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Mechanical cardiac support

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633205/advancing-the-science-of-myocardial-recovery-with-mechanical-circulatory-support-a-working-group-of-the-national-heart-lung-and-blood-institute
#1
EDITORIAL
Stavros G Drakos, Francis D Pagani, Martha S Lundberg, Timothy J Baldwin
The medical burden of heart failure (HF) has spurred interest in clinicians and scientists to develop therapies to restore the function of a failing heart. To advance this agenda, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) convened a Working Group of experts from June 2 to 3, 2016, in Bethesda, Maryland, to develop NHLBI recommendations aimed at advancing the science of cardiac recovery in the setting of mechanical circulatory support (MCS). MCS devices effectively reduce volume and pressure overload that drives the cycle of progressive myocardial dysfunction, thereby triggering structural and functional reverse remodeling...
July 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629836/opposite-effects-of-catalase-and-mnsod-ectopic-expression-on-stress-induced-defects-and-mortality-in-the-desmin-deficient-cardiomyopathy-model
#2
Kleopatra Rapti, Antigoni Diokmetzidou, Ismini Kloukina, Derek J Milner, Aimilia Varela, Constantinos H Davos, Yassemi Capetanaki
Oxidative stress has been linked strongly to cell death and cardiac remodeling processes, all hallmarks of heart failure. Mice deficient for desmin (des-/-), the major muscle specific intermediate filament protein, develop dilated cardiomyopathy and heart failure characterized by mitochondrial defects and cardiomyocyte death. The cellular and biochemical alterations in the hearts of these mice strongly suggest that oxidative stress is one of the mechanisms contributing to the pathogenesis of the phenotype. Recently, we showed that indeed the desmin deficient cardiomyocytes are under increased oxidative stress...
June 16, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627934/adult-patient-decision-making-regarding-implantation-of-complex-cardiac-devices-a-scoping-review
#3
Alison Malecki-Ketchell, Paul Marshall, Joan Maclean
BACKGROUND: Complex cardiac rhythm management device (CRMD) therapy provides an important treatment option for people at risk of sudden cardiac death. Despite the survival benefit, device implantation is associated with significant physical and psychosocial concerns presenting considerable challenges for the decision-making process surrounding CRMD implantation for patients and physicians. AIMS: The purpose of this scoping review was to explore what is known about how adult (>16 years) patients make decisions regarding implantation of CRMD therapy...
June 1, 2017: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625238/-risk-factors-of-perioperative-intra-aortic-balloon-pump-complications-in-cardiac-surgery-a-12-year-single-institution-analysis
#4
Hongyan Zhou, Yonghui Zhang, Yu Du, Fangfang Cao, Ji Wang, Li Zhao, Yu Nie, Haitao Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence and risk factors of the complications in perioperative intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) supported cardiac surgical patients. METHODS: The clinical data of adult cardiac surgery patients undergoing IABP in Fuwai Hospital from January 2005 to January 2017 were enrolled. The patients were divided into complications group and no complications group. Demographic characteristics, diagnosis, perioperative clinical parameters, IABP related data, and IABP complications (including ischemia, bleeding, vascular injury and mechanical problems) were collected...
June 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619579/recording-sympathetic-nerve-activity-from-the-skin
#5
REVIEW
Thomas H Everett, Anisiia Doytchinova, Yong-Mei Cha, Peng-Sheng Chen
Sympathetic tone is important in cardiac arrhythmogenesis; however, methods to estimate sympathetic tone are either invasive or require proper sinus node function that may be abnormal in disease states. Because of the direct and extensive connections among various nerve structures, it is possible for the sympathetic nerves in the various structures to activate simultaneously. Therefore, we hypothesized that nerve activity can be recorded from the skin and it can be used to estimate the cardiac sympathetic tone...
May 10, 2017: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614798/dnmt3a-mediated-inhibition-of-wnt-in-cardiac-progenitor-cells-improves-differentiation-and-remote-remodeling-after-infarction
#6
Aurelia De Pauw, Emilie Andre, Belaid Sekkali, Caroline Bouzin, Hrag Esfahani, Nicolas Barbier, Axelle Loriot, Charles De Smet, Laetitia Vanhoutte, Stéphane Moniotte, Bernhard Gerber, Vittoria di Mauro, Daniele Catalucci, Olivier Feron, Denise Hilfiker-Kleiner, Jean-Luc Balligand
Adult cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) display a low capacity to differentiate into cardiomyocytes in injured hearts, strongly limiting the regenerative capacity of the mammalian myocardium. To identify new mechanisms regulating CPC differentiation, we used primary and clonally expanded Sca-1+ CPCs from murine adult hearts in homotypic culture or coculture with cardiomyocytes. Expression kinetics analysis during homotypic culture differentiation showed downregulation of Wnt target genes concomitant with increased expression of the Wnt antagonist, Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (Wif1), which is necessary to stimulate CPC differentiation...
June 15, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612009/cardiac-cell-senescence-and-redox-signaling
#7
REVIEW
Daniela Cesselli, Aneta Aleksova, Sandro Sponga, Celeste Cervellin, Carla Di Loreto, Gianluca Tell, Antonio Paolo Beltrami
Aging is characterized by a progressive loss of the ability of the organism to cope with stressors and to repair tissue damage. As a result, chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, increase their prevalence with aging, underlining the existence of common mechanisms that lead to frailty and age-related diseases. In this frame, the progressive decline of the homeostatic and reparative function of primitive cells has been hypothesized to play a major role in the evolution of cardiac pathology to heart failure...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606503/optimizing-preoperative-expectations-leads-to-a-shorter-length-of-hospital-stay-in-cabg-patients-further-results-of-the-randomized-controlled-psy-heart-trial
#8
Charlotte J Auer, Johannes A C Laferton, Meike C Shedden-Mora, Stefan Salzmann, Rainer Moosdorf, Winfried Rief
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of a preoperative expectation-optimizing psychological intervention on length of stay in the hospital and time spent in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) in patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. METHODS: In a randomized controlled trial, 124 patients prior to undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or CABG combined with heart valve surgery were randomized to either a) standard medical care alone (SMC) or an additional preoperative intervention, b) an additional expectation manipulation intervention (EXPECT) to optimize patients' expectations, or c) an additional supportive therapy (SUPPORT), containing the same amount of therapeutic attention but without a specific focus...
June 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600177/compound-heterozygous-kcnq1-mutations-a300t-p535t-in-a-child-with-sudden-unexplained-death-insights-into-possible-molecular-mechanisms-based-on-protein-modeling
#9
Erika Antúnez-Argüelles, Arturo Rojo-Domínguez, Ana Leticia Arregui-Mena, Leonor Jacobo-Albavera, Manlio Fabio Márquez, Pedro Iturralde-Torres, María Teresa Villarreal-Molina
Sudden death in a child is a devastating event with important medical implications for surviving relatives. Because it may be the first manifestation of unknown inherited cardiac disease, molecular autopsy can be helpful to determine the cause of death and identify at risk family members. The aim of the study was to perform a molecular autopsy in a seven year-old girl with sudden unexplained death, to find evidence supporting the possible pathogenicity of mutations identified in inherited cardiac disease genes, and to clinically and genetically assess first-degree relatives...
June 6, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598945/long-term-outcomes-of-pediatric-cardiac-patients-supported-by-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation
#10
Matthew D Elias, Barbara-Jo Achuff, Richard F Ittenbach, Chitra Ravishankar, Thomas L Spray, Stephanie Fuller, Lisa M Montenegro, J William Gaynor, Matthew J O'Connor
OBJECTIVE: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is an important form of short-term mechanical support in children with cardiac disease, but information on long-term outcomes and quality of life is limited. The primary objective of this study was to determine the long-term outcomes of children previously supported by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for cardiac etiologies. DESIGN: A retrospective analysis was performed on patients with cardiac disease managed with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation between January 1, 1995, and December 31, 2012, at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia...
June 8, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598232/exercise-reestablishes-autophagic-flux-and-mitochondrial-quality-control-in-heart-failure
#11
Juliane C Campos, Bruno B Queliconi, Luiz H M Bozi, Luiz R G Bechara, Paulo M M Dourado, Allen M Andres, Paulo R Jannig, Kátia M S Gomes, Vanessa O Zambelli, Cibele Rocha-Resende, Silvia Guatimosim, Patricia C Brum, Daria Mochly-Rosen, Roberta A Gottlieb, Alicia J Kowaltowski, Julio C B Ferreira
We previously reported that facilitating the clearance of damaged mitochondria through macroautophagy/autophagy protects against acute myocardial infarction. Here we characterized the impact of exercise, a safe strategy against cardiovascular disease, on cardiac autophagy and its contribution to mitochondrial quality control, bioenergetics and oxidative damage in a post-myocardial infarction-induced heart failure animal model. We found that failing hearts displayed reduced autophagic flux depicted by accumulation of autophagy-related markers and loss of responsiveness to chloroquine treatment at 4 and 12 weeks after myocardial infarction...
June 9, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595573/a-novel-kcnq1-nonsense-variant-in-the-isoform-specific-first-exon-causes-both-jervell-and-lange-nielsen-syndrome-1-and-long-qt-syndrome-1-a-case-report
#12
Motoi Nishimura, Marehiko Ueda, Ryota Ebata, Emi Utsuno, Takuma Ishii, Kazuyuki Matsushita, Osamu Ohara, Naoki Shimojo, Yoshio Kobayashi, Fumio Nomura
BACKGROUND: According to previous KCNQ1 (potassium channel, voltage gated, KQT-like subfamily, member 1) gene screening studies, missense variants, but not nonsense or frame-shift variants, cause the majority of long QT syndrome (LQTS; Romano-Ward syndrome [RWS]) 1 cases. Several missense variants are reported to cause RWS by a dominant-negative mechanism, and some KCNQ1 variants can cause both Jervell and Lange-Nielsen Syndrome (JLNS; in an autosomal recessive manner) and LQTS1 (in an autosomal dominant manner), while other KCNQ1 variants cause only JLNS...
June 8, 2017: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592592/late-systolic-myocardial-loading-is-associated-with-left-atrial-dysfunction-in-hypertension
#13
Julio A Chirinos, Timothy S Phan, Amer A Syed, Zeba Hashmath, Harry G Oldland, Maheswara R Koppula, Ali Tariq, Khuzaima Javaid, Rachana Miller, Swapna Varakantam, Anjaneyulu Dunde, Vadde Neetha, Scott R Akers
BACKGROUND: Late systolic load has been shown to cause diastolic dysfunction in animal models. Although the systolic loading sequence of the ventricular myocardium likely affects its coupling with the left atrium (LA), this issue has not been investigated in humans. We aimed to assess the relationship between the myocardial loading sequence and LA function in human hypertension. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 260 subjects with hypertension and 19 normotensive age- and sex-matched controls...
June 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587763/mechano-electrical-feedback-in-the-clinical-setting-current-perspectives
#14
REVIEW
M Orini, A Nanda, M Yates, C Di Salvo, N Roberts, P D Lambiase, P Taggart
Mechano-electric feedback (MEF) is an established mechanism whereby myocardial deformation causes changes in cardiac electrophysiological parameters. Extensive animal, laboratory and theoretical investigation has demonstrated that abnormal patterns of cardiac strain can induce alteration of electrical excitation and recovery through MEF, which can potentially contribute to the establishment of dangerous arrhythmias. However, the clinical relevance of MEF in patients with heart disease remains to be established...
June 3, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584051/ion-pulling-simulations-provide-insights-into-the-mechanisms-of-channel-opening-of-the-skeletal-muscle-ryanodine-receptor
#15
David D Mowrey, Le Xu, Yingwu Mei, Daniel A Pasek, Gerhard Meissner, Nikolay V Dokholyan
The type 1 ryanodine receptor (RyR1) mediates Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum to initiate skeletal muscle contraction and is associated with muscle diseases, malignant hyperthermia, and central core disease. To better understand RyR1 channel function, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of channel gating and ion permeation. An adequate model of channel gating requires accurate, high-resolution models of both open and closed states of the channel. To this end, we generated an open-channel RyR1 model using molecular simulations to pull Ca(2+) through the pore constriction site of a closed-channel RyR1 structure determined at 3...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583699/stem-cell-therapy-with-skeletal-myoblasts-accelerates-neointima-formation-in-a-mouse-model-of-vein-graft-disease
#16
Christina Maria Steger, Johannes Bonatti, Ralf Joachim Rieker, Nikolaos Bonaros, Thomas Schachner
Although still a matter of controversial discussion, skeletal myoblasts are one of the options for stem cell transplantation improving cardiac function after myocardial infarction, exhibiting several advantages including the availability, the ability of self-renewal and differentiation, and the lack of ethical and immunological problems. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of stem cell therapy with skeletal myoblasts on experimental venous bypass grafts in a mouse model of vein graft disease...
June 2, 2017: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580136/acute-mechanical-circulatory-support-for-cardiogenic-shock-the-door-to-support-time
#17
REVIEW
Michele L Esposito, Navin K Kapur
Cardiogenic shock (CS) remains a major cause of in-hospital mortality in the setting of acute myocardial infarction. CS begins as a hemodynamic problem with impaired cardiac output leading to reduced systemic perfusion, increased residual volume within the left and right ventricles, and increased cardiac filling pressures. A critical step towards the development of future algorithms is a clear understanding of the treatment objectives for CS. In this review, we introduce the "door to support" time as an emerging target of therapy to improve outcomes associated with CS, define four key treatment objectives in the management of CS, discuss the importance of early hemodynamic assessment and appropriate selection of acute mechanical circulatory support (AMCS) devices for CS, and introduce a classification scheme that identifies subtypes of CS based on cardiac filling pressures...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576783/survival-and-left-ventricular-function-changes-in-fulminant-versus-non-fulminant-acute-myocarditis
#18
Enrico Ammirati, Manlio Cipriani, Marzia Lilliu, Paola Sormani, Marisa Varrenti, Claudia Raineri, Duccio Petrella, Andrea Garascia, Patrizia Pedrotti, Alberto Roghi, Edgardo Bonacina, Antonella Moreo, Maurizio Bottiroli, Maria P Gagliardone, Michele G Mondino, Stefano Ghio, Rossana Totaro, Fabio M Turazza, Claudio F Russo, Fabrizio Oliva, Paolo G Camici, Maria Frigerio
Background -Previous reports have suggested that despite their dramatic presentation, patients with fulminant myocarditis (FM) might have better outcome than those with acute non-fulminant myocarditis (NFM). In this retrospective study, we report outcome and changes in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in a large cohort of patients with FM compared with NFM. Methods -The study population consists of 187 consecutive patients admitted between May 2001 and November 2016 with a diagnosis of acute myocarditis (onset of symptoms <1 month) of whom 55 required inotropes and/or mechanical circulatory support (FM) whilst the remaining 132 patients were hemodynamically stable (NFM)...
June 2, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575891/using-simulation-as-an-investigational-methodology-to-explore-the-impact-of-technology-on-team-communication-and-patient-management-a-pilot-evaluation-of-the-effect-of-an-automated-compression-device
#19
Matthew Gittinger, Sarah M Brolliar, James A Grand, Graham Nichol, Rosemarie Fernandez
INTRODUCTION: This pilot study used a simulation-based platform to evaluate the effect of an automated mechanical chest compression device on team communication and patient management. METHODS: Four-member emergency department interprofessional teams were randomly assigned to perform manual chest compressions (control, n = 6) or automated chest compressions (intervention, n = 6) during a simulated cardiac arrest with 2 phases: phase 1 baseline (ventricular tachycardia), followed by phase 2 (ventricular fibrillation)...
June 2017: Simulation in Healthcare: Journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575239/whole-genome-cardiac-dna-methylation-fingerprint-and-gene-expression-analysis-provide-new-insights-in-the-pathogenesis-of-chronic-chagas-disease-cardiomyopathy
#20
Laurie Laugier, Amanda Farage Frade, Frederico Moraes Ferreira, Monique Andrade Baron, Priscila Camillo Teixeira, Sandrine Cabantous, Ludmila Rodrigues Pinto Ferreira, Laurence Louis, Vagner Oliveira Carvalho Rigaud, Fabio Antônio Gaiotto, Fernando Bacal, Pablo Pomerantzeff, Edimar Bocchi, Jorge Kalil, Ronaldo Honorato Barros Santos, Edecio Cunha-Neto, Christophe Chevillard
Background: Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, is endemic in Latin America and affects 10 million people worldwide. Approximately 12,000 deaths attributable to Chagas disease occur annually due to Chagas disease cardiomyopathy (CCC), an inflammatory cardiomyopathy presenting with heart failure and arrythmia; 30% of infected subjects develop CCC years after infection. Genetic mechanisms play a role in differential progression to CCC, but little is known about the role of epigenetic modifications in pathological gene expression patterns in CCC patients' myocardium...
May 30, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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