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Infra-Red Spectroscopy

Jill K Bartlett, William A Maher, Matthew B J Purss
Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) quantitative modelling was used to measure the protein, lipid and glycogen composition of five marine bivalve species (Saccostrea glomerata, Ostrea angasi, Crassostrea gigas, Mytilus galloprovincialis and Anadara trapezia) from multiple locations and seasons. Predictive models were produced for each component using individual species and aggregated sample populations for the three oyster species (S. glomerata, O. angasi and C. gigas) and for all five bivalve species. Whole animal tissues were freeze dried, ground to >20μm and scanned by NIRS...
December 18, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Stéphane Rioualen, Virginie Durier, David Hervé, Laurent Misery, Jacques Sizun, Jean Michel Roué
OBJECTIVE: Sucrose administration and breastfeeding decrease behavioural expressions of pain in neonates. However, recent studies indicated there is a persistent cortical response with sucrose. This study compared the efficacy of sucrose administration versus breastfeeding to decrease cortical responses to pain during venepuncture. METHODS: A randomised, prospective, controlled trial was conducted in a tertiary level maternity ward. Healthy 3-day-old term neonates, undergoing venepuncture for neonatal screening, were randomly assigned to receive sucrose solution or be breastfed before venepuncture...
January 2, 2018: Clinical Journal of Pain
Jinu Udayabhanu, Vaitheeswari Kannan, Manish Tiwari, Geetha Natesan, Benelli Giovanni, Venkatachalam Perumal
Textile industries release tonnes of harmful toxic dyes into the environment, causing severe effects on living organisms, including humans. Mosquitoes vectors spread important diseases which cause millions of human deaths worldwide. To control mosquitoes a number of synthetic mosquitocidal agents have been employed but all these pesticides pose harmful effects to human health and non-target species and also led to resistance development in treated vectors. Microbial strains are also developing resistance to the available antibiotics, this currently represents a major public health challenge...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
S Z M Rasib, Z Ahmad, A Khan, H M Akil, M B H Othman, Z A A Hamid, F Ullah
In this study, chitosan-poly(methacrylic acid-co-N-isopropylacrylamide) [chitosan-p(MAA-co-NIPAM)] hydrogels were synthesized by emulsion polymerization. In order to be used as a carrier for drug delivery systems, the hydrogels had to be biocompatible, biodegradable and multi-responsive. The polymerization was performed by copolymerize MAA and NIPAM with chitosan polymer to produce a chitosan-based hydrogel. Due to instability during synthesis and complexity of components to produce the hydrogel, further study at different times of reaction is important to observe the synthesis process, the effect of end product on swelling behavior and the most important is to find the best way to control the hydrogel synthesis in order to have an optimal swelling behavior for drug release application...
December 5, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
J Depciuch, M Parlinska-Wojtan
Depression is a serious mental illness. To study the mechanism of depression and search for new, more effective therapies, animal models are often used. Unfortunately, none of the available models reflects all the symptoms of depression. Therefore researchers are looking for new tools to diagnose depression. Unfortunately, the nowadays-available depression diagnosis methods are only psychological tests. However, it is known, that the amount of phospholipids, proteins and lipids decreases during depression. Raman and FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra Red) spectroscopies provide information on the chemical compounds in the measured sample e...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Govind D Vyavahare, Ranjit G Gurav, Pooja P Jadhav, Ravishankar R Patil, Chetan B Aware, Jyoti P Jadhav
In the present study, sorption and detoxification of malachite green (MG) dye was executed using biochar resulting after pyrolysis of agro-industrial waste at 400, 600 and 800 °C. Maximum sorption of MG dye (3000 mg/L) was observed on the sugarcane bagasse biochar (SCB) prepared at 800 °C. The interactive effects of different factors like dye concentration, time, pH and temperature on sorption of MG dye were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). Optimum MG dye concentration, contact time, temperature and pH predicted through Box-Behnken based RSM model were 3000 mg/L MG dye, 51...
December 1, 2017: Chemosphere
Pardeep Kaur, K J Singh, Arun Kumar Yadav, Henna Sood, Sumanpreet Kaur, Ramandeep Kaur, Daljit Singh Arora, Sukhraj Kaur
A diopside based bioactive system with a nominal composition of xCuO-(45.55-x)CaO-29.44 SiO2-10.28P2O5-14.73 MgO (x=0,1,3 and 5mol%) has been prepared by sol gel technique in the laboratory. X-ray Diffraction, Fourier Transform Infra-Red and Raman Spectroscopy, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy along with Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis and pH studies have been undertaken on the prepared samples before and after dipping the samples in simulated body fluid. It has been observed that hydroxyapatite layer starts to form with in 24h during immersion in simulated body fluid...
February 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Meenakshi Sundaram Sri Abirami Saraswathi, Dipak Rana, Alagumalai Nagendran, Subbiah Alwarappan
Herein, we report the effect of the exfoliated molybdenum disulfide (eMoS2) nanosheets in improving the permeability and anti-fouling properties of the PEI ultra-filtration (UF) membrane using bovine serum albumin (BSA) and humic acid (HA) as model fouling agents. The PEI/eMoS2 nanocomposite membranes were prepared via phase inversion method using three different eMoS2 concentrations (0.5, 1 and 2wt%) designated as PEI-0.5, PEI-1 and PEI-2, respectively. Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy employed to probe the surface functionalities on the membranes...
February 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Yoshiaki Iwase, Yoji Horie, Yusuke Daiko, Sawao Honda, Yuji Iwamoto
A novel polyethoxysilsesquiazane ([EtOSi(NH)1.5]n, EtOSZ) was synthesized by ammonolysis at -78 °C of ethoxytrichlorosilane (EtOSiCl₃), which was isolated by distillation as a reaction product of SiCl₄ and EtOH. Attenuated total reflection-infra red (ATR-IR), 13C-, and 29Si-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic analyses of the ammonolysis product resulted in the detection of Si-NH-Si linkage and EtO group. The simultaneous thermogravimetric and mass spectrometry analyses of the EtOSZ under helium revealed cleavage of oxygen-carbon bond of the EtO group to evolve ethylene as a main gaseous species formed in-situ, which lead to the formation at 800 °C of quaternary amorphous Si-C-N with an extremely low carbon content (1...
December 5, 2017: Materials
Divya S Nair, Manju Kurian
Catalytic abatement of 4-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid in water was investigated by peroxide oxidation over chromium substituted zinc ferrite nanocomposites at ambient conditions. The structural and chemical properties of composites synthesized by sol-gel auto combustion method was studied by X-ray diffraction, Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy, surface area, X-ray Fluorescence spectroscopy, Temperature Programmed Reduction and Desorption techniques...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Jun Hee Kim, Mahesh Kumar Joshi, Joshua Lee, Chan Hee Park, Cheol Sang Kim
Depositing of hierarchical ZnO nanostructures on electrospun nanofibers and their proper attachment has gained significant interest for myriad applications. However, the weak attachment of such nanostructures to the nanofiber surface limits their practical applications. In this study, a simple and efficient method has been developed for preparing hierarchical ZnO nanorod deposited polyurethane (PU) nanofiber by combining electrospinning, surface functionalization and hydrothermal treatment. Electrospun PU nanofibers were coated with polydopamine (Pdopa) via dip coating method...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Alexandru Sarbu, Patrick Hermet, David Maurin, David Djurado, Laure Biniek, Morgane Diebold, Jean-Louis Bantignies, Philippe Mésini, Martin Brinkmann
An organogelator based on a N,N'-substituted H-bonding perylenebisimide (PBI-C10) self-assembles to form either a green J-type (form I) or a red H-type (form II) aggregate structure. The molecular packing of both polymorphs was determined from a combination of Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) (low dose electron diffraction and high resolution), Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and polarized infrared spectroscopy. To that aim, highly oriented films have been prepared by mechanical rubbing at controlled film temperature and DFT calculations were performed to identify representative vibrational IR bands and their associated polarizations...
November 30, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Salman Ahmed, Muhammad Mohtasheemul Hasan, Zafar Alam Mahmood
Monosodium urate monohydrate crystals are deposited in peripheral joints causing gout and elicit an intense localized inflammatory attack whereas in collecting ducts and medullary interstitium as a urinary calculi which causes dysuria, nausea and hematuria. The purpose of present study is to observe possible growth patterns of monosodium urate monohydrate crystals. The crystals were grown in test tubes by single diffusion gel technique and were observed at 7th, 14th, 21st, 28th and 40th day. Needle and spherulite type crystals were observed at 14th day, while arboresque, crystal sheaves, densely branched, dumbbell, mushroom type spherulites, plumose and hexagonal prismatic crystals were observed for the first time...
November 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Xin Chen, David McAteer, Cormac McGuinness, Ian Godwin, Jonathan Coleman, Aidan Richard McDonald
Metallic-phase molybdenum disulfide (1T-MoS2) nanosheets have proven to be highly active in the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). We describe construction of photosensitizer functionalized 1T-MoS2 by covalently tethering the molecular photosensitizer [RuII(bpy)3]2+ (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) on 1T-MoS2 nanosheets. This was achieved by covalently tethering the bpy ligand to 1T-MoS2 nanosheets, and subsequent complexation with [RuII(bpy)2Cl2] to yield [RuII(bpy)3]-MoS2. The obtained [RuII(bpy)3]-MoS2 nanosheets were characterized using Infra-red, electronic absorption, X-ray photoelectron, and Raman spectroscopies, X-ray powder diffraction and electron microscopy...
November 24, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
H Ravishankar, A Barth, M Andersson
P-type ATPase proteins maintain cellular homeostasis and uphold critical concentration gradients by ATP-driven ion transport across biological membranes. Characterization of single-cycle dynamics by time-resolved X-ray scattering techniques in solution could resolve structural intermediates not amendable to for example crystallization or cryo-electron microscopy sample preparation. To pave way for such time-resolved experiments, we used biochemical activity measurements, Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) and time-dependent Fourier-Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectroscopy to identify optimal conditions for activating a Zn2+ -transporting Type-I ATPase from Shigella sonnei (ssZntA) at high protein concentration using caged ATP...
November 23, 2017: Biopolymers
Ramasamy Subbaiya, Muthupandian Saravanan, Andavar Raja Priya, Konathala Ravi Shankar, Masilamani Selvam, Muhammad Ovais, Ramachandran Balajee, Hamed Barabadi
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been undeniable for its antimicrobial activity while its antitumour potential is still limited. Therefore, the present study focused on determining cytotoxic effects of AgNPs on Michigan cancer foundation-7 (MCF-7) breast cancer cells and its corresponding mechanism of cell death. Herein, the authors developed a bio-reduction method for AgNPs synthesis using actinomycetes isolated from marine soil sample. The isolated strain was identified by 16s ribotyping method and it was found to be Streptomyces atrovirens...
December 2017: IET Nanobiotechnology
Anesh Manjaly Poulose, Ahmed Yagoub Elnour, Arfat Anis, Hamid Shaikh, S M Al-Zahrani, Justin George, Mohammad I Al-Wabel, Adel R Usman, Yong Sik Ok, Daniel C W Tsang, Ajit K Sarmah
The application of biochar (BC) as a filler in polymers can be viewed as a sustainable approach that incorporates pyrolysed waste based value-added material and simultaneously mitigate bio-waste in a smart way. The overarching aim of this work was to investigate the electrical, mechanical, thermal and rheological properties of biocomposite developed by utilizing date palm waste-derived BC for the reinforcing of polypropylene (PP) matrix. Date palm waste derived BC prepared at (700 and 900°C) were blended at different proportions with polypropylene and the resultant composites (BC/PP) were characterized using an array of techniques (scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy)...
November 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Joseph S Beckwith, Arnulf Rosspeintner, Giuseppe Licari, Markus Lunzer, Brigitte Holzer, Johannes Fröhlich, Eric Vauthey
Most quadrupolar molecules designed for large two-photon absorption cross section have been shown to undergo symmetry breaking upon excitation to the S1 state. This was originally deduced from their strong fluorescence solvatochromism and later visualized in real time using transient infrared spectroscopy. For molecules not containing clear IR marker modes, however, a specific real-time observation of the symmetry breaking process remains lacking. Here we show that this process can be resolved using broadband fluorescence upconversion spectroscopy by monitoring the instantaneous emission transition dipole moment...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Nicholas Pearce, E Stephen Davies, Raphael Horvath, Constance R Pfeiffer, Xue-Zhong Sun, William Lewis, Jonathan McMaster, Michael W George, Neil R Champness
Varying the degree of thionation of a series of naphthalene diimide (NDI) and naphthalic imide (NI) phenothiazine dyad systems affords a systematic approach for tuning the system's donor-acceptor energy gap. Each dyad was compared to model NDI/NI systems and fully characterised through single crystal X-ray diffraction, NMR, cyclic voltammetry, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), transient absorption spectroscopy (TA), time-resolved infra-red spectroscopy (TRIR) and DFT. The measurements reveal that thionation increases both electron affinity of the NDI/NI acceptor dyad component and accessibility of the singly or doubly reduced states...
November 15, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
K S Joshy, S Snigdha, George Anne, Kalarikkal Nandakumar, Pothen Laly A, Thomas Sabu
Zidovudine (AZT) is an antiviral drug with moderate solubility in water. It has limited application due to its short half life in vivo and consequent requirement for frequent administrations. To solve this problem, zidovudine loaded polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/stearic acid (SA)-polyethylene glycol (PEG) nanoparticles (PSNPs) were developed.The hybrid nanoparticles were prepared by emulsification-solvent evaporation method. The physico chemical characterizations of the PSNPs was done by dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR)...
November 9, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
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