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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29489037/in-rape-trauma-ptsd-patient-characteristics-indicate-which-trauma-focused-treatment-they-are-most-likely-to-complete
#1
John R Keefe, Shannon Wiltsey Stirman, Zachary D Cohen, Robert J DeRubeis, Brian N Smith, Patricia A Resick
BACKGROUND: Dropout rates for effective therapies for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can be high, especially in practice settings. Although clinicians have intuitions regarding what treatment patients may complete, there are few systematic data to drive those judgments. METHODS: A multivariable model of dropout risk was constructed with randomized clinical trial data (n = 160) comparing prolonged exposure (PE) and cognitive processing therapy (CPT) for rape-induced PTSD...
February 28, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454220/early-life-sexual-abuse-is-associated-with-increased-suicide-attempts-an-update-meta-analysis
#2
REVIEW
Qin Xiang Ng, Bob Zheng Jie Yong, Collin Yin Xian Ho, Donovan Yutong Lim, Wee-Song Yeo
Suicide is an emerging, yet preventable global health issue associated with significant mortality. Identification of underlying risk factors and antecedents may inform preventive strategies and interventions. This study serves to provide an updated meta-analysis examining the extent of association of early life sexual abuse with suicide attempts. Using the keywords [early abuse OR childhood abuse OR sexual OR rape OR molest* OR violence OR trauma OR PTSD] AND [suicid* OR premature OR unnatural OR deceased OR died OR mortality], a preliminary search on the PubMed, Ovid, PsychINFO, Web of Science and Google Scholar databases yielded 12,874 papers published in English between 1-Jan-1988 and 1-June-2017...
April 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377849/icd-11-prevalence-rates-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-complex-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-in-a-german-nationwide-sample
#3
Andreas Maercker, Tobias Hecker, Mareike Augsburger, Sören Kliem
Prevalence rates are still lacking for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and complex PTSD (CPTSD) diagnoses based on the new ICD-11 criteria. In a nationwide representative German sample (N = 2524; 14-99 years), exposure to traumatic events and symptoms of PTSD or CPTSD were assessed with the International Trauma Questionnaire. A clinical variant of CPTSD with a lower threshold for core PTSD symptoms was also calculated, in addition to conditional prevalence rates dependent on trauma type and differential predictors...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360026/should-a-physician-comply-with-a-parent-s-demands-for-a-forensic-exam-on-a-16-year-old-trauma-patient
#4
Michelle Bowdler, Hannah Kent
Physicians must remain vigilant about their ethical duties to patients, especially in high-stakes situations. The question raised by this case-whether a physician should comply with a parent's demand for treatment against her underage child's wishes-is not one of life or death in which a guardian might more credibly argue her judgment should stand. Given that forcing a rape kit exam on a patient who refuses to give assent could be further traumatizing, we argue that the physician should not comply. Deciding upon a course of action in this situation will involve considering what is in the patient's best interest and what constitutes a physician's appropriate role in gathering evidence for criminal investigations...
January 1, 2018: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332557/evaluation-of-a-victim-centered-trauma-informed-victim-notification-protocol-for-untested-sexual-assault-kits-saks
#5
Rebecca Campbell, Jessica Shaw, Giannina Fehler-Cabral
Throughout the United States, hundreds of thousands of sexual assault kits (SAKs) have not been submitted by the police for forensic DNA testing, which raises complex issues regarding how victims ought to be notified about what happened to their kits. In this project, we evaluated a victim-centered, trauma-informed victim notification protocol that was implemented in Detroit, Michigan. Most victims (84%) did not have a strong negative emotional reaction to notification, and most (57%) decided to reengage with the criminal justice system...
March 2018: Violence Against Women
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332522/i-said-no-the-impact-of-voicing-non-consent-on-women-s-perceptions-of-and-responses-to-rape
#6
Natalie K Cook, Terri L Messman-Moore
The current study explored the impact of voicing non-consent in relation to rape. Aims of the study included determining (a) the prevalence of voicing non-consent, (b) the relationship of voicing non-consent to verbal and physical resistance, and (c) whether voicing non-consent predicts distress and rape acknowledgment. Out of 262 college women who experienced rape, 81% voiced non-consent. Voicing non-consent was related to verbal and physical resistance, but was distinct in prevalence and prediction of distress...
April 2018: Violence Against Women
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332512/rape-aggression-defense-unique-self-efficacy-benefits-for-survivors-of-sexual-trauma
#7
Caitlin M Pinciotti, Holly K Orcutt
Self-defense training is consistently linked to psychological benefits for survivors of sexual trauma, yet little is known about how training may uniquely benefit survivors compared with their nonsurvivor peers enrolled in the same course. Path analysis was used to examine how history of sexual trauma impacts pre- and post-training scores on three domains of self-efficacy using a national sample of Rape Aggression Defense (RAD) participants. All participants reported significant increases in self-efficacy domains, and sexual trauma history significantly predicted pre-training interpersonal self-efficacy and post-training self-defense self-efficacy, suggesting that self-defense training confers benefits for survivors above and beyond benefits for other participants...
April 2018: Violence Against Women
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316709/screaming-body-and-silent-healthcare-providers-a-case-study-with-a-childhood-sexual-abuse-survivor
#8
REVIEW
Sigrun Sigurdardottir, Sigridur Halldorsdottir
Stressful early life experiences cause immune dysregulation across the lifespan. Despite the fact that studies have identified childhood sexual abuse (CSA) survivors as a particularly vulnerable group, only a few attempts have been made to study their lived-experience of the physical health consequences of CSA. The aim of this study was to explore a female CSA survivor's lived-experience of the physical health consequences of CSA and how she experienced the reactions of healthcare providers. Seven interviews were conducted with this 40-year-old woman, Anne, using a phenomenological research approach...
January 8, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294964/rape-crisis-counseling-trauma-contagion-and-supervision
#9
Niveen Rizkalla, Maya Zeevi-Barkay, Steven P Segal
This study of rape crisis counselors considers whether increased exposure to victims' trauma is associated with increased supervision-believed necessary to combat trauma contagion-and whether such supervision will reduce the negative impact of such exposure. One hundred six women counselors in seven of nine rape crisis centers in Israel completed anonymous questionnaires documenting their work and trauma exposure. Trauma exposure was defined by counselors' number of victim-contact hours per week and their assessment of the trauma severity they experienced...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294893/who-helps-the-helpers-social-support-for-rape-crisis-advocates
#10
Jaclyn D Houston-Kolnik, Charlynn A Odahl-Ruan, Megan R Greeson
Secondary exposure to trauma may have negative effects on rape victim advocates' well-being. Self-care can help to mitigate these negative effects on advocates' well-being, and prior research suggests that social support is an especially important aspect of advocates' self-care. However, there is a lack of research on how rape crisis advocates access and receive social support in relationship to their advocacy work. Therefore, semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with 15 rape crisis advocates who volunteered for a rape crisis center in Chicago to understand how they accessed social support from informal and formal support providers, and when they did receive support, what was helpful versus unhelpful...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239701/variations-on-the-migratory-theme-immigrants-or-exiles-refugees-or-asylees
#11
Ruth M Lijtmaer
When a country is engulfed in war, or overrun by a dictator who begins killing, its citizens are forced to flee. In such situations, the only compassionate response is to take people in. With the ongoing mass migration to Europe, these refugees pay smugglers to take them to safety, but there is no safe place to go since nobody wants them. They leave in a rush to save their lives and their families due to political and religious fear, death threats, rape of women, or forced labor. They do not have time to mourn the losses, there is no time for "ideal migration" where destination countries can choose whom they will take in...
December 2017: Psychoanalytic Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221482/rejection-acceptance-and-the-spectrum-between-understanding-male-attitudes-and-experiences-towards-conflict-related-sexual-violence-in-eastern-democratic-republic-of-congo
#12
Jocelyn Kelly, Katherine Albutt, Justin Kabanga, Kimberley Anderson, Michael VanRooyen
BACKGROUND: Female survivors of sexual violence in conflict experience not only physical and psychological sequelae from the event itself, but often many negative social outcomes, such as rejection and ostracisation from their families and community. Male relatives - whether husbands, fathers, brothers - play a key role in determining how the family and community respond to a survivor of sexual violence. Understanding these perspectives could help improve services for survivors of sexual violence, as well as their families and communities...
December 8, 2017: BMC Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211633/prevalence-and-patterns-of-victimization-and-polyvictimization-among-female-sex-workers-in-soweto-a-south-african-township-a-cross-sectional-respondent-driven-sampling-study
#13
J Coetzee, G E Gray, R Jewkes
BACKGROUND: Female sex workers (FSWs) are disproportionately affected by violence from multiple partner categories. This increases their vulnerability to HIV. OBJECTIVES: To describe patterns of violence and polyvictimization among female SWs in Soweto. METHODS: A respondent-driven sampling (RDS) recruitment methodology was used to enrol 508 Soweto-based FSWs using a survey instrument. Raw and RDS adjusted data were descriptively analysed, Spearman's correlation and chi2 test of association were used to show associations...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098071/the-use-of-the-clinical-ethnographic-narrative-interview-to-understand-and-support-help-seeking-after-gender-based-violence
#14
Denise M Saint Arnault
Gender-based violence (GBV), characterized by the abduction or rape of women and girls to humiliate, intimidate, and traumatize them and their communities, is a profoundly disturbing tactic in international conflict. Long after armed conflict has ended, survivors continue to experience physical injuries, psychological trauma, and social and cultural stigma. Guilt, shame, and continued interpersonal violence can become a normalized part of daily life, significantly challenging the road to healing and recovery...
September 2017: TPM. Testing, Psychometrics, Methodology in Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075426/trauma-and-ptsd-in-the-who-world-mental-health-surveys
#15
Ronald C Kessler, Sergio Aguilar-Gaxiola, Jordi Alonso, Corina Benjet, Evelyn J Bromet, Graça Cardoso, Louisa Degenhardt, Giovanni de Girolamo, Rumyana V Dinolova, Finola Ferry, Silvia Florescu, Oye Gureje, Josep Maria Haro, Yueqin Huang, Elie G Karam, Norito Kawakami, Sing Lee, Jean-Pierre Lepine, Daphna Levinson, Fernando Navarro-Mateu, Beth-Ellen Pennell, Marina Piazza, José Posada-Villa, Kate M Scott, Dan J Stein, Margreet Ten Have, Yolanda Torres, Maria Carmen Viana, Maria V Petukhova, Nancy A Sampson, Alan M Zaslavsky, Karestan C Koenen
Background : Although post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) onset-persistence is thought to vary significantly by trauma type, most epidemiological surveys are incapable of assessing this because they evaluate lifetime PTSD only for traumas nominated by respondents as their 'worst.' Objective : To review research on associations of trauma type with PTSD in the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) surveys, a series of epidemiological surveys that obtained representative data on trauma-specific PTSD. Method : WMH Surveys in 24 countries (n = 68,894) assessed 29 lifetime traumas and evaluated PTSD twice for each respondent: once for the 'worst' lifetime trauma and separately for a randomly-selected trauma with weighting to adjust for individual differences in trauma exposures...
2017: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069102/enduring-impact-of-conflict-on-mental-health-and-gender-based-violence-perpetration-in-bougainville-papua-new-guinea-a-cross-sectional-study
#16
Rachel Jewkes, Nwabisa Jama-Shai, Yandisa Sikweyiya
BACKGROUND: Violence against women is often exacerbated by war, but most civilian research has investigated short term impact. We describe the conflict experiences of men and women from the general population of Bougainville Papua New Guinea, perceptions of the enduring impact of conflict, and the associations between these and the major health and development problems on the islands: mental ill-health and violence against women. METHODS: Fourteen years after the end of the decade long civil war, we conducted a household survey with a random sample of adult (n = 864) men and (n = 879) women living in Bougainville...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023137/sexual-vs-nonsexual-currently-most-upsetting-trauma-a-fresh-look-at-attenuation-of-sexual-response-alcohol-intoxication-and-post-traumatic-stress
#17
Elizabeth R Bird, Martin Seehuus, Julia R Heiman, Kelly Cue Davis, Jeanette Norris, William H George
This study examined the dependence of sexual response (vaginal pulse amplitude [VPA] and subjective sexual arousal) on alcohol intoxication (.10% breath alcohol concentration [BrAC] versus no alcohol) and the nature of a woman's currently most upsetting traumatic event (C-MUTE), whether it was sexual (e.g., rape) or nonsexual (e.g., combat). Self-reported sexual outcomes were also compared by C-MUTE type. A total of 117 women completed background measures and either drank alcoholic or nonalcoholic beverages...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Sex Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988171/post-trauma-coping-in-the-context-of-significant-adversity-a-qualitative-study-of-young-people-living-in-an-urban-township-in-south-africa
#18
Rachel M Hiller, Sarah L Halligan, Mark Tomlinson, Jackie Stewart, Sarah Skeen, Hope Christie
OBJECTIVE: Compared with knowledge of the post-trauma needs of young people living in developed countries, little is known about the needs of those in low-middle-income countries. Such information is crucial, particularly as young people in these environments can be at increased risk of experiencing trauma, coupled with less available resources for formal support. The aim of this study was to explore post-trauma coping and support-seeking of young people living in a high-adversity settlement in South Africa...
October 6, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972706/trauma-informed-care-survey-of-psychiatrists-and-primary-care-physicians-in-the-middle-east
#19
Ossama T Osman, Laeth Nasir, Richard F Mollica, Taoufik Zoubeidi, James Lavelle, Noor Amawi
Objective: To explore in Arab communities the prevalence, dynamics, and resources available to address the physical and psychological consequences that may arise from psychiatric disorders. Methods: An online survey of psychiatrists and primary care physicians from 17 Arab countries was conducted between September 2011 and June 2012. The survey serves as a needs assessment in a scientifically valid and culturally sensitive manner. Additionally, it focuses attention on the clinical strengths and weaknesses of Middle Eastern primary health care and mental health centers in identifying and treating trauma-related health and mental health issues...
September 28, 2017: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934344/care-requirements-for-clients-who-present-after-rape-and-clients-who-presented-after-consensual-sex-as-a-minor-at-a-clinic-in-harare-zimbabwe-from-2011-to-2014
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Rebecca E Harrison, Linda Pearson, Michael Vere, Prosper Chonzi, Brian Tafadzwa Hove, Sharon Mabaya, Margaret Chigwamba, Juliana Nhamburo, Juliet Gura, An Vandeborne, Sandra Simons, Daphne Lagrou, Eva De Plecker, Rafael Van den Bergh
STUDY GOALS: To describe the differences between clients presenting after rape and clients who have consented to sex as a minor to an SGBV clinic in Harare, Zimbabwe, and how these differences affect their care requirements. BACKGROUND: Adolescents and adults presenting at the specialized Sexual and Gender Based Violence clinic in Harare are offered a standardised package of free medical and psychosocial care. Zimbabwe has an HIV prevalence of 14%, so prevention of HIV infection using PEP for those that present within 72 hours is a key part of the response...
2017: PloS One
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