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Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682547/jc-virus-dna-detection-is-associated-with-cd8-effector-accumulation-in-peripheral-blood-of-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-under-natalizumab-treatment-independently-from-jc-virus-serostatus
#1
Maria A Zingaropoli, Marco Iannetta, Simona Pontecorvo, Elena Anzivino, Carla Prezioso, Donatella Maria Rodio, Manuela Morreale, Alessandra D'Abramo, Alessandra Oliva, Miriam Lichtner, Antonio Cortese, Marco Frontoni, Valeria Pietropaolo, Ada Francia, Claudio M Mastroianni, Vincenzo Vullo, Maria R Ciardi
Although natalizumab (anti- α 4 integrin) represents an effective therapy for relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), it is associated with an increased risk of developing progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), caused by the polyomavirus JC (JCV). The aim of this study was to explore natalizumab-induced phenotypic changes in peripheral blood T-lymphocytes and their relationship with JCV reactivation. Forty-four patients affected by RRMS were enrolled. Blood and urine samples were classified according to natalizumab infusion number: 0 ( N 0), 1-12 ( N 12), 13-24 ( N 24), 25-36 ( N 36), and over 36 ( N > 36) infusions...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669908/progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-after-fingolimod-treatment
#2
Joseph R Berger, Bruce A Cree, Benjamin Greenberg, Bernhard Hemmer, Brian J Ward, Victor M Dong, Martin Merschhemke
OBJECTIVE: We describe the characteristics of the 15 patients with fingolimod-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) identified from the Novartis data safety base and provide risk estimates for the disorder. METHODS: The Novartis safety database was searched for PML cases with a data lock point of August 31, 2017. PML classification was based on previously published criteria. The risk and incidence were estimated using the 15 patients with confirmed PML and the overall population of patients treated with fingolimod...
April 18, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668955/what-is-the-risk-of-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-in-patients-with-ulcerative-colitis-or-crohn-s-disease-treated-with-vedolizumab
#3
Timothy Card, Jing Xu, Huifang Liang, Fatima Bhayat
Background: Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy is a serious condition linked to certain diseases and immunosuppressant therapies, including the α4 integrin antagonist natalizumab. No cases have been reported to date with vedolizumab, a selective antagonist of the α4β7 integrin expressed on gut-homing lymphocytes. This analysis aimed to describe the current and future expected occurrence of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy with vedolizumab use, were the risk the same as in other populations in which this disease has been studied...
April 13, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661457/progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-following-combined-rituximab-based-immune-chemotherapy-for-post-transplant-lymphoproliferative-disorder-in-a-renal-transplant-recipient-a-case-report
#4
M Windpessl, S Burgstaller, A Kronbichler, H Pieringer, O Kalev, A Karrer, M Wallner, J Thaler
BACKGROUND: Transplant recipients are at risk of developing progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), an opportunistic infection due to reactivation of JC virus. Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) represent a common malignancy in this population, and antiCD20-therapy has become an established component of its treatment. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe the first case of a renal allograft transplant recipient with PTLD who received rituximab-based immune-chemotherapy and developed PML shortly thereafter...
April 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656742/pathogenesis-of-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-and-risks-associated-with-treatments-for-multiple-sclerosis-a-decade-of-lessons-learned
#5
REVIEW
Eugene O Major, Tarek A Yousry, David B Clifford
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare, devastating demyelinating disease of the CNS caused by the JC virus (JCV) that occurs in patients with compromised immune systems. Detection of PML in systemically immunocompetent patients with multiple sclerosis treated with natalizumab points to a role for this drug in the pathophysiology of PML. Emerging knowledge of the cellular and molecular biology of JCV infection and the pathogenesis of PML-including interplay of this common virus with the human immune system and features of natalizumab that might contribute to PML pathogenesis-provides new opportunities to monitor viral status and predict risk of JCV-associated disease...
May 2018: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620790/john-cunningham-virus-an-overview-on-biology-and-disease-of-the-etiological-agent-of-the-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy
#6
Valeria Pietropaolo, Carla Prezioso, Francesca Bagnato, Guido Antonelli
John Cunningham virus (JCV), the etiological agent of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), is the first human polyomavirus described. After asymptomatic primary infection which occurs in childhood, the virus spreads by the hematogenous route from the primary site of infection to secondary sites including kidneys, lymphoid tissues, peripheral blood leukocytes, and brain to establish latent infection. During immunosuppression the virus undergoes molecular rearrangements that allow it to replicate in glial tissues causing PML...
April 5, 2018: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606936/vedolizumab-as-a-potential-culprit-in-the-development-of-ovarian-teratoma
#7
Judy A Trieu, Mohammad Bilal, Gurinder Luthra
Vedolizumab is a new humanized monoclonal antibody that has been reserved for those with moderate-to-severe Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis who have failed immunomodulator and TNF-α antagonist therapy, and for those who have an increased risk for developing progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Because it targets gastrointestinal tract-specific lymphocytes, meta-analyses and integrated studies have shown that vedolizumab causes fewer extraintestinal adverse effects, such as opportunistic infections and malignancies, compared with anti-TNF therapies...
September 2017: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604971/progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy
#8
Shaun Zhai, Bruce James Brew
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a relatively common complication of HIV disease. In this chapter changes to the epidemiology are discussed along with an update in its pathogenesis and treatment. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome is increasingly frequent in PML; accordingly management strategies and prognosis are detailed.
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600441/efficacy-and-safety-of-the-newer-multiple-sclerosis-drugs-approved-since-2010
#9
REVIEW
Simon Faissner, Ralf Gold
Multiple sclerosis treatment faces tremendous changes as a result of the approval of new medications. The new medications have differing safety considerations and risks after long-term treatment, which are important for treating physicians to optimize and individualize multiple sclerosis care. Since the approval of the first multiple sclerosis capsule, fingolimod, the armamentarium of multiple sclerosis therapy has grown with the orally available medications dimethyl fumarate and teriflunomide. Fingolimod is mainly associated with cardiac side effects, dimethyl fumarate with bowel symptoms...
March 29, 2018: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545067/effect-of-natalizumab-on-disease-progression-in-secondary-progressive-multiple-sclerosis-ascend-a-phase-3-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial-with-an-open-label-extension
#10
Raju Kapoor, Pei-Ran Ho, Nolan Campbell, Ih Chang, Aaron Deykin, Fiona Forrestal, Nisha Lucas, Bei Yu, Douglas L Arnold, Mark S Freedman, Myla D Goldman, Hans-Peter Hartung, Eva Kubala Havrdová, Douglas Jeffery, Aaron Miller, Finn Sellebjerg, Diego Cadavid, Dan Mikol, Deborah Steiner
BACKGROUND: Although several disease-modifying treatments are available for relapsing multiple sclerosis, treatment effects have been more modest in progressive multiple sclerosis and have been observed particularly in actively relapsing subgroups or those with lesion activity on imaging. We sought to assess whether natalizumab slows disease progression in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis, independent of relapses. METHODS: ASCEND was a phase 3, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (part 1) with an optional 2 year open-label extension (part 2)...
March 12, 2018: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532286/serum-anti-jcv-antibody-indexes-in-japanese-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-elevations-along-with-fingolimod-treatment-duration
#11
Shinji Aoyama, Masahiro Mori, Akiyuki Uzawa, Tomohiko Uchida, Hiroki Masuda, Ryohei Ohtani, Satoshi Kuwabara
BACKGROUND: The risk of developing progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in natalizumab-treated multiple sclerosis (MS) patients is related to serum anti-JCV antibody (JCVAb) index. However, the correlation of JCVAb index with other disease-modifying treatments (DMTs) is not well understood. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we investigated the JCVAb seropositivity rate/JCVAb indexes and its correlation with clinical profiles in Japanese MS patients, and the relationship between JCVAb indexes and DMTs...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532061/association-of-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-lesion-volume-with-jc-virus-polymerase-chain-reaction-results-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-natalizumab-treated-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#12
Martijn T Wijburg, Iris Kleerekooper, Birgit I Lissenberg-Witte, Marlieke de Vos, Clemens Warnke, Bernard M J Uitdehaag, Frederik Barkhof, Joep Killestein, Mike P Wattjes
Importance: The JC virus (JCV) was named after the first patient to be described with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), John Cunningham. Detection of JC virus DNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and of specific lesions by brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are both considered essential for the diagnosis of natalizumab-associated PML (NTZ-PML) in patients with multiple sclerosis. However, strict pharmacovigilance by MRI can result in detection of patients with small lesions and undetectable JCV DNA in CSF...
March 12, 2018: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532060/progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-lesions-and-jc-virus-the-limits-and-value-of-imaging
#13
Eugene O Major
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 12, 2018: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529105/a-review-of-neurologic-complications-of-biologic-therapy-in-plaque-psoriasis
#14
Elaine J Lin, Shivani Reddy, Vidhi V Shah, Jashin J Wu
The use of biologic medications has represented a great advancement in the treatment of moderate to severe plaque psoriasis and has improved patients' quality of life. Despite the increasing popularity of biologics, their neurological side effects have been a constant concern. Reports of demyelinating diseases associated with tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) inhibitors continue to accumulate. Additionally, efalizumab was withdrawn from the market in 2009 for causing progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML)...
January 2018: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512846/progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-after-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#15
Cai Yuan, Candace Deberardinis, Rushang Patel, Seema M Shroff, Steven A Messina, Steven Goldstein, Shahram Mori
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare, yet typically fatal complication of allogeneic stem cell transplantation. It is caused by reactivation of the John Cunningham (JC) virus in an immunocompromised host. This report describes an unfortunate case of PML in a recipient of an allogeneic stem cell transplant for acute myelogenous leukemia. The JC virus was undetectable in the patient's cerebrospinal fluid by PCR; however, a positive diagnosis was made after a brain biopsy. This and other published cases demonstrate that recipients of allogeneic stem cells can develop PML...
March 7, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508305/progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-in-rituximab-treated-rheumatic-diseases-a-rare-event
#16
Joseph R Berger, Vineeta Malik, Stuart Lacey, Paul Brunetta, Patricia B Lehane
This report assesses the observed risk of PML in patients treated with the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab in the regulatory authority-approved autoimmune indications rheumatoid arthritis (RA), granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), and microscopic polyangiitis (MPA). This was a cumulative analysis of confirmed PML cases in patients receiving rituximab for RA or GPA/MPA from both spontaneous reports and clinical trial sources, as captured in the manufacturer global company safety and clinical databases...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507502/progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-during-ixazomib-based-chemotherapy
#17
C P Sawicki, S A Climans, C C Hsia, J A Fraser
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (pml) is a rare demyelinating disease of the central nervous system that most often affects immunocompromised individuals. It is caused by the reactivation of the John Cunningham virus (jcv), which is found in latent form in the majority of adults. We describe a 59-year-old man with multiple myeloma who developed severe neurological deficits during treatment with ixazomib-based chemotherapy. A diagnosis of pml was established with gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (mri) and by detection of jcv in the cerebrospinal fluid...
February 2018: Current Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500304/natalizumab-perspectives-from-the-bench-to-bedside
#18
Afsaneh Shirani, Olaf Stüve
Probably no other disease-modifying drug for multiple sclerosis has a more fascinating story than natalizumab from both the bench to bedside perspective and the postmarketing experience standpoint. Natalizumab is a monoclonal antibody that inhibits the trafficking of lymphocytes from the blood into the central nervous system by blocking the adhesion molecule α4-integrin. Natalizumab was approved as a disease-modifying drug for relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis only 12 years after the discovery of its target molecule-a time line that is rather fast for drug development...
March 2, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497578/the-benefit-of-mirtazapine-in-the-treatment-of-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-in-a-young-hiv-positive-patient-a-case-report
#19
Carola Mullins, Jorge Miranda, Hugo Sandoval, Luis Ramos-Duran, Silvina B Tonarelli
Highly active antiretroviral therapy is well-established in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients. Nonadherence with therapy regimens often leads to the occurrence of opportunistic infections that further complicate treatment and challenge the treating physician. We report a young HIV-positive patient who suffered from progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy caused by the human John Cunningham virus and showed objective clinical improvement after adding mirtazapine to the treatment regimen, an observation that is supported by the emerging literature...
February 1, 2018: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472141/t-cell-deficiencies-as-a-common-risk-factor-for-drug-associated-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy
#20
REVIEW
Dejan Pavlovic, Mayur A Patel, Andriani C Patera, Ilse Peterson
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a disease of the central nervous system caused by neuropathogenic prototypes of ubiquitous community-acquired JC virus (JCV). The disease became of particular concern following its association with certain therapies that modulate immune system function without heavy immunosuppression. Due to lack of prophylactic/treatment options and poor outcomes, which often include severe disability or death, PML is a considerable concern for development of new drugs that interfere with immune system functions...
June 2018: Immunobiology
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