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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660997/are-children-or-adolescents-more-at-risk-for-posttraumatic-stress-reactions-following-exposure-to-violence-evidence-from-post-genocide-rwanda
#1
Richard Neugebauer, Allana Forde, Kinga E Fodor, Prudence W Fisher, J Blake Turner, Tasha Stehling-Ariza, Saori Yamabe
Whether children or adolescents exhibit higher levels of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in response to violence is an unresolved research question. We examine this issue in UNICEF's 1995 National Trauma Survey (NTS) of 8-19-year-olds (n = 942) who survived the Rwandan Genocide and lived and attended schools in the community. PTSS were assessed with a symptom checklist based on DSM-IV indexed using an overall score comprising the sum of scores on all items and mean item scores of each of five distinct factors identified in a factor analysis within this sample...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27611856/examining-the-psychological-effect-of-rape-acknowledgment-the-interaction-of-acknowledgment-status-and-ambivalent-sexism
#2
Laura C Wilson, Katherine E Miller, Emma K Leheney, Alesha D Ballman, Angela Scarpa
OBJECTIVE: Although the majority of rape survivors do not label their experiences as rape (i.e., unacknowledged rape), the literature is mixed in terms of how this affects survivors' psychological functioning. To elucidate the discrepancies, the present study examined the interaction between rape acknowledgement and ambivalent sexism in relation to depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. METHOD: The analyzed sample included 128 female rape survivors who were drawn from a larger college sample of 1,595 participants...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27542945/experiences-of-mothers-of-sexually-abused-children-in-north-west-province-post-disclosure
#3
Gaboipolelwe M Masilo, Mashudu Davhana-Maselesele
BACKGROUND: Sexual violence against children is increasing at an alarming rate in South Africa. In 2010 the South African Police Service (SAPS) reported 21 538 rape cases of children under 18 years. In the North-West province (NWP) 5039 incidents of rape cases were reported in 2009. Mothers often experience emotional pain following child sexual abuse disclosure. It is seldom acknowledged that these mothers experience trauma and need support, post disclosure. The researcher has no known evidence of research conducted on the experiences of these mothers in NWP...
2016: Curationis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27486127/differences-in-mental-health-and-sexual-outcomes-based-on-type-of-nonconsensual-sexual-penetration
#4
Hanna T Pinsky, Molly E Shepard, Elizabeth R Bird, Amanda K Gilmore, Jeanette Norris, Kelly Cue Davis, William H George
Little is known based on the stratification and localization of penetration type of rape: oral, vaginal, and/or anal. The current study examined associations between type of rape and mental and sexual health symptoms in 865 community women. All penetration types were positively associated with negative mental and sexual health symptoms. Oral and/or anal rape accounted for additional variance in anxiety, depression, some trauma-related symptoms, and dysfunctional sexual behavior than the association with vaginal rape alone...
July 10, 2016: Violence Against Women
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27352019/korean-survivors-of-the-japanese-comfort-women-system-understanding-the-lifelong-consequences-of-early-life-trauma
#5
Jee Hoon Andrew Park, KyongWeon Kathy Lee, Michelle D Hand, Keith A Anderson, Tess E Schleitwiler
Prior to and during World War II, thousands of girls and young women were abducted from Korea and forced into sexual slavery by the Japanese government. Termed "comfort women", these girls and young women suffered extreme sexual, physical, and emotional abuse and trauma. Research on this group is not well-developed and we know little of impact of this early life trauma on the lives of these women who are now in later life. Using snowball sampling, 16 older adult survivors of the "comfort women" system participated in semi-structured qualitative interviews...
June 28, 2016: Journal of Gerontological Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27318595/broken-and-guilty-since-it-happened-a-population-study-of-trauma-related-shame-and-guilt-after-violence-and-sexual-abuse
#6
Helene Flood Aakvaag, Siri Thoresen, Tore Wentzel-Larsen, Grete Dyb, Espen Røysamb, Miranda Olff
BACKGROUND: There is increasing interest in trauma-related shame and guilt. However, much remains unknown in terms of how these emotions relate to the type of event, gender and mental health. We investigated shame and guilt in men and women following various types of severe violence and their relation to mental health. METHODS: Telephone interviews were conducted with a Norwegian general population sample (n=4529; age=18-75; response rate=42.9%). Measures included child sexual abuse, child and adult rape, severe physical violence from/between parents, severe violence from a partner and non-partners, less severe violence and non-violent trauma, the new Shame and Guilt After Trauma Scale, and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27182972/understanding-the-relationships-between-gender-inequitable-behaviours-childhood-trauma-and-socio-economic-status-in-single-and-multiple-perpetrator-rape-in-rural-south-africa-structural-equation-modelling
#7
Rachel Jewkes, Mzikazi Nduna, Nwabisa Jama-Shai, Esnat Chirwa, Kristin Dunkle
BACKGROUND: Interventions to prevent rape perpetration must be designed to address its drivers. This paper seeks to extend understanding of drivers of single and multiple perpetrator rape (referred to here as SPR and MPR respectively) and the relationships between socio-economic status, childhood trauma, peer pressure, other masculine behaviours and rape. METHOD: 1370 young men aged 15 to 26 were interviewed as part of the randomised controlled trial evaluation of Stepping Stones in the rural Eastern Cape...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27149157/depression-and-dissociation-as-predictors-of-physical-health-symptoms-among-female-rape-survivors-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#8
Erica R Scioli-Salter, Benjamin D Johnides, Karen S Mitchell, Brian N Smith, Patricia A Resick, Ann M Rasmusson
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relative contributions of depression and dissociation, as well as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), to physical health symptoms and to examine the relationships among somatic symptoms, PTSD, depression, and dissociation in relation to childhood and adult trauma exposure. METHOD: Cross-sectional data are from 132 female rape survivors with PTSD assessed before engaging in a study of trauma-focused cognitive therapy for PTSD. Measures included the Pennebaker Inventory of Limbic Languidness, Clinician Administered PTSD Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, Trauma Symptom Inventory-Dissociation Subscale, Childhood Sexual Abuse Exposure Questionnaire, and Assessing Environments-III-Physical Punishment Scale...
September 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27108472/sexual-trauma-at-the-salpetriere
#9
Colin Ross
Jean-Martin Charcot who studied hysteria at the Salpetriere hospital in Paris late in the nineteenth century is often portrayed as a great neurologist. According to standard accounts, his female hysterical patients imitated the seizures of epileptic patients at the Salpetriere in order to get attention because of their dramatic, self-centered natures. They were also prone to making false allegations of childhood sexual abuse. In fact, the so-called hysterical seizures were often abreactions of rapes. The patients commonly had extensive childhood sexual abuse histories, and sexual misconduct by doctors was endemic at the Salpetriere...
2016: Journal of Psychohistory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27007230/obstetric-outcomes-of-mothers-previously-exposed-to-sexual-violence
#10
Agnes Gisladottir, Miguel Angel Luque-Fernandez, Bernard L Harlow, Berglind Gudmundsdottir, Eyrun Jonsdottir, Ragnheidur I Bjarnadottir, Arna Hauksdottir, Thor Aspelund, Sven Cnattingius, Unnur A Valdimarsdottir
BACKGROUND: There is a scarcity of data on the association of sexual violence and women's subsequent obstetric outcomes. Our aim was to investigate whether women exposed to sexual violence as teenagers (12-19 years of age) or adults present with different obstetric outcomes than women with no record of such violence. METHODS: We linked detailed prospectively collected information on women attending a Rape Trauma Service (RTS) to the Icelandic Medical Birth Registry (IBR)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26840032/sexuality-related-issues-in-borderline-personality-disorder-a-comprehensive-review
#11
Álvaro Frías, Carol Palma, Núria Farriols, Laura González
OBJECTIVE: Sexuality is somewhat neglected in clinical research on borderline personality disorder (BPD). METHOD: We performed a systematic review from 1980 to November 2014 through PubMed and PsycINFO. RESULTS: Empirical evidence underscores that childhood sexual trauma may be considered a non-specific risk factor for BPD. Furthermore, individuals with BPD also display higher sexual identity disturbances and homosexual relationships than non-BPD individuals...
August 2016: Personality and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26807490/bystander-intervention-prior-to-the-arrival-of-emergency-medical-services-comparing-assistance-across-types-of-medical-emergencies
#12
Mark Faul, Shelley N Aikman, Scott M Sasser
OBJECTIVE: To determine the situational circumstances associated with bystander interventions to render aid during a medical emergency. METHODS: This study examined 16.2 million Emergency Medical Service (EMS) events contained within the National Emergency Medical Services Information System. The records of patients following a 9-1-1 call for emergency medical assistance were analyzed using logistic regression to determine what factors influenced bystander interventions...
May 2016: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26788772/non-prescribed-hormone-use-and-barriers-to-care-for-transgender-women-in-san-francisco
#13
Gene de Haan, Glenn-Milo Santos, Sean Arayasirikul, Henry F Raymond
PURPOSE: Inconsistent access to healthcare represents a barrier to transgender patients receiving hormone therapy through a licensed provider. Inability to access care leads many transgender people to buy hormones from unlicensed sources and transition without medical supervision. Little is known about the factors predisposing people to rely on this method of transition. It is critical to understand what leads to non-prescribed hormone use to better support safe medical transitions for transgender people...
December 2015: LGBT Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26681603/imagery-rescripting-of-revenge-avoidance-and-forgiveness-for-past-bullying-experiences-in-young-adults
#14
Hayley Watson, Ronald Rapee, Natasha Todorov
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Forgiveness has been found to be a useful intervention for past trauma across a variety of situations. However, this has yet to be experimentally tested in victims of bullying. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the impact of imagining forgiveness, avoidance, or revenge responses towards a perpetrator among young adult victims of bullying. METHODS: One hundred and thirty-five undergraduate psychology students aged 17-24 who reported a recent experience of being victimized were led through imagery rescripting where they recalled a personal episode of bullying and imagined a new ending to one where they forgave, avoided, or took revenge on the bully...
2016: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26606724/direct-and-indirect-effects-of-maltreatment-typologies-on-suicidality-in-a-representative-northern-irish-sample-psychopathology-only-partially-mediates-the-relationship
#15
Áine E McKenna, Allison M C Gillen
There has been a rise in suicide rates among men who grew up during the 1970's in Northern Ireland (NI). Conflict exposures (CEs) have been linked with suicide ideation but not attempts. Civil conflict has also been linked with aggressive parenting which is associated with the development of aggressive drives, psychopathology and suicidality. This study investigated (1) cohort specific associations between latent classes (LCs) of maltreatment and (2) associations between LCs, CEs, psychopathology and suicidality...
January 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26524284/self-efficacy-male-rape-myth-acceptance-and-devaluation-of-emotions-in-sexual-trauma-sequelae-findings-from-a-sample-of-male-veterans
#16
Emily Voller, Melissa A Polusny, Siamak Noorbaloochi, Amy Street, Joseph Grill, Maureen Murdoch
Sexual trauma is an understudied but regrettably significant problem among male Veterans. As in women, sexual trauma often results in serious mental health consequences for men. Therefore, to guide potential future interventions in this important group, we investigated associations among self-efficacy, male rape myth acceptance, devaluation of emotions, and psychiatric symptom severity after male sexual victimization. We collected data from 1,872 Gulf War era Veterans who applied for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) disability benefits using standard mailed survey methods...
November 2015: Psychological Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26524277/don-t-tell-military-culture-and-male-rape
#17
Carol O'Brien, Jessica Keith, Lisa Shoemaker
The issue of sexual assault that occurs during military service has been a focus of attention over the past several years. Although approximately 50% of survivors of military sexual assault are men, virtually all of the literature focuses on the assault of female service members. Research has demonstrated that cultural variables are robust correlates of the sexual assault of women. This paper proposes that cultural variables are equally important when examining the rape of men, especially when this assault occurs in military contexts...
November 2015: Psychological Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26141347/rape-and-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-ptsd-examining-the-mediating-role-of-explicit-sex-power-beliefs-for-men-versus-women
#18
Daniel J Snipes, Jenna M Calton, Brooke A Green, Paul B Perrin, Eric G Benotsch
Many rape survivors exhibit symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and recent literature suggests survivors' beliefs about sex and control may affect PTSD symptoms. The present study examined beliefs about sex and power as potential mediators of the relationship between rape and PTSD symptoms for men versus women. Participants (N = 782) reported lifetime history of rape, current PTSD symptoms, and beliefs about sex and power. Women reported higher levels of lifetime history of rape than men (19...
July 3, 2015: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26101439/forgiveness-reduces-anger-in-a-school-bullying-context
#19
Hayley Watson, Ron Rapee, Natasha Todorov
Forgiveness has been shown to be a helpful strategy for victims of many different forms of abuse and trauma. It has also been theoretically linked to positive outcomes for victims of bullying. However, it has never been experimentally manipulated in a school bullying context. This research investigates an experimental manipulation providing children with response advice following a bullying incident. Children read hypothetical physical and verbal bullying scenarios, followed by advice from a friend to either respond with forgiveness, avoidance, or revenge, in a within-subjects repeated measures design...
June 22, 2015: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26090864/prevalence-of-sexual-trauma-history-using-behaviorally-specific-methods-of-assessment-in-first-year-college-students
#20
Julia R Craner, Amber A Martinson, Sandra T Sigmon, Morgan L McGillicuddy
There are several challenges associated with evaluating the prevalence of sexual trauma, including child sexual abuse and adult sexual assault. The aim of this study was to assess sexual trauma prevalence rates among first year college students (N = 954) using behaviorally specific questions and a more representative recruitment sample that did not rely on self-selection. Participants completed a list of sexual trauma questions, including general questions containing labels such as "rape" or "abuse" as well as behaviorally specific questions that describe specific behaviors that qualify as sexual trauma without labels...
2015: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
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