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Heath policy

Martha Gabriela Martinez, Jillian Clare Kohler
BACKGROUND: Brazil created Health Councils to bring together civil society groups, heath professionals, and government officials in the discussion of health policies and health system resource allocation. However, several studies have concluded that Health Councils are not very influential on healthcare policy. This study probes this issue further by providing a descriptive account of some of the challenges civil society face within Brazil's Health Councils. METHODS: Forty semi-structured interviews with Health Council Members at the municipal, state and national levels were conducted in June and July of 2013 and May of 2014...
October 26, 2016: Globalization and Health
Rachael Milwid, Andreea Steriu, Julien Arino, Jane Heffernan, Ayaz Hyder, Dena Schanzer, Emma Gardner, Margaret Haworth-Brockman, Harpa Isfeld-Kiely, Joanne M Langley, Seyed M Moghadas
Disease modeling is increasingly being used to evaluate the effect of health intervention strategies, particularly for infectious diseases. However, the utility and application of such models are hampered by the inconsistent use of infectious disease modeling terms between and within disciplines. We sought to standardize the lexicon of infectious disease modeling terms and develop a glossary of terms commonly used in describing models' assumptions, parameters, variables, and outcomes. We combined a comprehensive literature review of relevant terms with an online forum discussion in a virtual community of practice, mod4PH (Modeling for Public Health)...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
Nigel Field, Soazig Clifton, Sarah Alexander, Catherine A Ison, Rumena Khanom, Pamela Saunders, Gwenda Hughes, Laura Heath, Simon Beddows, Catherine H Mercer, Clare Tanton, Anne M Johnson, Pam Sonnenberg
INTRODUCTION: Variable use of new molecular assays, asymptomatic infections and a lack of population data mean that the population burden of Trichomonas vaginalis is uncertain. We investigated the age-specific prevalence of T. vaginalis within the sexually active British general population to inform testing strategies. METHODS: Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyle (Natsal-3) is a probability sample survey of 15 162 individuals aged 16-74 years, undertaken during 2010-2012...
September 29, 2016: Sexually Transmitted Infections
Sarah Burgess
On paper, Niger's maternal healthcare system is extensively outlined by policies which assure access to certain services and create hierarchical referral chains. In practice it remains intensely improvisational: actors in the system must frequently make up the next steps to giving and receiving care, often outside the existing policies and procedures. Although population health in Niger has improved since the recently enacted gratuité des soins policy (which guarantees free access to certain material and child health services), care on the ground is still dictated by difficult circumstances and scarce resources...
August 11, 2016: Anthropology & Medicine
Fred Kusumoto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology: An International Journal of Arrhythmias and Pacing
Elizabeth J A Fitchett, Anna C Seale, Stefania Vergnano, Michael Sharland, Paul T Heath, Samir K Saha, Ramesh Agarwal, Adejumoke I Ayede, Zulfiqar A Bhutta, Robert Black, Kalifa Bojang, Harry Campbell, Simon Cousens, Gary L Darmstadt, Shabir A Madhi, Ajoke Sobanjo-Ter Meulen, Neena Modi, Janna Patterson, Shamim Qazi, Stephanie J Schrag, Barbara J Stoll, Stephen N Wall, Robinson D Wammanda, Joy E Lawn
Neonatal infections are estimated to account for a quarter of the 2·8 million annual neonatal deaths, as well as approximately 3% of all disability-adjusted life-years. Despite this burden, few data are available on incidence, aetiology, and outcomes, particularly regarding impairment. We aimed to develop guidelines for improved scientific reporting of observational neonatal infection studies, to increase comparability and to strengthen research in this area. This checklist, Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology for Newborn Infection (STROBE- NI), is an extension of the STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) statement...
October 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Sally B Owusu-Addo, Ebenezer Owusu-Addo, Emmanuel S K Morhe
OBJECTIVE: to examine health information-seeking behaviours among pregnant teenagers. DESIGN: qualitative design using semi-structured interviews and focus groups. The study followed the Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Studies (COREQ). SETTINGS/PARTICIPANTS: antenatal clinic at Ejisu Government hospital, Ghana. Twenty eight pregnant teenagers aged 15-19 and one midwife participated in the study. METHOD: the participants were interviewed in person at the antenatal clinic...
October 2016: Midwifery
Christopher S Malley, Mathew R Heal, Christine F Braban, John Kentisbeer, Sarah R Leeson, Heath Malcolm, Justin J N Lingard, Stuart Ritchie, Richard Maggs, Sonya Beccaceci, Paul Quincey, Richard J C Brown, Marsailidh M Twigg
Human health burdens associated with long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) are substantial. The metrics currently recommended by the World Health Organization for quantification of long-term health-relevant PM are the annual average PM10 and PM2.5 mass concentrations, with no low concentration threshold. However, within an annual average, there is substantial variation in the composition of PM associated with different sources. To inform effective mitigation strategies, therefore, it is necessary to quantify the conditions that contribute to annual average PM10 and PM2...
October 2016: Environment International
Diego Juffe-Bignoli, Thomas M Brooks, Stuart H M Butchart, Richard B Jenkins, Kaia Boe, Michael Hoffmann, Ariadne Angulo, Steve Bachman, Monika Böhm, Neil Brummitt, Kent E Carpenter, Pat J Comer, Neil Cox, Annabelle Cuttelod, William R T Darwall, Moreno Di Marco, Lincoln D C Fishpool, Bárbara Goettsch, Melanie Heath, Craig Hilton-Taylor, Jon Hutton, Tim Johnson, Ackbar Joolia, David A Keith, Penny F Langhammer, Jennifer Luedtke, Eimear Nic Lughadha, Maiko Lutz, Ian May, Rebecca M Miller, María A Oliveira-Miranda, Mike Parr, Caroline M Pollock, Gina Ralph, Jon Paul Rodríguez, Carlo Rondinini, Jane Smart, Simon Stuart, Andy Symes, Andrew W Tordoff, Stephen Woodley, Bruce Young, Naomi Kingston
Knowledge products comprise assessments of authoritative information supported by standards, governance, quality control, data, tools, and capacity building mechanisms. Considerable resources are dedicated to developing and maintaining knowledge products for biodiversity conservation, and they are widely used to inform policy and advise decision makers and practitioners. However, the financial cost of delivering this information is largely undocumented. We evaluated the costs and funding sources for developing and maintaining four global biodiversity and conservation knowledge products: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, the IUCN Red List of Ecosystems, Protected Planet, and the World Database of Key Biodiversity Areas...
2016: PloS One
Rachael W Taylor, Anne-Louise M Heath, Barbara C Galland, Sonya L Cameron, Julie A Lawrence, Andrew R Gray, Gerald W Tannock, Blair Lawley, Dione Healey, Rachel M Sayers, Maha Hanna, Kim Meredith-Jones, Burt Hatch, Barry J Taylor
BACKGROUND: The Prevention of Overweight in Infancy (POI) study was a four-arm randomised controlled trial (RCT) in 802 families which assessed whether additional education and support on sleep (Sleep group); food, physical activity and breastfeeding (FAB group); or both (Combination group), reduced excessive weight gain from birth to 2 years of age, compared to usual care (Control group). The study had high uptake at recruitment (58 %) and retention at 2 years (86 %). Although the FAB intervention produced no significant effect on BMI or weight status at 2 years, the odds of obesity were halved in those who received the sleep intervention, despite no apparent effect on sleep duration...
2016: BMC Public Health
Skye McPhie, Helen Skouteris, Lynne Millar, Craig Olsson, Karen Campbell, Paige van der Pligt, Jodie Dodd, Briony Hill
The aim of this study was to identify barriers to providing preconception weight management. Twenty health professionals participated in a semistructured phone interview regarding their beliefs on perceived barriers to providing preconception weight management. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and examined using thematic analysis to extract the key themes. Two themes were identified from the interviews: (1) barriers hindering women from accessing preconception weight management interventions (i...
August 5, 2016: Australian Journal of Primary Health
James F Sallis, Fiona Bull, Regina Guthold, Gregory W Heath, Shigeru Inoue, Paul Kelly, Adewale L Oyeyemi, Lilian G Perez, Justin Richards, Pedro C Hallal
On the eve of the 2012 summer Olympic Games, the first Lancet Series on physical activity established that physical inactivity was a global pandemic, and global public health action was urgently needed. The present paper summarises progress on the topics covered in the first Series. In the past 4 years, more countries have been monitoring the prevalence of physical inactivity, although evidence of any improvements in prevalence is still scarce. According to emerging evidence on brain health, physical inactivity accounts for about 3·8% of cases of dementia worldwide...
September 24, 2016: Lancet
Helen Elsey, Sudeepa Khanal, Shraddha Manandhar, Dilip Sah, Sushil Chandra Baral, Kamran Siddiqi, James Nicholas Newell
BACKGROUND: By 2030, 80 % of the annual 8.3 million deaths attributable to tobacco will be in low-income countries (LICs). Yet, services to support people to quit tobacco are not part of routine primary care in LICs. This study explored the challenges to implementing a behavioural support (BS) intervention to promote tobacco cessation within primary care in Nepal. METHODS: The study used qualitative and quantitative methods within an action research approach in three primary health care centres (PHCCs) in two districts of Nepal...
2016: Implementation Science: IS
Gemma Heath, Hermione Montgomery, Caron Eyre, Carole Cummins, Helen Pattison, Rachel Shaw
The involvement of parents in their child's hospital care has been strongly advocated in paediatric healthcare policy and practice. However, incorporating parental worries about their child's condition into clinical care can be difficult for both parents and healthcare professionals. Through our "Listening To You" quality improvement project we developed and piloted an innovative approach to listening, incorporating and responding to parental concerns regarding their child's condition when in hospital. Here we describe the phases of work undertaken to develop our "Listening To You" communications bundle, including a survey, literature review and consultation with parents and staff, before findings from the project evaluation are presented and discussed...
2016: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
Albert Farre, Danai Bem, Gemma Heath, Karen Shaw, Carole Cummins
INTRODUCTION: There is increasing evidence that electronic prescribing (ePrescribing) or computerised provider/physician order entry (CPOE) systems can improve the quality and safety of healthcare services. However, it has also become clear that their implementation is not straightforward and may create unintended or undesired consequences once in use. In this context, qualitative approaches have been particularly useful and their interpretative synthesis could make an important and timely contribution to the field...
2016: BMJ Open
Aeron C Hurt, Heath Kelly
A debate about the market-leading influenza antiviral medication, oseltamivir, which initially focused on treatment for generally mild illness, has been expanded to question the wisdom of stockpiling for use in future influenza pandemics. Although randomized controlled trial evidence confirms that oseltamivir will reduce symptom duration by 17-25 hours among otherwise healthy adolescents and adults with community-managed disease, no randomized controlled trials have examined the effectiveness of oseltamivir against more serious outcomes...
June 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Xiang Ji, Soon Ae Chun, James Geller
Many patients suffer from comorbidity conditions, for example, obese patients often develop type-2 diabetes and hypertension. In the US, 80% of Medicare spending is for managing patients with these multiple coexisting conditions. Predicting potential comorbidity conditions for an individual patient can promote preventive care and reduce costs. Predicting possible comorbidity progression paths can provide important insights into population heath and aid with decisions in public health policies. Discovering the comorbidity relationships is complex and difficult, due to limited access to Electronic Health Records by privacy laws...
May 5, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
Mohd Fareed, Mohammad Afzal
PURPOSE: Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of mortality and morbidity among humans worldwide. We aimed to estimate the effect of familial inbreeding on cardiovascular risks. METHODS: The study was conducted during April 2014 through June 2014, and a total of 587 adolescent subjects (male = 270, female = 317; 11-18 years of age) were recruited from five Muslim populations viz., Gujjar and Bakarwal (n = 130), Mughal (n = 111), Malik (n = 114), Syed (n = 108), and Khan (n = 124)...
April 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
Heath Ford, Shane Trent, Stephen Wickizer
Objective. To estimate pharmaceutical emergency preparedness of US states and commonwealth territories. Methods. A quantitative content analysis was performed to evaluate board of pharmacy legal documents (ie, statutes, rules, and regulations) for the presence of the 2006 Rules for Public Health Emergencies (RPHE) from the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy's (NABP) Model Pharmacy Practice Act. Results. The median number of state-adopted RPHE was one, which was significantly less than the hypothesized value of four...
March 25, 2016: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
David Rojas-Rueda, Audrey de Nazelle, Zorana J Andersen, Charlotte Braun-Fahrländer, Jan Bruha, Hana Bruhova-Foltynova, Hélène Desqueyroux, Corinne Praznoczy, Martina S Ragettli, Marko Tainio, Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen
Policies that stimulate active transportation (walking and bicycling) have been related to heath benefits. This study aims to assess the potential health risks and benefits of promoting active transportation for commuting populations (age groups 16-64) in six European cities. We conducted a health impact assessment using two scenarios: increased cycling and increased walking. The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality related to changes in physical activity level, exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution with a diameter <2...
2016: PloS One
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