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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918509/effects-of-tetramethylpyrazine-phosphate-on-pancreatic-islet-microcirculation-in-sd-rats
#1
X Xu, L Wu, Z Q Lu, P Xia, X P Zhu, X Gao
PURPOSES: Abnormal islet microcirculation impetus the insulin production and accelerates progression of Type 1 and 2 diabetes. In this study, we investigated whether tetramethylpyrazine phosphate (TMPP), a vasoactive substance, could regulate the islet microcirculation and insulin concentration and improve glycaemia in SD rats. METHODS: SD rats were randomly divided into two groups, the control and TMPP groups. Each group was further divided into three subgroups according to the intravenous injection of either saline, 15 or 30% glucose...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918342/the-potential-effect-of-ultra-long-insulin-degludec-on-glycemic-variability
#2
REVIEW
M Rodacki, R M Carvalho, L Zajdenverg
Despite the therapeutic advances in the treatment of diabetes, metabolic control instability due to glycemic variability (GV) is frequently observed in patients with diabetes on intensive insulin therapy and is associated with hyperglycemic peaks and hypoglycemic episodes. Hyperglycemia associated with GV has been implicated in the development of chronic complications due to its pro-oxidative consequences. On the other hand, hypoglycemia can be associated with increased cardiovascular risk secondarily to adrenergic activation...
June 30, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917079/insulin-autoimmune-syndrome-hirata-s-disease-in-an-italian-patient-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#3
REVIEW
Simona Censi, Maria Paola Albergoni, Nicoletta Gallo, Mario Plebani, Marco Boscaro, Corrado Betterle
We describe the case of a 54-year-old Caucasian Italian male experiencing episodes of hypoglycemia, occurring mainly after meals. He had never been exposed to insulin and was taking ramipril, flecainide and acetylsalicylic acid. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) showed high blood glucose levels diagnostic for diabetes mellitus at 120 min and hypoglycemia with inappropriately high insulin levels at 240 min. The 72-h fasting test, abdominal computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography-CT were normal...
September 16, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916591/continuous-glucose-monitoring-in-very-preterm-infants-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Alfonso Galderisi, Andrea Facchinetti, Garry M Steil, Paulina Ortiz-Rubio, Francesco Cavallin, William V Tamborlane, Eugenio Baraldi, Claudio Cobelli, Daniele Trevisanuto
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Impaired glucose control in very preterm infants is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and poor neurologic outcome. Strategies based on insulin titration have been unsuccessful in achieving euglycemia in absence of an increase in hypoglycemia and mortality. We sought to assess whether glucose administration guided by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is more effective than standard of care blood glucose monitoring in maintaining euglycemia in very preterm infants...
September 15, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916043/nocturnal-hypoglycemic-alarm-based-on-near-infrared-spectroscopy-in%C3%A2-vitro-simulation-studies
#5
Sanjeewa R Karunathilaka, Gary W Small
An alarm algorithm for detecting episodes of nocturnal hypoglycemia is demonstrated in simulation studies that incorporate the use of a tissue phantom. Based on transmission spectra collected in the near-infrared combination region of 4000-5000 cm(-1), pattern recognition methods are used to classify spectra into alarm and non-alarm data classes on the basis of whether or not they signify a glucose excursion below a user-defined hypoglycemic alarm threshold. A reference spectrum and corresponding glucose concentration are acquired at the start of the monitoring period, and absorbance values of subsequent spectra are computed relative to this reference...
September 22, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914566/a-novel-etfdh-mutation-in-an-adult-patient-with-late-onset-riboflavin-responsive-multiple-acyl-coa-dehydrogenase-deficiency
#6
Min Chen, Jing Peng, Wei Wei, Wang, Hongliang Xu, Hongbo Liu
We report a novel mutation in the electron transfer flavoprotein dehydrogenase (ETFDH) gene in an adult patient with late-onset riboflavin-responsive multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) characterized by muscle weakness and hypoglycemia as main clinical presentation. At the age of 34 years, the patient experienced progressive muscle weakness and short of breath. Blood creatine kinase level was significantly higher than normal. The blood glucose was significantly lower than normal. The muscle biopsy revealed lipid storage myopathy...
September 15, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914188/a-retrospect-study-on-thiazole-derivatives-as-the-potential-antidiabetic-agents-in-drug-discovery-amp-developments
#7
Gopal L Khatik, Ashok Kumar Datusalia, Waquar Ahsan, Paranjeet Kaur, Manish Vyas, Amit Mittal, Surendra Kumar Nayak
BACKGROUND: Heterocycles containing thiazole, a moiety with sulfur and nitrogen is a core structure which found in a number of biologically active compounds. The thiazole ring is notable as a component of the certain natural products, such as vitamin B1 (thiamine) and penicillins. Thiazole is also known as wonder nucleus and has versatile in different biological fields. A number of new compounds contain heterocycle thiazole moieties, thus it is one of the important areas of research. METHODS: We searched the scientific database using relevant keywords...
September 15, 2017: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913745/management-of-type-1-diabetes-in-the-hospital-setting
#8
REVIEW
Carlos E Mendez, Guillermo E Umpierrez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this article was to review recent guideline recommendations on glycemic target, glucose monitoring, and therapeutic strategies, while providing practical recommendations for the management of medical and surgical patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) admitted to critical and non-critical care settings. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies evaluating safety and efficacy of insulin pump therapy, continuous glucose monitoring, electronic glucose management systems, and closed loop systems for the inpatient management of hyperglycemia are described...
September 14, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913365/frequency-and-predictors-of-self-reported-hypoglycemia-in-insulin-treated-diabetes
#9
Samir Malkani, Anupam Kotwal
AIMS: Hypoglycemia is a limiting factor for achieving stringent glycemic control in diabetes. This study analyzes the frequency and predictors of hypoglycemia in insulin-treated diabetes in an ambulatory setting. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed to study self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG) data for 3 months prior to a patient's HbA1c test. RESULTS: Hypoglycemia occurred more frequently in type 1 than in type 2 diabetes; however, 19% of type 2 diabetes patients did experience at least one episode of severe hypoglycemia...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913363/associated-factors-with-biochemical-hypoglycemia-during-an-oral-glucose-tolerance-test-in-a-chinese-population
#10
Xiaoling Cai, Xueyao Han, Xianghai Zhou, Lingli Zhou, Simin Zhang, Linong Ji
AIM: To find the association between biochemical hypoglycemia on a 2-hour screening oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and insulin resistance. METHOD: Subjects of this study were sampled from the China National Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders Study that was conducted during 2007 and 2008. Blood samples were drawn at 0, 30, and 120 minutes after the glucose load. Biochemical hypoglycemia was defined as 2-hour glucose < 3.0 mmol/l. RESULTS: In total, 26,606 participants were included, and 141 participants were diagnosed with biochemical hypoglycemia on a 2-hour OGTT...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912925/incretin-kinetics-before-and-after-miglitol-in-japanese-patients-with-late-dumping-syndrome
#11
Mari Amagai, Hirohisa Tsuchiya, Yukari Chiba, Jun Suzuki, Jo Nagakura, Erina Shigematsu, Tadashi Yamakawa, Yasuo Terauchi
BACKGROUND: In patients with late dumping syndrome following gastrectomy, it has been reported that hypoglycemia occurs due to inhibition of glucagon secretion as a result of excessive insulin production facilitated by an increase in glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). METHODS: To determine the kinetics of incretins in Japanese patients with late dumping syndrome, an oral glucose tolerance test was carried out before and after miglitol administration, and the kinetics of insulin and incretins were analyzed...
October 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911206/identification-of-the-molecular-dysfunction-caused-by-glutamate-dehydrogenase-s445l-mutation-responsible-for-hyperinsulinism-hyperammonemia
#12
Mariagrazia Grimaldi, Melis Karaca, Livia Latini, Estelle Brioudes, Thomas Schalch, Pierre Maechler
Congenital hyperinsulinism/hyperammonemia (HI/HA) syndrome gives rise to unregulated protein-induced insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells, fasting hypoglycemia and elevated plasma ammonia levels. Mutations associated with HI/HA were identified in the Glud1 gene, encoding for glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH). We aimed at identifying the molecular causes of dysregulation in insulin secretion and ammonia production conferred by the most frequent HI/HA mutation Ser445Leu. Following transduction with adenoviruses carrying the human GDH-wild type or GDH-S445L-mutant gene, immunoblotting showed efficient expression of the transgenes in all the investigated cell types...
September 15, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911152/hypothalamic-glucose-transport-in-humans-during-experimentally-induced-hypoglycemia-associated-autonomic-failure
#13
Elizabeth R Seaquist, Amir Moheet, Anjali Kumar, Dinesh K Deelchand, Melissa Terpstra, Kristine Kubisiak, Lynn E Eberly, Pierre-Gilles Henry, James M Joers, Gülin Öz
Context: Upregulated brain glucose transport in response to recurrent hypoglycemia may contribute to the development of hypoglycemia-associated autonomic failure (HAAF) and impaired awareness of hypoglycemia. Whether recurrent hypoglycemia alters glucose transport in the hypothalamus is unknown. Objective: To test the hypothesis that hypothalamic glucose transport will increase in healthy volunteers preconditioned with recurrent hypoglycemia to induce HAAF. Setting: University medical center...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911142/deficient-endogenous-glucose-production-during-exercise-after-total-pancreatectomy-islet-autotransplantation
#14
Lindsey D Bogachus, Elizabeth Oseid, Melena Bellin, Adrian Vella, R Paul Robertson
Context: Total pancreatectomy followed by intrahepatic islet autotransplantation (TP/IAT) is performed to alleviate severe, unrelenting abdominal pain caused by chronic pancreatitis, to improve quality of life, and to prevent diabetes. Objective: To determine the cause of exercise-induced hypoglycemia that is a common complaint in TP/IAT recipients. Design: Participants completed 1 hour of steady-state exercise. Setting: Hospital research unit...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904247/efficacy-and-safety-of-subgroup-analysis-stratified-by-baseline-hba1c-in-a-japanese-phase-3-study-of-dulaglutide-0-75-mg-compared-with-insulin-glargine-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#15
Shizuka Kaneko, Tomonori Oura, Akiko Matsui, Tomotaka Shingaki, Masakazu Takeuchi
The efficacy and safety of once-weekly dulaglutide 0.75 mg (dulaglutide) compared with once-daily insulin glargine (glargine) in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes were evaluated according to subgroups stratified by baseline glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) (≤8.5% or >8.5%). This exploratory analysis of a randomized, open-label, phase 3 study included 361 patients. In both HbA1c subgroups (patients with baseline HbA1c ≤8.5% or >8.5%), a statistically significantly greater reduction in HbA1c was observed in dulaglutide-treated patients compared with glargine-treated patients after 26 weeks of treatment (HbA1c ≤8...
September 14, 2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901796/efficacy-and-safety-of-saxagliptin-in-combination-with-insulin-in-japanese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-16-week-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial-with-a-36-week-open-label-extension
#16
Takashi Kadowaki, Satsuki Muto, Yoshiumi Ouchi, Ryutaro Shimazaki, Yutaka Seino
BACKGROUND: We examined the efficacy and safety of saxagliptin as an add-on to insulin in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We randomized 240 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus on insulin monotherapy to 5-mg saxagliptin or placebo as add-on therapy for a 16-week, double-blind period. All patients received 5-mg saxagliptin and insulin for an additional 36 weeks (open-label extension). Change in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) at Week 16 was the main endpoint...
September 13, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901668/dilatation-of-the-ductus-arteriosus-by-diazoxide-in-fetal-and-neonatal-rats
#17
Katsuaki Toyoshima, Kazuo Momma, Tetsuko Ishii, Toshio Nakanishi
BACKGROUND: Diazoxide, an ATP-sensitive potassium channel opener, is the main therapeutic agent for treating hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia. We aimed to determine the in vivo ductus-dilating effects of diazoxide in fetal and neonatal rats. METHODS: Near-term rat pups delivered via a cesarean section were housed at 33°C. After rapid whole-body freezing, The ductus arteriosus (DA) diameter was measured using a microscope and a micrometer. Full-term pregnant rats (gestational day 21) were intraperitoneally injected with diazoxide (10 and 100 mg/kg) 4 h before delivery, and the neonatal DA diameter was measured at 0, 30, or 60 min after birth...
September 13, 2017: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900784/liver-involvement-in-urea-cycle-disorders-a-review-of-the-literature
#18
REVIEW
Adrien Bigot, Michel C Tchan, Benjamin Thoreau, Hélène Blasco, François Maillot
Urea cycle disorders (UCDs) are inborn errors of metabolism of the nitrogen detoxification pathway and encompass six principal enzymatic deficiencies. The aging of UCD patients leads to a better knowledge of the long-term natural history of the condition and to the reporting of previously unnoticed manifestations. Despite historical evidence of liver involvement in UCDs, little attention has been paid to this organ until recently. Hence, we reviewed the available scientific evidence on acute and chronic liver dysfunction and liver carcinogenesis in UCDs and discuss their pathophysiology...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900071/a-case-of-non-islet-cell-tumor-hypoglycemia-nicth-associated-with-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumor-gist
#19
John M Wilson, Jessica Ginsberg, Karen Cutts, Steve Urban
BACKGROUND Non-islet cell tumor hypoglycemia (NICTH) is a newly recognized, but uncommon, paraneoplastic syndrome that is associated with tumors of mesenchymal origin. We report a case of NICTH associated with a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). CASE REPORT A 60-year-old man presented to the emergency department of our hospital after being found unconscious in his home. His serum blood glucose on hospital admission was 40 mg/dL. He reported a three-month history of diffuse abdominal pain, fatigue, and blurred vision...
September 13, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899812/the-starving-brain-overfed-meets-undernourished-in-the-pathology-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-mci-and-alzheimer-s-disease-ad
#20
REVIEW
Kelly J Gibas
Type II Diabetes affects 400 million people worldwide (IDF, 2013). The pathology is paradoxical: internal starvation activated by overfeeding. Hyperinsulinemic impairments of glucose homeostasis are treated with anti-hyperglycemics exacerbating cell starvation, inducing hypoglycemia and raising respiratory quotient. Reductions in hyperglycemia are achieved at the expense of glucose dependency and metabolic inflexibility (Gibas & Gibas, 2017). The brain is not immune from these cycles of starvation. The bioenergetic model characterizes propagation of late-onset, sporadic Alzheimer's disease as loss of molecular fidelity and compromised energy originating in brain networks with highest metabolic demand...
September 9, 2017: Neurochemistry International
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