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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151282/epidemiology-and-impact-of-bloodstream-infections-among-kidney-transplant-recipients-a-retrospective-single-center-experience
#1
Ali M Shendi, Gabriel Wallis, Helena Painter, Mark Harber, Sophie Collier
BACKGROUND: Bloodstream infections (BSI) represent an important source of morbidity and mortality, as well as an increasing therapeutic challenge, among solid organ transplant recipients. Understanding the epidemiological and microbiological characteristics of BSI following renal transplantation is paramount to the implementation of appropriate preventative and therapeutic measures. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of all BSI episodes occurring between July 2009 and April 2016 in adult patients, who received a renal transplant at Royal Free London hospital...
November 19, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151006/the-practical-update-for-family-physicians-in-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-overactive-bladder-and-lower-urinary-tract-symptoms
#2
Jack Barkin, Jeffrey Habert, Amy Wong, Livia Y T Lee
OBJECTIVE: To provide family physicians with an up-to-date, practical overview of the diagnosis and management of overactive bladder (OAB) alone or with bladder outlet obstruction. MAIN MESSAGE: OAB is urinary urgency with or without incontinence, often accompanied by frequency and nocturia, in the absence of urinary tract infection and can affect both men and women. Men often have co-existing OAB associated with bladder outlet obstruction, and benign prostatic hyperplasia...
October 2017: Canadian Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150886/ruxolitinib-associated-infections-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Federico Lussana, Marco Cattaneo, Alessandro Rambaldi, Alessandro Squizzato
Ruxolitinib exerts immunosuppressive activity that may increase the risk of infectious complications. We performed a systematic review of the literature with the aim of estimating the risk of infections in patients treated with ruxolitinib. Studies were identified by electronic search of MEDLINE and EMBASE database. Differences in the incidence of infectious events between ruxolitinib and comparison groups were expressed as odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Five phase III randomized clinical trials (RCTs) (3 phase IIIa with their extended phase and 2 phase IIIb), 6 phase IV studies and 28 case reports were included in this systematic review...
November 18, 2017: American Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150672/fmnh2-dependent-monooxygenases-initiate-catabolism-of-sulfonamides-in-microbacterium-sp-strain-br1-subsisting-on-sulfonamide-antibiotics
#4
Benjamin Ricken, Boris A Kolvenbach, Christian Bergesch, Dirk Benndorf, Kevin Kroll, Hynek Strnad, Čestmír Vlček, Ricardo Adaixo, Frederik Hammes, Patrick Shahgaldian, Andreas Schäffer, Hans-Peter E Kohler, Philippe F-X Corvini
We report a cluster of genes encoding two monooxygenases (SadA and SadB) and one FMN reductase (SadC) that enable Microbacterium sp. strain BR1 and other Actinomycetes to inactivate sulfonamide antibiotics. Our results show that SadA and SadC are responsible for the initial attack of sulfonamide molecules resulting in the release of 4-aminophenol. The latter is further transformed into 1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene by SadB and SadC prior to mineralization and concomitant production of biomass. As the degradation products lack antibiotic activity, the presence of SadA will result in an alleviated bacteriostatic effect of sulfonamides...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150347/-perineal-groove-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#5
Y de La Monneraye, G Benoist, L Marchesi, A-S Crosnier, V Guinard-Samuel
Perineal groove is a rare anoperineal congenital malformation, usually occurring in girls, unknown to many pediatricians. We report the case of a 17-day-old girl admitted for urinary infection, who presented a wet sulcus with mucous membrane, extending from the vaginal fourchette to the anterior border of the anus. The diagnosis of perineal groove was clinically confirmed, after elimination of misdiagnosis such as infection or trauma. This benign malformation tends to be self-epithelialized in the 1st year of life, and no surgical treatment is recommended, except for cosmetic reasons or for recurrent infections...
November 14, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150336/urinary-tract-infections-in-neonates-with-unexplained-pathological-indirect-hyperbilirubinemia-prevalence-and-significance
#6
Elif Bahat Ozdogan, Mehmet Mutlu, Secil Arslansoyu Camlar, Gülcin Bayramoglu, Sebnem Kader, Yakup Aslan
BACKGROUND: It is controversial to test for urinary tract infection (UTI) in patients with unexplained indirect hyperbilirubinemia in the first 2 weeks of life. We aimed to study the prevalence and significance of UTIs in such neonates who were requiring phototherapy. METHODS: Subjects were 2- to 14-day-old neonates with indirect bilirubin levels above phototherapy limit with no other abnormality in their bilirubinaemia-related etiologic workup. UTI was diagnosed by 2 consecutive positive cultures obtained by catheterisation, documenting growth of >10,000 colonies of the same microorganism with consistent antibiograms...
October 28, 2017: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149965/comparision-of-ureteral-stent-colonization-between-deceased-and-live-donor-renal-transplant-recipients
#7
M Sarier, D Seyman, S Tekin, I Duman, B Uygun, M Demir, E Kukul, A H Yavuz
BACKGROUND: The use of a ureteral stent can cause a urinary tract infection (UTI), although it reduces urologic complications. UTIs are associated with a higher rate of ureteral stent colonization (USC). The aim of this study was to compare USC in living and deceased donor renal transplant recipients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective study of 48 patients who underwent renal transplantation between January and December 2016. The stents were removed aseptically, the inner surface of proximal and distal ends of stents were irrigated with liquid culture medium, and then they were vortexed for bacteriological investigation...
November 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149963/urinary-tract-infections-in-the-first-year-post-kidney-transplantation-potential-benefits-of-treating-asymptomatic-bacteriuria
#8
P Kotagiri, D Chembolli, J Ryan, P D Hughes, N D Toussaint
BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the commonest infectious complication in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). No recommendations exist regarding treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria. We aimed to identify potential risk factors and microbiological profile for UTIs, the role of treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria, and effects on graft outcomes of bacteriuria within the first year post-transplantation. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of UTIs in KTRs transplanted between January 2012 and December 2013 in 2 transplantation centers...
November 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149962/impact-of-acute-infection-requiring-hospitalization-on-tacrolimus-blood-levels-in-kidney-transplant-recipients
#9
C Percy, Z Hassoun, M Mourad, M De Meyer, C Beguin, M Jadoul, E Goffin, P Wallemacq, N Kanaan
BACKGROUND: Tacrolimus is metabolized by members of the cytochrome p450 3A subfamily, and its bioavailability depends also on P-glycoprotein. We have observed that some patients admitted for infection presented with increased tacrolimus trough levels (TLs). The aim of the study was to assess the impact of infection on tacrolimus TLs and to determine the factors involved in TL fluctuations. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included patients transplanted with a kidney between 2009 and 2011 who were hospitalized for an acute infection...
November 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149266/association-between-prior-antibiotic-therapy-and-subsequent-risk-of-community-acquired-infections-a-systematic-review
#10
Umer Malik, David Armstrong, Mark Ashworth, Alex Dregan, Veline L'Esperance, Lucy McDonnell, Mariam Molokhia, Patrick White
Background: Antibiotic use can have negative unintended consequences including disruption of the human microbiota, which is thought to protect against pathogen overgrowth. We conducted a systematic review to assess whether there is an association between exposure to antibiotics and subsequent risk of community-acquired infections. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science for studies published before 30 June 2017, examining the association between antibiotic use and subsequent community-acquired infection...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148361/characterization-of-biofilm-formation-by-enterococcus-faecalis-isolates-derived-from-urinary-tract-infections-in-china
#11
Jin-Xin Zheng, Bing Bai, Zhi-Wei Lin, Zhang-Ya Pu, Wei-Ming Yao, Zhong Chen, Duo-Yun Li, Xiang-Bin Deng, Qi-Wen Deng, Zhi-Jian Yu
PURPOSE: This study explored the prevalence and characteristics of Enterococcus faecalis biofilm formation by urinary tract infection (UTI) isolates in order to identify virulence factors associated with biofilm formation. METHODOLOGY: A total of 113 E. faecalis isolates were collected from UTI patients in Shenzhen, China. The isolates were subjected to multilocus sequence typing based on housekeeping genes. Biofilms were detected by crystal violet staining and the expression levels of the E...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147962/retrospective-review-of-ceftriaxone-versus-levofloxacin-for-treatment-of-e-coli-urinary-tract-infections
#12
Samantha S Wang, Patrick D Ratliff, William R Judd
Background Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections. Options for initial treatment of pyelonephritis or UTI requiring hospitalization include levofloxacin (LVF) or extended-spectrum cephalosporins. Globally, uropathogenic Escherichia coli resistance rates to fluoroquinolones have increased in recent years. Objective To compare clinical outcomes of patients receiving ceftriaxone (CTX) to those who received LVF empirically for the treatment of E. coli UTI. Setting 433-bed community hospital in Lexington, KY...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147662/effectiveness-of-a-lytic-phage-srg1-against-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecalis-in-compost-and-soil
#13
Sidra Rahmat Ullah, Saadia Andleeb, Taskeen Raza, Muhsin Jamal, Khalid Mehmood
Nosocomial infections caused by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus have become a major problem. Bacteriophage therapy is proposed as a potential alternative therapy. Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria and are ubiquitous in nature. Lytic bacteriophage was isolated from sewage water that infects VREF, the causative agent of endocarditis, bacteraemia, and urinary tract infections (UTIs). The phage produced clear plaques with unique clear morphology and well-defined boundaries. TEM results of phage revealed it to be 108 ± 0...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146836/complete-genome-sequences-of-bk-polyomavirus-strains-from-two-patients-with-urinary-tract-infection-sequenced-using-the-ion-torrent-platform
#14
Graham Rose, Kyriaki Ranellou, Raju Misra, Colin Crump, David Wooldridge, Surendra Parmar, Christopher Maddren, Saheer Gharbia, Hamid Jalal
BK polyomavirus is an important pathogen in kidney transplant patients. We report here two complete genome sequences, those of isolates CAMB-1035 and CAMB-1055, identified in two urine samples tested for urinary tract infection at a hospital in eastern England, United Kingdom. Variation and phylogenetic analyses indicate that both isolates belong to subtype Ib-1.
November 16, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146619/urinary-neutrophil-gelatinase-associated-lipocalin-for-the-diagnosis-of-urinary-tract-infections
#15
Tamar R Lubell, Jonathan M Barasch, Katherine Xu, Maria Ieni, Keven I Cabrera, Peter S Dayan
OBJECTIVES: To determine the accuracy of the novel biomarker urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL) to diagnose urinary tract infections (UTIs) in febrile infants and young children. METHODS: Prospective cross-sectional study of febrile infants <3 months ( ≥ 38.0°C) and children 3 to 24 months (≥ 39.0°C) evaluated for UTIs. uNGAL levels, urinalysis, Gram-stain and culture were obtained. UTI was defined by colony counts. RESULTS: Of 260 patients, 35 (13...
November 16, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146303/comparison-of-intravesical-cohen-and-extravesical-lich-gregoir-ureteroneocystostomy-in-the-treatment-of-unilateral-primary-vesicoureteric-reflux-in-children
#16
Mesrur Selcuk Silay, Turgay Turan, Yunus Kayalı, İsmail Başıbüyük, Bilal Gunaydin, Turhan Caskurlu, M İhsan Karaman
INTRODUCTION: Various intravesical and extravesical techniques have been described for the surgical correction of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). Among those techniques Cohen (intra-vesical) and Lich-Gregoir (extra-vesical) are the most commonly used ones. However, there are limited studies that compare those two surgical techniques in the literature. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aim to compare the outcomes of the open intravesical and extravesical procedures for unilateral primary VUR in children...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146217/bladder-herpes-infection-in-a-patient-with-low-grade-non-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer
#17
Pablo Garrido-Abad, Ariel Díaz-Menéndez, Manuel Fernández-Arjona
Bladder herpes is a very uncommon event related to herpes simplex virus infection. We report a 69-year-old man with 4-year history of bladder cancer who presented with presented with dysuria and urinary frequency. Cystoscopy showed erythematous lesion of the bladder mucosa that was biopsied and revealed multi-lobed nuclei with eosinophilic intranuclear inclusions, and presence of intracytoplasmic vacuoles that were suggestive of bladder involvement by herpes simplex virus (HSV). Different bladder disorders have been associated to herpes virus, but spontaneous resolution generally occurs in 1 to 2 months...
November 13, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145887/postpartum-infective-endocarditis-with-enterococcus-faecalis-in-japan-a-case-report
#18
Miku Tamura, Mitsutaka Shoji, Ken Fujita, Shohei Nakamura, Yurika Takahashi, Yurika Suzuki, Mika Asakura, Shun Kimizuka, Makiko Sasaki, Katsuya Sugawara
BACKGROUND: The clinical characteristics of infective endocarditis include the presence of predisposing cardiac disease, a history of illegal drug use, and high morbidity in the elderly. Only a few cases of the disease after delivery have been reported in the literature. We describe here a first case of enterococcal postpartum infective endocarditis without underlying disease in Japan. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 31-year-old Japanese woman with postpartum infective endocarditis by Enterococcus faecalis...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145879/allogeneic-mesenchymal-stem-cell-as-induction-therapy-to-prevent-both-delayed-graft-function-and-acute-rejection-in-deceased-donor-renal-transplantation-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Qipeng Sun, Liangqing Hong, Zhengyu Huang, Ning Na, Xuefeng Hua, Yanwen Peng, Ming Zhao, Ronghua Cao, Qiquan Sun
BACKGROUND: Using kidneys from deceased donors is an available strategy to meet the growing need of grafts. However, higher incidences of delayed graft function (DGF) and acute rejection exert adverse effects on graft outcomes. Since ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) and ongoing process of immune response to grafts are the major causes of DGF and acute rejection, the optimal induction intervention should possess capacities of both repairing renal structure injury and suppressing immune response simultaneously...
November 16, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145515/male-kidney-allograft-recipients-at-risk-for-urinary-tract-infection
#20
Gerold Thölking, Katharina Schuette-Nuetgen, Thomas Vogl, Ulrich Dobrindt, Barbara C Kahl, Marcus Brand, Hermann Pavenstädt, Barbara Suwelack, Raphael Koch, Stefan Reuter
BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common infection after renal transplantation (RTx). Although female sex is a well-known risk factor for the development of UTI after RTx, the role of the donor sex in this context remains unclear. METHODS: In this case control study 6,763 RTx cases were screened for UTI when presenting at our transplant outpatient clinics. 102 different RTx patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were compared to 102 controls...
2017: PloS One
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