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Infra-Red Spectroscopy

Nigel Scrutton, Uzma Choudry, Derren Heyes, Samantha Hardman, Michiyo Sakuma, Igor Sazanovich, Joyce Woodhouse, Eugenio De La Mora, Martin Pederson, Michael Wulff, Martin Weik, Giorgio Schiro
Phytochromes are bilin-containing photoreceptors that are typically sensitive to the red / far-red region of the visible spectrum. Recently phytochromes from certain eukaryotic algae have become attractive targets for optogenetic applications because of their unique ability to respond to multiple wavelengths of light. Here, we have used a combination of time-resolved spectroscopy and structural approaches across picosecond to second timescales to map photochemical mechanisms and structural change in this atypical group of phytochromes...
March 15, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Robert T Mankowski, Victor M Niemeijer, Jasper P Jansen, Lotte Spraakman, Henk J Stam, Stephan F E Praet
Purpose: It is still equivocal whether oxygen uptake recovery kinetics are limited by oxygen delivery and can be improved by supplementary oxygen. The present study aimed to investigate whether measurements of muscle and pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics can be used to assess oxygen delivery limitations in healthy subjects. Methods: Sixteen healthy young adults performed three sub-maximal exercise tests (6 min at 40% Wmax ) under hypoxic (14%O2 ), normoxic (21%O2 ) and hyperoxic (35%O2 ) conditions on separate days in randomized order...
June 2017: Journal of Exercise Science and Fitness
Vinayak Narayan, Nasser Mohammed, Amey R Savardekar, Devi Prasad Patra, Christina Notarianni, Anil Nanda
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury [TBI] is a leading cause of pediatric morbidity and mortality worldwide and intracranial pressure [ICP] monitoring plays a crucial role in its management. Based on existing literature, the authors review the current practicing non-invasive ICP monitoring devices and their accuracy in predicting raised ICP in pediatric TBI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A thorough literature search was conducted on PubMed, Medline and Cochrane data base, articles were selected systematically, reviewed completely and relevant data was summarized and discussed...
March 7, 2018: World Neurosurgery
A Papadimitriou, I Ketikidis, M-E K Stathopoulou, C N Banti, C Papachristodoulou, L Zoumpoulakis, S Agathopoulos, G V Vagenas, S K Hadjikakou
Curcumin (Curc) reacts with zinc di‑iodine (ZnI2 ) in 2:1molar ratio in the presence of an excess of a base triethylamine ((CH3 CH2 )3 N) in methanol (CH3 OH) solution towards the amorphous solid material of formula [ZnI2 (Curc)2 ] (1). The complex was characterized by melting point (m.p.), Fourier Transform-Infra Red (FT-IR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of hydrogen nucleus (1 H NMR) spectroscopy. The formula of 1 was determined by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis. The retention of the structure in solution was confirmed by1 H NMR spectroscopy...
March 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Gameel Saleh, Fatimah Alkaabi, Noor Al-Hajhouj, Fatimah Al-Towailib, Safa Al-Hamza
Diabetics need to keep track of their blood glucose level and measure it regularly to determine their insulin dose intake and to ensure that glucose level is always within the normal range. In this article, a system that enables the measurement of blood glucose level non-invasively is designed. This article uses a near infra-red (NIR) transmittance spectroscopy, without drawing blood, puncturing the skin, or causing pain. It involves a light source and light detector circuits positioned on a certain region of the body...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
Hongsheng Huang, Xiaoqin Feng, Tianbao Chen, Ying Xiong, Feng Zhang
Novel Ca2 B2 O5 ·H2 O:Eu3+ nanotubes, constructed with nanobelts, were prepared using a hydrothermal method. The Ca3 (BO3 )2 :Eu3+ nanobelts with a thickness of about 100 nm were made for the first time using a two-step hydrothermal process with Ca2 B2 O5 ·H2 O:Eu3+ as the precursor. The samples were characterized by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, thermogravimetry differential thermal analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The relationship between Ca3 (BO3 )2 :Eu3+ and Ca2 B2 O5 ·H2 O:Eu3+ was also studied...
March 2, 2018: Luminescence: the Journal of Biological and Chemical Luminescence
Haq Nawaz, Muhammad Aslam Shad, Sadia Saleem, Muhammad Umar Aslam Khan, Umar Nishan, Tahir Rasheed, Muhammad Bilal, Hafiz M N Iqbal
The present study aimed to investigate the influence of microwave irradiation on the physical and functional properties of starch extracted from Nelumbo nucifera seed flour. The seed flour was obtained by manual grinding of seeds and irradiated at different microwave treatment time, i.e., 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 min at the low-medium intensity. The starch was extracted in distilled water and dried at room temperature using a vacuum desiccator. The morphology, crystal structure, and surface parameters of starch granules were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy and Brunauer, Emmett and Teller surface analysis techniques...
February 21, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Sang Su Shin, Deok Hwa Kang, Dae Il Kim, In Gook Choi, Min Hyeok Seong, SoungSoo Yi
Er3+ and Yb3+ co-doped LaVO4 phosphors were synthesized by the facile solid state reaction method. Er3+ ions concentrations were changed from 0.01 to 0.2 mol for the fixed Yb3+ ions concentration at 0.15 mol. The crystalline structures of the phosphors were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The composition of the phosphors were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The photoluminescence emissions based on the blue emission near 466 nm and green emission near 553 nm were observed and the highest emission intensity occurred for the sample LaVO4:Yb0...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
John G Fisher, Ung Trong Thuan, Muhammad Umer Farooq, Gopalakrishnan Chandrasekaran, Young Do Jung, Eu Chang Hwang, Je-Jung Lee, Vinoth-Kumar Lakshmanan
Oxide nanoparticles have numerous potential applications in medicine such as carriers for therapeutic drugs, contrast agents for bio-imaging and targeting agents for tumors. Oxide nanoparticles may also have an inherent cytotoxicity towards cancer cells, as recently found for cerium oxide. KNbO3 nanoparticles have a combination of low toxicity and nonlinear optical properties which make them attractive for use as a bio-imaging material. However, little is known yet about the cytotoxicity of KNbO3 particles towards cancerous cells...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Louise De Fenoyl, Déborah Hirel, Emile Perez, Sophie Lecomte, Estelle Morvan, Mathieu Delample
This study deals with the fabrication of inclusion complexes starting from a cross coupling of seven helical polysaccharides (host) and six flavouring agents (guest). Neither of the substrates is considered as an emulsifier when studied alone. Due to a complexation mechanism, the presence of intermolecular hydrogen bonds between substrates was highlighted by infra-red spectroscopy and 13 C NMR. In addition, depending on the polysaccharide used, the guest molecule could be preferentially located either inside or in the interstitial spaces of the helix...
March 2018: Food Research International
Nilesh L Jadhav, Sai Krishna C Sastry, Dipak V Pinjari
The present study deals with synthesis of cardanol-cased novolac (CBN) resin by the condensation reaction between cardanol and formaldehyde using acoustic cavitation. It is a step-growth polymerization which occurs in the presence of an acid catalyst such as adipic acid, citric acid, oxalic acid, sulphuric acid and hydrochloric acid. CBN was also synthesised by a conventional method for the sake of comparison of techniques. The effect of molar ratio, effect of catalyst, effect of different catalyst and effect of power on the conversion to CBN has been studied...
April 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Geetanjali M Sangaonkar, Kiran D Pawar
This reports the optimization of various parameters for biogenic synthesis of Silver nanoparticles using fruit extract of Garcinia indica, popularly known as Kokum. For optimization, the effects of various parameters such as concentration of AgNO3, ratio of AgNO3 to extract, pH, incubation temperature and time were varied and studied for their effect on synthesis. 1.5 mM AgNO3, 1:1 ratio of AgNO3 to Kokum fruit extract, pH 10, incubation of reaction mixtures at 37 °C for 24 h were the optimum parameter for biogenic synthesis...
January 29, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Miki Haifler, Isaac Pence, Yu Sun, Alexander Kutikov, Robert G Uzzo, Anita Mahadevan-Jansen, Chetan A Patil
Renal mass biopsy is still controversial due to imperfect accuracy(1). Raman spectroscopy (RS) demonstrated promise as an in vivo real-time, non-destructive diagnostic tool in many malignancies. Short wave infra-red (SWIR) RS has the potential to improve on previous RS systems for renal mass diagnosis. The aim of this study is to evaluate a SWIR RS system in differentiating normal and malignant renal samples Measurements were acquired using a benchtop RS system with excitation wavelength at 1064 nm and an InGaAs array detector...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Biophotonics
Danushika C Manatunga, Rohini M de Silva, K M Nalin de Silva, Nuwan de Silva, E V A Premalal
This study was focused on the preparation of metal and polymer-mediated porous crystalline hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanocomposites for environmental applications. Four different nano HAp systems were synthesized, namely, microwave irradiated HAp (M1), Zn doped HAp (M2), Mg-doped HAp (M3) and sodium alginate incorporated HAp (M4), and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), X-ray fluorescence, thermogravimetric analysis and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analyses...
January 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Morteza Bahram, Tayyebeh Madrakian, Sakineh Alizadeh
In this work a new method is presented for simultaneous colorimetric determination of morphine(MOR) and ibuprofen(IBU) based on the aggregation of citrate-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Citrate-capped gold nanoparticles were aggregated in the presence of morphine and ibuprofen. The difference in kinetics of AuNPs aggregation in the presence of morphine / ibuprofen was used for simultaneous analysis of morphine and ibuprofen. The formation and size of synthesized Au NPs and the aggregated forms were monitored by infra-Red (IR) spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) respectively...
December 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis
Ashraf Saleh, Kenneth McGarry, Cheng Shu Chaw, Amal Ali Elkordy
PURPOSE: Hydrophobic drugs are facing a major challenge in dissolution rate enhancement and solubility in aqueous solutions; therefore, a variety of methods have been used to improve dissolution rate and/or solubility of bendroflumethiazide as a model hydrophobic drug. METHODS: In this study, two main methods (physical mixing and lyophilisation) were used with gluconolactone, hydroxyl propyl γ-ccyclodextrin, and trehalose to explore this challenge. Bendroflumethiazide, practically insoluble in water, was mixed with one of the three excipients gluconolactone, hydroxyl propyl γ-cyclodextrin, and trehalose in three different ratios 1:1, 1:2, 1:5...
February 1, 2018: Pharmaceutics
Zeba Siddiqui, Mohd Ishtikhar, Moinuddin, Saheem Ahmad
Glycation of biological macromolecule leads to the establishment of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) having implications in metabolic disorders. d‑ribose appears to be the most reactive among the naturally occurring sugars and contribute significantly to the glycation reactions in vivo, however, no report have been published yet to discuss d‑ribose induced glycation of hemoglobin (Hb). Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate d‑ribose induced glycoxidative damage to Hb protein. Briefly, the commercially available Hb was glycated with d‑ribose for varying time intervals...
January 26, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Nicolaos Scoutaris, Steven A Ross, Dennis Douroumis
PURPOSE: Three- dimensional (3D) printing has received significant attention as a manufacturing process for pharmaceutical dosage forms. In this study, we used Fusion Deposition Modelling (FDM) in order to print "candy - like" formulations by imitating Starmix® sweets to prepare paediatric medicines with enhanced palatability. METHODS: Hot melt extrusion processing (HME) was coupled with FDM to prepare extruded filaments of indomethacin (IND), hypromellose acetate succinate (HPMCAS) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) formulations and subsequently feed them in the 3D printer...
January 16, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
Steven J Rowland, Paul A Sutton, Simon T Belt, Vera Fitzsimmons-Thoss, Alan G Scarlett
Jetsam ambergris, found washed ashore on beaches, is an environmentally modified form of a natural product of Sperm whales which sometimes develops a pleasant odour. Odorous samples have proved valuable in perfumery. Identification of jetsam ambergris by analysis of organic-soluble extracts by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) and of derivatised samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has already been shown. Here, we describe a different method, in which characteristic alkenic protons and carbon atoms of the major constituent ambrein, were identified in whole extracts using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR)...
January 22, 2018: Natural Product Research
Sirio Consani, Tonci Balić-Žunić, Anna Maria Cardinale, Walter Sgroi, Gabriele Giuli, Cristina Carbone
A synthetic Cu-Al-SO₄ layered double hydroxide (LDH), analogue to the mineral woodwardite [Cu1-xAlx(SO₄)x/2(OH)₂·nH₂O], with x < 0.5 and n ≤ 3x/2, was synthesised by adding a solution of Cu and Al sulphates to a solution with NaOH. The pH values were kept constant at 8.0 and 10.0 by a continuous addition of NaOH. The material obtained had poor crystallinity, turbostratic structure, and consisted of nanoscopic crystallites. The analyses performed in order to characterise the obtained materials (X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry (TG), and Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectroscopy) showed that the Cu-Al-SO₄ LDH is very similar to woodwardite, although it has a smaller layer spacing, presumably due to a lesser water content than in natural samples...
January 14, 2018: Materials
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