and led to the development of this model...
June 13, 2017: ANS. Advances in Nursing Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598450/lower-genital-tract-trauma-in-a-tertiary-care-centre-in-mid-western-nepal
#13
A K Adhikari, M Dutta, C R Das
INTRODUCTION: The study of lower genital tract trauma has become important in gynaecological practice. There is paucity of reports on this clinical entity from our settings. The main aim of this study is to document injuries in female lower genital tract in Mid-Western Nepal. METHODS: Sixty female patients admitted to the hospital with genital tract injuries caused by coitus or accidents were included in the study. Details of the causes of trauma clinical presentations and management were recorded...
January 2017: JNMA; Journal of the Nepal Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589545/tonic-immobility-during-sexual-assault%C3%A2-%C3%A2-a-common-reaction-predicting-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-and-severe-depression
#14
Anna Möller, Hans Peter Söndergaard, Lotti Helström
INTRODUCTION: Active resistance is considered to be the 'normal' reaction during rape. However, studies have indicated that similar to animals, humans exposed to extreme threat may react with a state of involuntary, temporary motor inhibition known as tonic immobility. The aim of the present study was to assess the occurrence of tonic immobility during rape and subsequent post-traumatic stress disorder and severe depression. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Tonic immobility at the time of the assault was assessed using the Tonic Immobility Scale in 298 women who had visited the Emergency clinic for raped women within 1 month of a sexual assault...
August 2017: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459267/trauma-and-ptss-of-zimbabwean-refugees-in-south-africa-a-summary-of-published-studies
#15
Erhabor Sunday Idemudia
OBJECTIVE: This paper is a report of 4 published papers on posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS)/posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD) and traumas experienced by homeless Zimbabwean refugees living in South Africa. The general purpose of the papers was to explore how pre- and postmigration difficulties predicts posttraumatic stress symptoms/disorder; to understand gender differences in PTSS/PTSD reports using quantitative and qualitative approaches; and finally, to understand the nature of abuses, perpetrators, and sex of perpetrators...
May 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376465/silent-survivors
#16
Elizabeth R Volkmann
Early in my medical training, I cared for a patient who survived a brutal sexual assault necessitating ICU level care. Months later, I was raped. This essay is a reflection on my experience as a survivor of sexual violence and as a provider for patients whose wounds from these traumas have flourished in atmospheres of shame and stigma. In this essay, I further explore how physicians and other health care providers can play a central role in restoring the health of individuals who silently suffer after these unspeakable events...
January 2017: Annals of Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368155/typologies-of-child-sexual-abuse-an-analysis-of-multiple-abuse-acts-among-a-large-sample-of-danish-treatment-seeking-survivors-of-childhood-sexual-abuse
#17
Mark Shevlin, Siobhan Murphy, Ask Elklit, Jamie Murphy, Philip Hyland
OBJECTIVE: The deleterious psychological effects of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) have been extensively documented in the research literature. A limitation of this research, however, has been a reliance on overly restrictive and limiting measurements of CSA. Researchers have most commonly referred to discrete instances of rape and molestation; however, evidence suggests that sexual abuse in childhood can include a wide array of acts and that individual survivors can endure many of these...
April 3, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362862/intimate-partner-violence-in-the-post-war-context-women-s-experiences-and-community-leaders-perceptions-in-the-eastern-province-of-sri-lanka
#18
Sepali Guruge, Marilyn Ford-Gilboe, Colleen Varcoe, Vathsala Jayasuriya-Illesinghe, Mahesan Ganesan, Sivagurunathan Sivayogan, Parvathy Kanthasamy, Pushparani Shanmugalingam, Hemamala Vithanarachchi
BACKGROUND: Exposure to armed conflict and/or war have been linked to an increase in intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. A substantial body of work has focused on non-partner rape and sexual violence in war and post-war contexts, but research about IPV is limited, particularly in Asian settings. This paper presents the finding of a study conducted in the Eastern Province of Sri Lanka. The study explored women's experiences of and responses to IPV as well as how health and social service providers perceive the problem...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210229/longitudinal-associations-between-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-severity-and-personality-disorder-features-among-female-rape-survivors
#19
Michelle J Bovin, Erika J Wolf, Patricia A Resick
This study evaluated how change in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms was associated with residualized change in comorbid personality disorder (PD) features and vice versa over the course of 5-10 years. The sample was comprised of 79 female rape survivors who met criteria for PTSD and who were a part of a larger study examining the effects of trauma-focused therapy. PTSD was assessed with the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) version of the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale [CAPS-IV (1)] and PD features were assessed with the DSM-IV dimensional PD scales on the Schedule for Non-adaptive and Adaptive Personality [SNAP (2)]...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182457/trauma-cognitions-are-related-to-symptoms-up-to-10-years-after-cognitive-behavioral-treatment-for-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#20
Christine D Scher, Michael K Suvak, Patricia A Resick
OBJECTIVES: This study examined (a) relationships between trauma-related cognitions and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms from pretreatment through a long-term period after cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for PTSD and (b) whether these relationships were impacted by treatment type. METHOD: Participants were 171 women randomized into treatment for PTSD after rape. Measures of self-reported trauma-related cognitions and interviewer-assessed PTSD symptoms (i...
February 9, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
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