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Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820724/neurologic-complications-in-persons-with-hiv-infection-in-the-era-of-antiretroviral-therapy
#1
Dennis Kolson
Neurologic complications in persons with HIV infection are less severe in the era of potent antiretroviral therapy but remain highly prevalent. Prior to the use of antiretroviral therapy, opportunistic infections of the central nervous system (CNS) and CNS malignancy were common. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), however, remains a diagnostic challenge in HIV-infected individuals, and no effective antiviral treatment for PML is currently available. Primary neurologic complications of acute HIV infection include aseptic meningitis and acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy...
July 2017: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800720/jc-virus-related-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-after-living-donor-liver-transplant-a-rare-case
#2
Archana Rastogi, Natasha Gulati, Chhagan Bihari, Ashok Chaudhary, Kalpana Bansal, Shridhar Sasturkar, Shalini Thapar, Viniyendra Pamecha
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy caused by polyoma JC virus is a rare and severe demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. It occurs in immunocompromised patients and is scarcely reported in liver transplant recipients. Brain biopsy demonstrating demyelination with presence of foamy macrophages, relative preservation of axons, astrogliosis, and typical polyomavirus inclusions in the enlarged oligodendroglial nuclei is essential for diagnosis. Here, we report a case of JC virus-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in a living-donor liver transplant recipient who was transplanted for hepatitis C virus-related decompensated cirrhosis...
August 12, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791614/age-as-a-risk-factor-for-early-onset-of-natalizumab-related-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy
#3
Luca Prosperini, Cristina Scarpazza, Luisa Imberti, Cinzia Cordioli, Nicola De Rossi, Ruggero Capra
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare but potentially fatal opportunistic infection that arises almost exclusively in immunocompromised patients or in those treated with monoclonal antibodies, especially natalizumab. Here, we aimed at exploring if age at treatment start affects the time to onset of natalizumab-related PML. PubMed was searched for the terms "natalizumab and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy" in articles published from January 2005 to March 2017. We collected information on each identified PML case, including demographic and clinical variables at natalizumab start and at PML onset...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768870/the-replication-of-jcv-dna-in-the-g144-oligodendrocyte-cell-line-is-dependent-upon-akt
#4
Jesse N Peterson, Brian Lin, Jong Shin, Paul J Phelan, Philip Tsichlis, James E Schwob, Peter A Bullock
Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML) is an often-fatal demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. PML results when oligodendrocytes within immunocompromised individuals are infected with the human JC virus (JCV). We have identified an oligodendrocyte precursor cell line, termed G144, which supports robust levels of JCV DNA replication, a central part of the JCV life cycle. In addition, we have determined that JC virus readily infects G144 cells. Furthermore, we have determined that JCV DNA replication in G144 cells is stimulated by myristoylated (i...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757888/rhodiolae-kirliowii-radix-et-rhizoma-and-crataegus-pinnatifida-fructus-extracts-effectively-inhibit-bk-virus-and-jc-virus-infection-of-host-cells
#5
San-Yuan Chen, Ru-Hsiou Teng, Meilin Wang, Pei-Lain Chen, Mien-Chun Lin, Cheng-Huang Shen, Chun-Nun Chao, Ming-Ko Chiang, Chiung-Yao Fang, Deching Chang
The human polyomaviruses BK (BKPyV) and JC (JCPyV) are ubiquitous pathogens long associated with severe disease in immunocompromised individuals. BKPyV causes polyomavirus-associated nephropathy and hemorrhagic cystitis, whereas JCPyV is the causative agent of the fatal demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. No effective therapies targeting these viruses are currently available. The goal of this study was to identify Chinese medicinal herbs with antiviral activity against BKPyV and JCPyV...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721111/visual-consequences-of-medications-for-multiple-sclerosis-the-good-the-bad-the-ugly-and-the-unknown
#6
REVIEW
Heather E Moss
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with vision changes both due to MS effects on visual pathways and due to medication effects on the visual pathways. Distinguishing the causes of vision change are critical to appropriate diagnosis and management. The incidence, presentation, and treatment of fingolimod-associated macular edema, alemtuzumab-associated thyroid orbitopathy, and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in MS patients are reviewed. Evidence for beneficial effects of acute, chronic, and symptomatic MS medications on vision is presented...
2017: Eye and Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721050/the-use-of-natalizumab-for-multiple-sclerosis
#7
REVIEW
Rachel Brandstadter, Ilana Katz Sand
Natalizumab is a monoclonal antibody that acts as an α4 integrin antagonist to prevent leukocyte trafficking into the central nervous system. It is US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Natalizumab demonstrated high efficacy in Phase III trials by reducing the annualized relapse rate, preventing multiple sclerosis (MS) lesion accumulation on magnetic resonance imaging, and decreasing the probability of sustained progression of disability...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711999/erratum-to-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-in-patients-treated-with-fumaric-acid-esters-a-review-of-19-cases
#8
Robbert-Jan Gieselbach, Annemarie H Muller-Hansma, Martijn T Wijburg, Marjolein S de Bruin-Weller, Bob W van Oosten, Dennis J Nieuwkamp, Frank E Coenjaerts, Mike P Wattjes, Jean-Luc Murk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 15, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707781/john-cunningham-virus-conversion-in-relation-to-natalizumab-concentration-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#9
Z L E van Kempen, C E Leurs, A de Vries, A Vennegoor, T Rispens, M P Wattjes, J Killestein
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Infection with the John Cunningham virus (JCV) is required for the development of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, the feared complication of natalizumab treatment in multiple sclerosis patients. The JCV seroconversion rate seems higher in natalizumab treated patients than in the normal population, with an unknown cause. METHODS: Natalizumab concentration was correlated to JCV antibody status and seroconversion in a large cohort of multiple sclerosis patients...
July 14, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681388/matrix-metalloproteinase-9-is-decreased-in-natalizumab-treated-multiple-sclerosis-patients-at-risk-for-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy
#10
Nicolas Fissolo, Béatrice Pignolet, Clara Matute-Blanch, Juan Carlos Triviño, Berta Miró, Miriam Mota, Santiago Perez-Hoyos, Alex Sanchez, Patrick Vermersch, Aurélie Ruet, Jérôme de Sèze, Pierre Labauge, Sandra Vukusic, Caroline Papeix, Laurent Almoyna, Ayman Tourbah, Pierre Clavelou, Thibault Moreau, Jean Pelletier, Christine Lebrun-Frenay, Xavier Montalban, David Brassat, Manuel Comabella
OBJECTIVE: To identify biomarkers associated with the development of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients treated with natalizumab (NTZ). METHODS: Relapsing-remitting MS patients who developed PML under NTZ therapy (pre-PML) and non-PML NTZ-treated patients (NTZ-ctr) were included in the study. Cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells and serum samples collected at baseline, at 1- and 2-year treated time points, and during PML were analyzed for gene expression by RNA sequencing and for serum protein levels by Luminex and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, respectively...
July 6, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681343/detectable-cerebrospinal-fluid-jcv-dna-in-late-presenting-hiv-positive-patients-beyond-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy
#11
S Mornese Pinna, E Scarvaglieri, M G Milia, D Imperiale, V Ghisetti, S Audagnotto, A Prochet, F Lipani, S Bonora, G Di Perri, A Calcagno
In the absence of effective prophylaxis and treatment, therapeutic options in HIV-positive patients with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) are limited to antiretroviral therapy: nevertheless, outcome is poor. We conducted a retrospective study (2009-2015) describing the outcome of 25 HIV-positive patients with detectable cerebrospinal fluid JC virus DNA: 14 had a probable PML while the others had evidence of other inflammatory central nervous system (CNS) affecting disorders. In the former group, 6-month mortality was 45...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674518/brain-susceptibility-changes-in-a-patient-with-natalizumab-related-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-a-longitudinal-quantitative-susceptibility-mapping-and-relaxometry-study
#12
Giuseppe Pontillo, Sirio Cocozza, Roberta Lanzillo, Pasquale Borrelli, Anna De Rosa, Vincenzo Brescia Morra, Enrico Tedeschi, Giuseppe Palma
BACKGROUND: Brain MRI plays an essential role in both diagnosis and follow-up of the JC virus infection of the brain. Recently, MR studies with susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) sequences have shown hypointensities in U-fibers adjacent to white matter (WM) lesions of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). This finding has been confirmed with the use of quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM), allowing to hypothesize a paramagnetic effect in these regions. Here, we report the first longitudinal assessment of QSM and R2* maps in natalizumab-associated PML to evaluate serial changes in susceptibility contrast images and their role in PML diagnosis and follow-up...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665088/a-role-for-susceptibility-weighted-imaging-in-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy
#13
S M Yap, B Murray, T Lynch, E Kavanagh, P MacMahon
We report a radiologic finding on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain of two cases of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) of hypointense signal of subcortical U-fibres on susceptibility weighted (SW) sequence. The first case is a 50-year-old man recently treated with chemotherapy including rituximab for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The second case is a 64-year-old woman with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Iron deposition is a likely causative factor. We propose that SWI may be especially useful in the assessment of indeterminate cases to reduce the likelihood of a missed diagnosis of PML...
April 10, 2017: Irish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643544/varicella-zoster-meningovasculitis-in-a-multiple-sclerosis-patient-treated-with-natalizumab
#14
Patricia Mulero, Cristina Auger, Laura Parolin, Elena Fonseca, Manuel Requena, Jordi Rio, Mar Tintoré, Alex Rovira, Xavier Montalban
BACKGROUND: Natalizumab is associated with the occasional occurrence of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). While natalizumab-associated PML is well described in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, herpes and other infections have rarely been reported. OBJECTIVE: To report a case of varicella-zoster (VZV) meningovasculitis in a MS patient treated with natalizumab. METHODS: Case report. RESULTS: A 48-year-old woman diagnosed with MS in treatment with natalizumab (Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS): 4...
June 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643229/progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-in-a-patient-with-lymphoma-and-presumptive-hyper-ige-syndrome
#15
Rahsan Gocmen, Nazire Pinar Acar, Deniz Cagdas, Asli Kurne
We, herein, report a 23-year-old male with a rare inherited immunodeficiency disease, hyperimmunoglobulin IgE syndrome (HIES), who developed progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) and lymphoma simultaneously. Primary immunodeficiency of the patient has remained undiagnosed until adulthood. PML is a severe demyelinating disease of the central nervous system caused by John Cunningham virus. HIES is a rare, inherited immunodeficiency characterized by high serum levels of IgE, recurrent staphylococcal infection, eczema, and hypereosinophilia...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641055/long-term-safety-evaluation-of-natalizumab-for-the-treatment-of-multiple-sclerosis
#16
REVIEW
Marinella Clerico, Carlo Alberto Artusi, Alessandra Di Liberto, Simona Rolla, Valentina Bardina, Pierangelo Barbero, Stefania Federica De Mercanti, Luca Durelli
Natalizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody highly effective in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). Important concerns about its safety have been pointed out mainly because of the risk of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), caused by the opportunistic John-Cunningham virus (JCV). Areas covered: This review analyzes all the safety aspects related to the use and safety of natalizumab in MS patients. Other than PML, post-marketing, safety red-flags have been reported, as liver or haematological serious adverse events...
August 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638849/refractory-t-cell-anergy-and-rapidly-fatal-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-after-prolonged-ctla4-therapy
#17
Manon Dekeyser, Marie-Ghislaine de Goër de Herve, Houria Hendel-Chavez, Céline Labeyrie, David Adams, Ghaïdaa Adebs Nasser, Jacques Gasnault, Antoine Durrbach, Yassine Taoufik
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a deadly demyelinating disease due to central nervous system replication of the human polyomavirus JC virus (JCV) in immunosuppressed patients. The only effective therapeutic approach is to restore anti-JCV T-cell responses. In this study, we describe a case of rapidly fatal PML with JCV T-cell anergy in a renal transplant patient treated with CTLA4-Ig (belatacept, a CD28-B7 costimulation blocker and T-cell anergy inducer). T-cell anergy could not be reversed despite several therapeutic approaches...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637388/progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-endemic-viruses-and-lethal-brain-disease
#18
Sheila A Haley, Walter J Atwood
In 1971, the first human polyomavirus was isolated from the brain of a patient who died from a rapidly progressing demyelinating disease known as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The virus was named JC virus after the initials of the patient. In that same year a second human polyomavirus was discovered in the urine of a kidney transplant patient and named BK virus. In the intervening years it became clear that both viruses were widespread in the human population but only rarely caused disease. The past decade has witnessed the discovery of eleven new human polyomaviruses, two of which cause unusual and rare cancers...
June 21, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635055/melanoma-complicating-treatment-with-natalizumab-for-multiple-sclerosis-a-report-from-the-southern-network-on-adverse-reactions-sonar
#19
Rachel A Sabol, Virginia Noxon, Oliver Sartor, Joseph R Berger, Zaina Qureshi, Dennis W Raisch, LeAnn B Norris, Paul R Yarnold, Peter Georgantopoulos, William J Hrushesky, Laura Bobolts, Paul Ray, Akida Lebby, Robert C Kane, Charles L Bennett
A 43-year-old female with multiple sclerosis developed urethral melanoma. The only potential risk factor was treatment with natalizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against α4 integrins. To investigate the risk-exposure relationship, we reviewed this case, all other published cases, and cases of natalizumab-associated melanoma reported to regulatory agencies. Data sources included the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) (2004-2014), a FDA Advisory Committee Meeting Report, and peer-reviewed publications...
July 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629398/anaplastic-astrocytoma-mimicking-progressive-multifocal-leucoencephalopathy-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-overlapping-syndromes
#20
Ema Kantorová, Michal Bittšanský, Štefan Sivák, Eva Baranovičová, Petra Hnilicová, Vladimír Nosáľ, Daniel Čierny, Kamil Zeleňák, Wolfgang Brück, Egon Kurča
BACKGROUND: Co-occurrence of multiple sclerosis (MS) and glial tumours (GT) is uncommon although occasionally reported in medical literature. Interpreting the overlapping radiologic and clinical characteristics of glial tumours, MS lesions, and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) can be a significant diagnostic challenge. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of anaplastic astrocytoma mimicking PML in a 27-year-old patient with a 15-year history of MS...
June 19, 2017: BMC Cancer
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