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Women and heart disease

Axel C Carlsson, Jan-Håkan Jansson, Stefan Söderberg, Toralph Ruge, Anders Larsson, Johan Ärnlöv
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Soluble receptors for tumor necrosis factor alpha (sTNFR1 and sTNFR2) have been associated with cardiovascular diseases, and some evidence points towards a difference in associated risk between men and women. We aimed to study the association between sTNFR1 and sTNFR2 and incident myocardial infarctions (MI) and to explore the influence of established cardiovascular risk factors in men and women. METHODS: We conducted a nested case control study in three large Swedish cohorts, including 533 myocardial infarction cases, and 1003 age-, sex- and cohort-matched controls...
March 9, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Sebhat Erqou, Jane E Clougherty, Oladipupo Olafiranye, Jared W Magnani, Aryan Aiyer, Sheila Tripathy, Ellen Kinnee, Kevin E Kip, Steven E Reis
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess racial differences in air pollution exposures to ambient fine particulate matter (particles with median aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm [PM2.5 ]) and black carbon (BC) and their association with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, arterial endothelial function, incident CVD events, and all-cause mortality. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Data from the HeartSCORE study (Heart Strategies Concentrating on Risk Evaluation) were used to estimate 1-year average air pollution exposure to PM2...
March 15, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Eva Gerdts, Raffaele Izzo, Costantino Mancusi, Maria Angela Losi, Maria Virginia Manzi, Grazia Canciello, Nicola De Luca, Bruno Trimarco, Giovanni de Simone
BACKGROUND: In general, women have lower risk for cardiovascular disease. We tested whether this sex-specific protection persists also in the presence of hypertensive left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). METHODS: 12,329 women and men with hypertension and free from prevalent cardiovascular disease enrolled in the prospective Campania Salute Network registry were followed over a median of 4.1years. Subjects were grouped according to the absence or the presence of LVH identified by echocardiography using validated sex-specific cut-off values of LV mass index (>47g/m2...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Julie E Finnell, Brandon L Muniz, Akhila R Padi, Calliandra M Lombard, Casey M Moffitt, Christopher S Wood, L Britt Wilson, Lawrence P Reagan, Marlene A Wilson, Susan K Wood
BACKGROUND: Women are at greater risk than men of developing depression and comorbid disorders such as cardiovascular disease. This enhanced risk begins at puberty and ends following menopause, suggesting a role for ovarian hormones in this sensitivity. Here we used a model of psychosocial witness stress in female rats to determine the stress-induced neurobiological adaptations that underlie stress susceptibility in an ovarian hormone-dependent manner. METHODS: Intact or ovariectomized (OVX) female rats were exposed to five daily 15-minute witness-stress exposures...
January 31, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Cathy Liu, Jade Lodge, Christopher Flatley, Alexander Gooi, Cameron Ward, Karen Eagleson, Sailesh Kumar
OBJECTIVE: To determine obstetric, intrapartum and perinatal outcomes for pregnancies with isolated fetal congenital heart defects (CHD). METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of women that delivered an infant with an isolated major CHD between January 2010 and April 2017 at a major Australian perinatal centre. The study cohort was compared with a cohort of women with infants without CHD. Cardiac abnormalities were broadly subdivided into the following five categories using the International Classification of Diseases Tenth Revision (ICD-10) as a guide - transposition of the great arteries (TGA), septal defects, right heart lesions (RHL), left heart lesions (LHL) and "other"...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
André O Werneck, Edilson S Cyrino, Paul J Collings, Enio R V Ronque, Célia L Szwarcwald, Luís B Sardinha, Danilo R Silva
BACKGROUND: This study describes the levels and patterns of television (TV) viewing in Brazilian adults and investigates associations of TV viewing with hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and heart disease. METHODS: Data from the Brazilian Health Survey, a nationally representative survey that was conducted in 2013 (N = 60,202 men and women aged ≥18 y), were used. Information regarding TV viewing, physician diagnoses of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease was collected via interview-administered questionnaire...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
Basmah Safdar, Gail D'Onofrio, James Dziura, Raymond R Russell, Caitlin Johnson, Albert J Sinusas
AIMS: Coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) is common in patients with non-obstructive coronary arteries but has not been described in low-risk symptomatic patients. We therefore assessed the prevalence and characteristics of CMD in low to moderate risk patients with chest pain in an emergency department. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used three-dimensional Rb82 cardiac positron emission tomography/computed tomography to diagnose coronary artery disease (known or new regional defect, any coronary calcification) and CMD (low coronary flow reserve without coronary artery disease) in chest pain patients after being ruled out for acute myocardial infarction...
March 1, 2018: European Heart Journal. Acute Cardiovascular Care
Saurabh Rajpal, Laith Alshawabkeh, Nureddin Almaddah, Caroline M Joyce, Keri Shafer, Michelle Gurvitz, Sushrut S Waikar, Finnian R Mc Causland, Michael J Landzberg, Alexander R Opotowsky
Importance: Albuminuria is associated with adverse outcomes in diverse groups of patients, but the importance of albuminuria in the emerging population of increasingly complex adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD) remains unknown. Objective: To assess the prevalence, risk factors, and prognostic implications of albuminuria in ACHD. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective study assessed a cohort of ambulatory patients aged 18 years and older who were examined at an ACHD referral center and enrolled in the Boston ACHD Biobank between May 17, 2012, to August 5, 2016...
March 14, 2018: JAMA Cardiology
Claire E Raphael, Mandeep Singh, Malcolm Bell, Daniel Crusan, Ryan J Lennon, Amir Lerman, Abhiram Prasad, Charanjit S Rihal, Bernard J Gersh, Rajiv Gulati
BACKGROUND: Women have higher rates of all-cause mortality after percutaneous coronary intervention. Whether this is because of greater age and comorbidity burden or a sex-specific factor remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: We retrospectively assessed cause-specific long-term mortality after index percutaneous coronary intervention over 3 time periods (1991-1997, 1998-2005, and 2006-2012). Cause of death was determined using telephone interviews, medical records, and death certificates...
March 2018: Circulation. Cardiovascular Interventions
Sarah A Aroner, Manja Koch, Kenneth J Mukamal, Jeremy D Furtado, James H Stein, Matthew C Tattersall, Robyn L McClelland, Majken K Jensen
BACKGROUND: Apolipoprotein C-III (apoC-III), a small proinflammatory protein present on 6% to 7% of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles, defines a subspecies of HDL adversely associated with coronary heart disease in primarily white cohorts. In a multi-ethnic population free of clinical cardiovascular disease, we evaluated the relationship between apoC-III-defined HDL subspecies and subclinical markers of atherosclerotic pathology. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated cross-sectional associations between apolipoprotein A-I concentrations of apoC-III-defined HDL subspecies, measured via ELISA and imaging measures of subclinical atherosclerosis, among 4659 participants in the MESA (The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) at baseline (2000-2002)...
March 14, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
Tae-Min Rhee, Hack-Lyoung Kim, Sohee Oh, Woo-Hyun Lim, Jae-Bin Seo, Woo-Young Chung, Sang-Hyun Kim, Myung-A Kim, Joo-Hee Zo
Background/Aims: Although brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) has been validated as a novel method to predict the cardiovascular risk in general population, the relevance of baPWV to the traditional risk scores has not been clearly revealed. This study investigated the relationship between baPWV and four different cardiovascular risk-predicting scores in men and women. Methods: A total of 539 subjects (58.1 ± 12.2 years, 50.1% men) without cardiovascular disease (CVD) who underwent health examinations including baPWV measurement were retrospectively analyzed...
March 16, 2018: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
Ronaldo Lira-Junior, Sigvard Åkerman, Björn Klinge, Elisabeth A Boström, Anders Gustafsson
BACKGROUND: Analysis of saliva is emerging as a promising tool to diagnose and monitor diseases which makes determination of the salivary microbial profile in different scenarios essential. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of age, periodontal disease, sex, smoking, and medical conditions on the salivary microbial profile. DESIGN: A randomly selected sample of 441 individuals was enrolled (51% women; mean age 48.5±16.8). Participants answered a health questionnaire and underwent an oral examination...
2018: PloS One
Luis R Castellanos, Omar Viramontes, Nainjot K Bains, Ignacio A Zepeda
PURPOSE: Despite the well-described benefits of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) on long-term health outcomes, CR is a resource that is underutilized by a significant proportion of patients that suffer from cardiovascular diseases. The main purpose of this study was to examine disparities in CR referral and participation rates among individuals from rural communities and racial and ethnic minority groups with coronary heart disease (CHD) when compared to the general population. METHODS: A systematic search of standard databases including MedlLine, PubMed, and Cochrane databases was conducted using keywords that included cardiac rehabilitation, women, race and ethnicity, disparities, and rural populations...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
L Li, Q Mo, T Mo, Y Liu, J L Tian, Z Wan
Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics and pharmaceutical therapy of elderly patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Methods: Using the multi-center retrospective cross-sectional survey, we analyzed 1 799 hospitalized patients with CHF as the main cause and NYHA heart function classification Ⅱ-Ⅳ from nine tertiary hospitals of Tianjin during March 2014 to February 2016. According to age, we divided them into non- elderly group(age<65 years), normal elderly group (age ≥65-79 years), and the old elderly group(age≥80 years)...
March 6, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Xiaolin Xu, Gita D Mishra, Annette J Dobson, Mark Jones
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of diabetes, heart disease, and stroke multimorbidity (co-occurrence of two or three of these conditions) has increased rapidly. Little is known about how the three conditions progress from one to another sequentially through the life course. We aimed to delineate this progression in middle-aged women and to determine the roles of common risk factors in the accumulation of diabetes, heart disease, and stroke multimorbidity. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used data from 13,714 women aged 45-50 years without a history of any of the three conditions...
March 2018: PLoS Medicine
Lesley J Scott
Intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (Ferinject® ; Injectafer® ) is a colloidal solution of nanoparticles which consist of a polynuclear iron (III)-(oxyhydr)oxide core stabilized by carboxymaltose and may be given as a single high-dose, 15-min infusion. This article reviews the clinical use of ferric carboxymaltose in various patient populations with iron deficiency (ID) [± anaemia] and briefly summarizes its pharmacological properties. Based on extensive experience in the clinical trial and real-world settings, ferric carboxymaltose is an effective and generally well tolerated treatment for rapidly replenishing iron stores and correcting anaemia in patients with ID (± anaemia) of various aetiologies, including patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), chronic kidney disease, inflammatory bowel disease or perioperative anaemia, and women with ID during pregnancy, postpartum or associated with heavy uterine bleeding...
March 2018: Drugs
Ehab S Eshak, Hiroyasu Iso, Kazumasa Yamagishi, Koutatsu Maruyama, Mitsumasa Umesawa, Akiko Tamakoshi
Several studies have related cardiovascular disease (CVD) to serum concentrations of copper and zinc but not to their dietary intakes. We thought to examine the association between dietary intakes of copper and zinc with risk of mortality from CVD in a prospective study encompassing 58,646 healthy Japanese men and women aged 40-79 years. The intakes of copper and zinc were determined by a validated self-administered food frequency questionnaire, and their associations with risk of mortality from CVD were evaluated by Cox proportional hazard modelling...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Hala B AlEssa, Randy Cohen, Vasanti S Malik, Sally N Adebamowo, Eric B Rimm, JoAnn E Manson, Walter C Willett, Frank B Hu
Background: The carbohydrate-to-fiber ratio is a recommended measure of carbohydrate quality; however, its relation to incident coronary heart disease (CHD) is not currently known. Objective: We aimed to assess the relation between various measures of carbohydrate quality and incident CHD. Design: Data on diet and lifestyle behaviors were prospectively collected on 75,020 women and 42,865 men participating in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS) starting in 1984 and 1986, respectively, and every 2-4 y thereafter until 2012...
February 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Karin Rådholm, Gemma Figtree, Vlado Perkovic, Scott D Solomon, Kenneth W Mahaffey, Dick de Zeeuw, Greg Fulcher, Terrance D Barrett, Wayne Shaw, Mehul Desai, David R Matthews, Bruce Neal
BACKGROUND : Canagliflozin is a sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor that reduces the risk of cardiovascular events. We report the effects on heart failure and cardiovascular death overall, in those with and without a baseline history of heart failure, and in other participant subgroups. METHODS : The CANVAS Program (Canagliflozin Cardiovascular Assessment Study) enrolled 10 142 participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus and high cardiovascular risk. Participants were randomly assigned to canagliflozin or placebo and followed for a mean of 188 weeks...
March 11, 2018: Circulation
Charles J Glueck, Alan Brown, Anne C Goldberg, James M McKenney, Louis Kantaros, John Stewart, Joseph Elassal, Andrew Koren
BACKGROUND: The alirocumab expanded use program provided open-label access to alirocumab before its commercial availability to patients with severe hypercholesterolemia not controlled with maximally tolerated doses of standard-of-care lipid-lowering therapy. OBJECTIVE: To describe the safety and lipid-lowering efficacy of alirocumab in high-risk patients who were likely to be early users of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitors after approval...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
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