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Neonatal medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196885/hemoglobin-phase-of-oxygenation-and-deoxygenation-in-early-brain-development-measured-using-fnirs
#1
Hama Watanabe, Yoshihiko Shitara, Yoshinori Aoki, Takanobu Inoue, Shinya Tsuchida, Naoto Takahashi, Gentaro Taga
A crucial issue in neonatal medicine is the impact of preterm birth on the developmental trajectory of the brain. Although a growing number of studies have shown alterations in the structure and function of the brain in preterm-born infants, we propose a method to detect subtle differences in neurovascular and metabolic functions in neonates and infants. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was used to obtain time-averaged phase differences between spontaneous low-frequency (less than 0.1 Hz) oscillatory changes in oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) and those in deoxygenated hemoglobin (deoxy-Hb)...
February 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196365/the-golden-age-of-probiotics-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-and-observational-studies-in-preterm-infants
#2
Elda Dermyshi, Yizhong Wang, Chongbin Yan, Wenchao Hong, Gang Qiu, Xiaohui Gong, Ting Zhang
BACKGROUND: Over the last few years, probiotics have been one of the most studied interventions in neonatal medicine. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this work was to analyse all studies (randomized controlled trials, RCTs, and observational studies) assessing the use of probiotics in very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants. SEARCH METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science...
February 15, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193439/simulation-in-neonatal-transport-medicine
#3
REVIEW
Douglas M Campbell, Rita Dadiz
The safe transport of infants in critical condition requires highly reliable inter-professional transport teams that are equipped with the expertise to provide neonatal care in unfamiliar and resource-limited environments. Increasingly, transport teams are comprised of health professionals from various disciplines. Providing didactic and experiential learning alone is insufficient to fully prepare teams that have limited exposure to rare events. Simulation-based training supplements and reinforces knowledge, skills, and the experiences of team members...
November 2016: Seminars in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192554/using-patient-centered-care-after-a-prenatal-diagnosis-of-trisomy-18-or-trisomy-13-a-review
#4
Shelly Haug, Mitchell Goldstein, Denise Cummins, Elba Fayard, T Allen Merritt
Importance: Patient-centered care (PCC) has been advocated by the Institute of Medicine to improve health care in the United States. Four concepts of PCC align with clinical ethics principles and are associated with enhanced patient/parent satisfaction. These concepts are dignity and respect, information sharing, participation, and collaboration. The objective of this article is to use the PCC approach as a framework for an extensive literature review evaluating the current status of counseling regarding prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 18 (T18) or trisomy 13 (T13) and to advocate PCC in the care of these infants...
February 13, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191778/generation-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-bona-fide-neural-stem-cells-for-ex-vivo-gene-therapy-of-metachromatic-leukodystrophy
#5
Vasco Meneghini, Giacomo Frati, Davide Sala, Silvia De Cicco, Marco Luciani, Chiara Cavazzin, Marianna Paulis, Wieslawa Mentzen, Francesco Morena, Serena Giannelli, Francesca Sanvito, Anna Villa, Alessandro Bulfone, Vania Broccoli, Sabata Martino, Angela Gritti
Allogeneic fetal-derived human neural stem cells (hfNSCs) that are under clinical evaluation for several neurodegenerative diseases display a favorable safety profile, but require immunosuppression upon transplantation in patients. Neural progenitors derived from patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) may be relevant for autologous ex vivo gene-therapy applications to treat genetic diseases with unmet medical need. In this scenario, obtaining iPSC-derived neural stem cells (NSCs) showing a reliable "NSC signature" is mandatory...
February 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191776/clinical-grade-isolated-human-kidney-perivascular-stromal-cells-as-an-organotypic-cell-source-for-kidney-regenerative-medicine
#6
Daniëlle G Leuning, Marlies E J Reinders, Joan Li, Anna J Peired, Ellen Lievers, Hetty C de Boer, Willem E Fibbe, Paola Romagnani, Cees van Kooten, Melissa H Little, Marten A Engelse, Ton J Rabelink
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are immunomodulatory and tissue homeostatic cells that have shown beneficial effects in kidney diseases and transplantation. Perivascular stromal cells (PSCs) identified within several different organs share characteristics of bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs). These PSCs may also possess tissue-specific properties and play a role in local tissue homeostasis. We hypothesized that human kidney-derived PSCs (hkPSCs) would elicit improved kidney repair in comparison with BM-MSCs...
February 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188771/twin-vaginal-delivery-innovate-or-abdicate
#7
REVIEW
Sarah Rae Easter, Laura Taouk, Jay Schulkin, Julian N Robinson
Neonatal safety data along with national guidelines have prompted renewed interest in vaginal delivery of twins-particularly in the case of the noncephalic second twin. Yet the rising rate of twin cesarean deliveries, coupled with the national decline in operative obstetrics, raise concerns about the availability of providers skilled in twin vaginal birth. Providers are key stakeholders for increasing rates of twin vaginal delivery. We surveyed a group of practicing obstetricians to explore potential barriers to vaginal birth of twins with a focus on delivery of the noncephalic second twin...
February 7, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180977/a-methodological-framework-for-assessing-agreement-between-cost-effectiveness-outcomes-estimated-using-alternative-sources-of-data-on-treatment-costs-and-effects-for-trial-based-economic-evaluations
#8
Felix Achana, Stavros Petrou, Kamran Khan, Amadou Gaye, Neena Modi
A new methodological framework for assessing agreement between cost-effectiveness endpoints generated using alternative sources of data on treatment costs and effects for trial-based economic evaluations is proposed. The framework can be used to validate cost-effectiveness endpoints generated from routine data sources when comparable data is available directly from trial case report forms or from another source. We illustrate application of the framework using data from a recent trial-based economic evaluation of the probiotic Bifidobacterium breve strain BBG administered to babies less than 31 weeks of gestation...
February 9, 2017: European Journal of Health Economics: HEPAC: Health Economics in Prevention and Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179267/obesity-and-pregnancy-mechanisms-of-short-term-and-long-term-adverse-consequences-for-mother-and-child
#9
REVIEW
Patrick M Catalano, Kartik Shankar
Obesity is the most common medical condition in women of reproductive age. Obesity during pregnancy has short term and long term adverse consequences for both mother and child. Obesity causes problems with infertility, and in early gestation it causes spontaneous pregnancy loss and congenital anomalies. Metabolically, obese women have increased insulin resistance in early pregnancy, which becomes manifest clinically in late gestation as glucose intolerance and fetal overgrowth. At term, the risk of cesarean delivery and wound complications is increased...
February 8, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176639/personalized-medicine-in-the-paediatric-population-the-balance-between-pharmacogenetics-progress-and-bioethics
#10
Stefania Schiavone, Margherita Neri, Cristoforo Pomara, Irene Riezzo, Luigia Trabace, Emanuela Turillazzi
Personalized medicine (PM) is becoming increasingly important in contemporary clinical and research scenarios. In the context of PM, pharmacogenomics and pharmacogenetics are aimed at the genetic personalization of drug response. Extrinsic and intrinsic factors may explain inter-individual variability in drug response. Among such factors, age seems to specifically intervene to modulate drug response since normal developmental changes may influence the exposure-response relation. Consequently, the potential benefit of pharmacogenomics (PGx) in the paediatric population is considerable...
February 7, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170198/differential-mechanisms-of-myocardial-conduction-slowing-by-adipose-tissue-derived-stromal-cells-derived-from-different-species
#11
Judith N Ten Sande, Nicoline W Smit, Mojtaba Parvizi, Shirley C M van Amersfoorth, Josée A Plantinga, Pascal F H M van Dessel, Jacques M T de Bakker, Marco C Harmsen, Ruben Coronel
Stem cell therapy is a promising therapeutic option to treat patients after myocardial infarction. However, the intramyocardial administration of large amounts of stem cells might generate a proarrhythmic substrate. Proarrhythmic effects can be explained by electrotonic and/or paracrine mechanisms. The narrow therapeutic time window for cell therapy and the presence of comorbidities limit the application of autologous cell therapy. The use of allogeneic or xenogeneic stem cells is a potential alternative to autologous cells, but differences in the proarrhythmic effects of adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) across species are unknown...
January 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170197/enhanced-cardioprotection-by-human-endometrium-mesenchymal-stem-cells-driven-by-exosomal-microrna-21
#12
Kan Wang, Zhi Jiang, Keith A Webster, Jinghai Chen, Hengxun Hu, Yu Zhou, Jing Zhao, Lihan Wang, Yingchao Wang, Zhiwei Zhong, Cheng Ni, Qingju Li, Charlie Xiang, Ling Zhang, Rongrong Wu, Wei Zhu, Hong Yu, Xinyang Hu, Jian'an Wang
Our group recently reported positive therapeutic benefit of human endometrium-derived mesenchymal stem cells (EnMSCs) delivered to infarcted rat myocardium, an effect that correlated with enhanced secretion of protective cytokines and growth factors compared with parallel cultures of human bone marrow MSCs (BMMSCs). To define more precisely the molecular mechanisms of EnMSC therapy, in the present study, we assessed in parallel the paracrine and therapeutic properties of MSCs derived from endometrium, bone marrow, and adipose tissues in a rat model of myocardial infarction (MI)...
January 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170188/endothelial-progenitor-cells-as-prognostic-markers-of-preterm-birth-associated-complications
#13
Mariane Bertagnolli, Anne Monique Nuyt, Bernard Thébaud, Thuy Mai Luu
Preterm birth is associated with alteration of the vascular tree that can result in disease states such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia and retinopathy of prematurity during the neonatal period and emphysema and hypertension in adulthood. Studies have suggested a potential role for endothelial progenitor cells in the pathophysiology of prematurity-related complications involving blood vessels; however, this knowledge has never been synthesized. We conducted a systematic review of the published data to examine the characteristics of endothelial progenitor cells in relation to preterm birth in humans...
January 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169187/reptile-perinatology
#14
REVIEW
Krista A Keller
Reptile perinatology refers to the time period surrounding hatching, for oviparous species, and immediately after birth, for viviparous species. Veterinarians working in myriad conservation and breeding programs require knowledge in this area. This article reviews anatomy and physiology of the amniotic egg, the basics of artificial incubation, when manual pipping is indicated, and basic medicine of the reptile hatchling or neonate.
February 4, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168777/tissue-oxygen-saturation-levels-from-fetus-to-neonate
#15
Mari Mukai, Toshiyuki Uchida, Hiroaki Itoh, Hikaru Suzuki, Masatsugu Niwayama, Naohiro Kanayama
AIM: Oxygen saturation during the term of delivery to the first cry, when fetal circulation dynamically changes, has not yet been examined. The aim of this study was therefore to determine whether the continuous measurement of regional tissue oxygen saturation (rSO2 ) from crowning until 5 min after delivery is possible using fetal tissue oximetry with a sensor attached to the examiner's finger. METHODS: Oxygen saturation levels in fetal cranial tissue between the second stage of delivery to crowning and up to 5 min after delivery were measured using fetal tissue oximetry with a sensor attached to the examiner's finger...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165177/intrauterine-death-rate-in-gastroschisis-following-the-introduction-of-an-antenatal-surveillance-program-retrospective-observational-study
#16
Helen Perry, Costa Healy, Diana Wellesley, Nigel J Hall, Melanie Drewett, David M Burge, David T Howe
AIM: To investigate whether an antenatal surveillance protocol including ultrasound and cardiotocograph monitoring reduces intrauterine death (IUD) in cases of gastroschisis. Secondary outcomes included neonatal death rate, mode of delivery and rate of intervention before planned time of delivery. METHODS: This was a retrospective observational study of all women with antenatally diagnosed gastroschisis who were managed according to the surveillance program between 2002 and 2015 in a tertiary fetal medicine and pediatric surgical center covering the Wessex region of England...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165052/light-sheet-fluorescence-imaging-to-localize-cardiac-lineage-and-protein-distribution
#17
Yichen Ding, Juhyun Lee, Jianguo Ma, Kevin Sung, Tomohiro Yokota, Neha Singh, Mojdeh Dooraghi, Parinaz Abiri, Yibin Wang, Rajan P Kulkarni, Atsushi Nakano, Thao P Nguyen, Peng Fei, Tzung K Hsiai
Light-sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) serves to advance developmental research and regenerative medicine. Coupled with the paralleled advances in fluorescence-friendly tissue clearing technique, our cardiac LSFM enables dual-sided illumination to rapidly uncover the architecture of murine hearts over 10 by 10 by 10 mm(3) in volume; thereby allowing for localizing progenitor differentiation to the cardiomyocyte lineage and AAV9-mediated expression of exogenous transmembrane potassium channels with high contrast and resolution...
February 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164411/medical-care-focused-time-study-of-the-care-for-medically-dependent-smid
#18
Tadashi Matsubasa, Hiroshi Mitsubuchi, Akihiko Kimura, Makoto Shinohara, Fumio Endo
BACKGROUND: Improvements in neonatal medicine and pediatric emergency medicine has led to increasing number of children with severe disabilities requiring medical care, such as tracheal suction, on a daily basis. Most of these children, discharged directly from hospitals to their parents' homes, need home medical support. To provide data for the establishment of appropriate support systems we analyzed the care for such children through a time study conducted at an institution. METHODS: We performed a minute-by -minute time study of the work of 33 staff members in a ward for patients (medically-dependent SMID) requiring frequent medical care over 48 hours in order to analyze patient care...
February 6, 2017: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164397/four-main-active-ingredients-derived-from-a-traditional-chinese-medicine-guanxin-shutong-capsule-cause-cardioprotection-during-myocardial-ischemia-injury-calcium-overload-suppression
#19
Feng Liu, Zhuang-Zhuang Huang, Yu-Hong Sun, Ting Li, Dong-Hua Yang, Gang Xu, Ying-Ying Su, Tao Zhang
Guanxin Shutong capsule is a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of myocardial ischemia (MI). Previous studies have shown that the formula has four main active ingredients (FMAI), protocatechuic acid, cryptotanshinone, borneol, and eugenol. However, the mechanisms of action of these FMAI against MI injury are still not well known. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effects of the FMAI on MI in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, rat neonatal cardiomyocytes were isolated, the cell viability and apoptosis rate were, respectively, measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method and fluorescence activating cell sorter, and the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+) ]i ) and CaM and CaMKII δ mRNA as well as protein levels were determined...
February 6, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163790/hypertrophy-changes-3d-shape-of-hipsc-cardiomyocytes-implications-for-cellular-maturation-in-regenerative-medicine
#20
Cassady E Rupert, Heidi H Chang, Kareen L K Coulombe
Advances in the use of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes for heart regeneration and in vitro disease models demand a greater understanding of how these cells grow and mature in 3-dimensional space. In this study, we developed an analysis methodology of single cardiomyocytes plated on 2D surfaces to assess their 3D myofilament volume and its z-height distribution, or shape, upon hypertrophic stimulation via phenylephrine (PE) treatment or long-term culture ("aging"). Cardiomyocytes were fixed and labeled with α-actinin for confocal microscopy imaging to obtain z-stacks for 3D myofilament volume analysis...
February 2017: Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering
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