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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542148/modulation-of-liver-regeneration-via-myeloid-pten-deficiency
#1
Wen-Tao Ma, Yan-Jie Jia, Qing-Zhi Liu, Yan-Qing Yang, Jing-Bo Yang, Zhi-Bin Zhao, Zhen-Ye Yang, Qing-Hua Shi, Hong-Di Ma, M Eric Gershwin, Zhe-Xiong Lian
Molecular mechanisms that modulate liver regeneration are of critical importance for a number of hepatic disorders. Kupffer cells and natural killer (NK) cells are two cell subsets indispensable for liver regeneration. We have focused on these two populations and, in particular, the interplay between them. Importantly, we demonstrate that deletion of the myeloid phosphatase and tensin homolog on chromosome 10 (PTEN) leading to an M2-like polarization of Kupffer cells, which results in decreased activation of NK cells...
May 25, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533661/macrophage-inflammatory-protein-2-as-mediator-of-inflammation-in-acute-liver-injury
#2
REVIEW
Chao-Chao Qin, Yan-Ning Liu, Ying Hu, Ying Yang, Zhi Chen
Macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 is one of the CXC chemokines and is also known as chemokine CXC ligand (CXCL2). MIP-2 affects neutrophil recruitment and activation through the p38 mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-dependent signaling pathway, by binding to its specific receptors, CXCR1 and CXCR2. MIP-2 is produced by a variety of cell types, such as macrophages, monocytes, epithelial cells, and hepatocytes, in response to infection or injury. In liver injury, activated Kupffer cells are known as the major source of MIP-2...
May 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530644/intestinal-fungi-contribute-to-development-of-alcoholic-liver-disease
#3
An-Ming Yang, Tatsuo Inamine, Katrin Hochrath, Peng Chen, Lirui Wang, Cristina Llorente, Sena Bluemel, Phillipp Hartmann, Jun Xu, Yukinori Koyama, Tatiana Kisseleva, Manolito G Torralba, Kelvin Moncera, Karen Beeri, Chien-Sheng Chen, Kim Freese, Claus Hellerbrand, Serene Ml Lee, Hal M Hoffman, Wajahat Z Mehal, Guadalupe Garcia-Tsao, Ece A Mutlu, Ali Keshavarzian, Gordon D Brown, Samuel B Ho, Ramon Bataller, Peter Stärkel, Derrick E Fouts, Bernd Schnabl
Chronic liver disease with cirrhosis is the 12th leading cause of death in the United States, and alcoholic liver disease accounts for approximately half of all cirrhosis deaths. Chronic alcohol consumption is associated with intestinal bacterial dysbiosis, yet we understand little about the contribution of intestinal fungi, or mycobiota, to alcoholic liver disease. Here we have demonstrated that chronic alcohol administration increases mycobiota populations and translocation of fungal β-glucan into systemic circulation in mice...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522327/measurement-of-bacterial-capture-and-phagosome-maturation-of-kupffer-cells-by-intravital-microscopy
#4
Bas G J Surewaard, Paul Kubes
It is central to the field of bacterial pathogenesis to define how bacteria are killed by phagocytic cells. During phagocytosis, the microbe is localized to the phagolysosome where crucial defense mechanisms such as acidification and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are initiated. This process has extensively been studied in vitro, however many resident tissue phagocytes will phenotypically change upon isolation from their natural environment. Therefore, interrogation of phagocytosis and phagosomal function of cells in the context of their natural tissue environment enhances our understanding of the biological process in vivo...
May 15, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505494/melatonin-protects-mice-against-stress-induced-inflammation-through-enhancement-of-m2-macrophage-polarization
#5
Woo-Jin Yi, Tae Sung Kim
Stress is known to cause neuropsychiatric diseases, and it has a detrimental impact on the function of the immune system. Melatonin (MLT), a pineal gland hormone, exhibits potent anti-inflammatory properties and it plays a fundamental role in neuroimmunomodulation. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of MLT in stress-induced inflammation, focusing on macrophage polarization. MLT (50 and 100mg/kg) or a vehicle control (5% ethanol in saline) was intraperitoneally administered to mice once a day for 5days...
May 12, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504685/spleen-derived-lipocalin-2-in-the-portal-vein-regulates-kupffer-cells-activation-and-attenuates-the-development-of-liver-fibrosis-in-mice
#6
Tomonori Aoyama, Kyoko Kuwahara-Arai, Akira Uchiyama, Kazuyoshi Kon, Hironao Okubo, Shunhei Yamashina, Kenichi Ikejima, Shigehiro Kokubu, Akihisa Miyazaki, Sumio Watanabe
The liver has an immune tolerance against gut-derived products from the portal vein (PV). A disruption of the gut-liver axis leads to liver injury and fibrosis. The spleen is connected to the PV and regulates immune functions. However, possible splenic effects on liver fibrosis development are unclear. Lipocalin-2 (Lcn2) is an antimicrobial protein that regulates macrophage activation. To clarify the role of the spleen in liver fibrosis development, we induced liver fibrosis in mice after splenectomy, and investigated liver fibrosis development...
May 15, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504654/sugar-makes-neutrophils-rage-linking-diabetes-associated-hyperglycemia-to-thrombocytosis-and-platelet-reactivity
#7
Robert H Lee, Wolfgang Bergmeier
Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease, but the link between hyperglycemia and atherothrombotic disease is not completely understood. Patients with diabetes often show hyporesponsiveness to antiplatelet therapies, and it has been suggested that hyperreactive reticulated platelets underlie this altered therapeutic response. In this issue of the JCI, Kraakman et al. uncover a previously unknown link between hyperglycemia and enhanced platelet production and reactivity...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504650/neutrophil-derived-s100-calcium-binding-proteins-a8-a9-promote-reticulated-thrombocytosis-and-atherogenesis-in-diabetes
#8
Michael J Kraakman, Man K S Lee, Annas Al-Sharea, Dragana Dragoljevic, Tessa J Barrett, Emilie Montenont, Debapriya Basu, Sarah Heywood, Helene L Kammoun, Michelle Flynn, Alexandra Whillas, Nordin M J Hanssen, Mark A Febbraio, Erik Westein, Edward A Fisher, Jaye Chin-Dusting, Mark E Cooper, Jeffrey S Berger, Ira J Goldberg, Prabhakara R Nagareddy, Andrew J Murphy
Platelets play a critical role in atherogenesis and thrombosis-mediated myocardial ischemia, processes that are accelerated in diabetes. Whether hyperglycemia promotes platelet production and whether enhanced platelet production contributes to enhanced atherothrombosis remains unknown. Here we found that in response to hyperglycemia, neutrophil-derived S100 calcium-binding proteins A8/A9 (S100A8/A9) interact with the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) on hepatic Kupffer cells, resulting in increased production of IL-6, a pleiotropic cytokine that is implicated in inflammatory thrombocytosis...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504245/macrophage-derived-il-1%C3%AE-promotes-sterile-inflammation-in-a-mouse-model-of-acetaminophen-hepatotoxicity
#9
Chao Zhang, Jin Feng, Jun Du, Zhiyong Zhuo, Shuo Yang, Weihong Zhang, Weihong Wang, Shengyuan Zhang, Yoichiro Iwakura, Guangxun Meng, Yang-Xin Fu, Baidong Hou, Hong Tang
The metabolic intermediate of acetaminophen (APAP) can cause severe hepatocyte necrosis, which triggers aberrant immune activation of liver non-parenchymal cells (NPC). Overzealous hepatic inflammation determines the morbidity and mortality of APAP-induced liver injury (AILI). Interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) signaling has been shown to play a critical role in various inflammatory conditions, but its precise role and underlying mechanism in AILI remain debatable. Herein, we show that NLRP3 inflammasome activation of IL-1β is dispensable to AILI, whereas IL-1α, the other ligand of IL-1R1, accounts for hepatic injury by a lethal dose of APAP...
May 15, 2017: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502886/hmga2-a-driver-of-inflammation-is-associated-with-hypermethylation-in-acute-liver-injury
#10
Huimin Huang, Haidi Li, Xin Chen, Yang Yang, Xiaofeng Li, Wanxia Li, Cheng Huang, Xiaoming Meng, Lei Zhang, Jun Li
Acute liver injury (ALI) is characteristic of abrupt hepatic dysfunction and inflammatory response. Activaion of Kupffer cells (KCs) plays a central role in the pathogenesis of ALI. Since the High Mobility Group A protein2 (HMGA2) occurs as a driver at critical stage of hepatocellular carcinoma, herein, we investigated the role of HMGA2 in macrophage activation during ALI. Our study found that the expression of HMGA2 decreased dramatically both in KCs isolated from the liver in mice with ALI and in LPS-induced RAW264...
May 11, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500084/bisphenol-a-promotes-hepatic-lipid-deposition-involving-kupffer-cell-m1-polarization-in-male-mice
#11
Qiong Lv, Rufei Gao, Chuan Peng, Juan Yi, Lulu Liu, Shumin Yang, Danting Li, Jinbo Hu, Ting Luo, Mei Mei, Ying Song, Chaodong Wu, Xiaoqiu Xiao, Qifu Li
Bisphenol A (BPA), as one of the most common environmental endocrine disruptors, is considered to promote hepatic lipid deposition, but the mechanisms has not been fully elucidated. The polarization of Kupffer cells (KCs) plays an important role in hepatic inflammation by promoting pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype (M1KCs), which contributes to dysregulated lipid metabolism. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of KC polarization in BPA-induced hepatosteatosis in male mice. In this study, we examined hepatic lipid contents and quantified M1KC in BPA-treated CD1 mice, and further explored the interaction between KCs and hepatocytes by using conditional HepG2 cell culture...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499273/inhibition-of-nlrp3-inflammasome-by-thioredoxin-interacting-protein-in-mouse-kupffer-cells-as-a-regulatory-mechanism-for-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-development
#12
Kun He, Xiwen Zhu, Yan Liu, Chunmu Miao, Tao Wang, Peizhi Li, Lei Zhao, Yaxi Chen, Junhua Gong, Can Cai, Jinzheng Li, Shengwei Li, Xiong Z Ruan, Jianping Gong
NOD-like receptor (NLR) NLRP3 inflammasome activation has been implicated in the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) from non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). It has been also shown that palmitic acid (PA) activates NLRP3 inflammasome and promotes interleukin-1β (IL-1β) secretion in Kupffer cells (KCs). However, the specific mechanism of the NLRP3 inflammasome activation is unclear. We studies the molecular mechanisms by investigating the roles of Thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) and NLRP3 on NAFLD development in patients, high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFL and methionine choline deficient (MCD) diet-induced NASH in wild type (WT), TXNIP-/- (thioredoxin-interacting protein) and NLRP3-/- mice, and isolated KCs...
April 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496045/cholic-acid-enhances-visceral-adiposity-atherosclerosis-and-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-microminipigs
#13
Sohsuke Yamada, Hiroaki Kawaguchi, Tomonobu Yamada, Xin Guo, Kei Matsuo, Taiji Hamada, Naoki Miura, Takashi Tasaki, Akihide Tanimoto
AIM: We have recently established a novel swine model for studies of atherosclerosis using Microminipigs(TM) (µMPs) fed a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet (HcD). Using this swine model, we re-evaluated the effects of dietary cholic acid (CA) on serum lipid profile, atherosclerosis and hepatic injuries. METHODS: The µMPs were fed HcD supplemented with 0.7% CA (HcD+CA) for eight weeks, and the effect of CA on serum lipoprotein levels, expression of oxidative stress markers, adiposity and lesion formation in the aorta, liver, and other organs was investigated...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493939/inhibition-of-nitric-oxide-production-reverses-diabetes-induced-kupffer-cell-activation-and-klebsiella-pneumonia-liver-translocation
#14
Shu-Han Lin, Pei-Hsuan Chung, Ying-Ying Wu, Chang-Phone Fung, Ching-Mei Hsu, Lee-Wei Chen
Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) is the most common pathogen of pyogenic liver abscess in East and Southeast Asia and diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major risk factor. The effect and mechanism of diabetes on KP liver abscess was examined in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice and Akita mice (C57BL/6J-Ins2Akita). KP translocation to liver and plasma alaine transaminase levels were increased and liver clearance of KP was decreased in DM mice. Diabetic mice exhibited overgrowth of Enterococcus as well as E.coli and decreased lactobacilli/bifidas growth in intestine, increased intestinal iNOS protein and nitrite levels in portal vein, and increased IL-1β and TNF-α expression of Kupffer cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486229/tattoo-pigments-are-observed-in-the-kupffer-cells-of-the-liver-indicating-blood-borne-distribution-of-tattoo-ink
#15
Mitra Sepehri, Tobias Sejersen, Klaus Qvortrup, Catharina M Lerche, Jørgen Serup
AIM: Tattoo pigments are deposited in the skin and known to distribute to regional lymph nodes. Tattoo pigments are small particles and may be hypothesized to reach the blood stream and become distributed to peripheral organs. This has not been studied in the past. The aim of the study was to trace tattoo pigments in internal organs in mice extensively tattooed with 2 different tattoo ink products. MATERIAL/METHODS: Three groups of mice were studied, i.e., 10 tattooed black, 10 tattooed red, and 5 untreated controls...
May 10, 2017: Dermatology: International Journal for Clinical and Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475854/peripheral-complement-interactions-with-amyloid-%C3%AE-peptide-erythrocyte-clearance-mechanisms
#16
William D Brubaker, Andrés Crane, Jenny U Johansson, Kevin Yen, Kristina Garfinkel, Diego Mastroeni, Priya Asok, Bonnie Bradt, Marwan Sabbagh, Tanya L Wallace, Courtney Glavis-Bloom, Andrea J Tenner, Joseph Rogers
INTRODUCTION: Although amyloid β peptide (Aβ) is cleared from the brain to cerebrospinal fluid and the peripheral circulation, mechanisms for its removal from blood remain unresolved. Primates have uniquely evolved a highly effective peripheral clearance mechanism for pathogens, immune adherence, in which erythrocyte complement receptor 1 (CR1) plays a major role. METHODS: Multidisciplinary methods were used to demonstrate immune adherence capture of Aβ by erythrocytes and its deficiency in Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
May 2, 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474750/heavy-metal-induced-toxicity-in-the-indian-green-frog-biochemical-and-histopathological-alterations
#17
Uthpala Apekshani Jayawardena, Preethika Angunawela, Deepthi Devika Wickramasinghe, Wanigasekara Daya Ratnasooriya, Preethi Vidya Udagama
Heavy metal contamination may impart adverse effects on wetland biota, particularly on amphibians. Severe immunotoxic effects elicited in Euphlyctis hexadactylus (Indian green frog) due to metal exposure (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn) in the Bellanwila Attidiya sanctuary, a polluted, urban wetland in Sri Lanka, provided the rationale for the current study. This study evaluated the biochemical and histopathological effects of this metal contamination with a reference E. hexadactylus population and a laboratory exposure group i...
May 5, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473302/glassy-droplet-inclusions-within-the-cytoplasm-of-kupffer-cells-a-novel-ultrastructural-feature-for-the-diagnosis-of-pediatric-autoimmune-hepatitis
#18
Joanna Maria Lotowska, Maria Elzbieta Sobaniec-Lotowska, Urszula Daniluk, Dariusz Marek Lebensztejn
Since Kupffer cells/macrophages (KCs/MPs) may be involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), this pioneer study was undertaken to evaluate KCs/MPs in pediatric AIH in transmission-electron microscope. METHODS: Ultrastructural analyses were performed using liver biopsies from 14 children with clinicopathologically diagnosed AIH. RESULTS: In all AIH children, ultrastructural findings revealed changes in the cells lining sinusoidal vessels, especially KCs/MPs and endothelial cells...
April 12, 2017: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458361/modifying-the-surface-of-silica-nanoparticles-with-amino-or-carboxyl-groups-decreases-their-cytotoxicity-to-parenchymal-hepatocytes
#19
Takashi Nagano, Kazuya Nagano, Hiromi Nabeshi, Tokuyuki Yoshida, Haruhiko Kamada, Shin-Ichi Tsunoda, Jian-Qing Gao, Kazuma Higashisaka, Yasuo Yoshioka, Yasuo Tsutsumi
We previously reported that unmodified silica nanoparticles with diameters of 70 nm (nSP70) induced liver damage in mice, whereas nSP70 modified with carboxyl or amino groups did not. In addition, we have found that both unmodified and modified nSP70s localize in both Kupffer cells and parenchymal hepatocytes. We therefore evaluated the contributions of nSP70 uptake by these cell populations to liver damage. To this end, we pretreated mice with gadolinium (III) chloride hydrate (GdCl3) to prevent nSP70 uptake by Kupffer cells, subsequently injected the mice with either type of nSP70, and then assessed plasma levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT)...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458101/role-of-programmed-death-ligand-1-and-kupffer-cell-in-immune-regulation-after-orthotopic-liver-transplantation-in-rats
#20
Junhua Gong, Ding Cao, Yong Chen, Jinzheng Li, Jianping Gong, Zhong Zeng
INTRODUCTION: Role of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and Kupffer cells (KCs) in liver transplantation immune regulation was unclear. METHODS: Lewis and Brown-Norway (BN) rats were assigned to LEW-BN group (Lewis-to-BN liver transplantation) and BN-BN group (BN-to-BN). Receipts were sacrificed for histology and assessment of cytokines and PD-L1 production. Effect of PD-L1 and KCs on T cells (TCs) was monitored by co-culture of (3)H-Thymidine TCs. KCs transfected with PD-L1-shRNA interference plasmids were co-cultured with TCs, PD-L1 expression and cytokines production were measured respectively...
April 27, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
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